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c^ D 2007 12QDbt7 3 

J^ Calilomia Slate Library ^ ,. Y. 


•Accession No. 


Call A.afcV.UP..^ !^\ *• | 

1237 6-20 10M V ^ "?- V 


Mining and Scientific Press 

January to June 1921 

Abraham Lincoln 

ddlcks, L Copper Refining, book review. . . . 

etna company, Hercules Powder Co. absorbs 

'■ ffinlty of oil for mineral H. W. Reed. . . . 

. I. M. & M. E 

Alaska, mining in 1920 

Alaska Gold Mines Co R. B. Brinsmade. . . . 

Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Co., company report 

Ditto Editorial .... 

Mill V. C. Clauson. . . . 

Allen, A. W Book-reviewing. . . . 

Ditto Chuquicamata enterprise. . . . 779, 

Ditto Cutting metal with a steel disc. . . . 

Ditto Institute affairs .... 

Ditto. . . .Recovery of Nitrate from Chilean Caliche, 
book review 

Ditto. .Regeneration of cyanide during precipitation 

Ditto Science and Life .... 

All-round engineer Editorial. . . . 

Almaden quicksilver mine in Spain. . .H. W. Gould. . . . 

During 1920 

Amalgamating practice W. J. Williams. . . . 

Amalgamation in stamp-mills W. Motherwell. . . . 

In the presence of oil L. C. W. Graefe. . . . 

American Engineering Council 

American industry in the War , . .Editorial. . . . 

American Mining Congress .' 436, 

American Smelting & Refining Co 377, 396, 

Company report 

American Trona Corporation C. G. Fowler. . . . 

American Zinc, Lead & Smelting Co., company report. . 

Amigo Economic interests. . . . 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co 411, 

Another apex decision Editorial. . . . 


Apex decision, another Editorial. . . . 

Applied Colloid Chemistry, book review 

W. D. Bancroft .... 

Are drill-bits magnetic? 

Argentina, manganese mining in 

Arizona Silver Mines mill P. Borzynski. . . . 

Artificial Light, book review M. Luckiesh. . . . 

A. S. & R. and smelter contracts 

Reduces expenses 

Asbestos, South African 

Assay-furnace, new type of oil-fired. . .E. K. Craig. . . . 
Assessment work 

Ditto W. K. Whitmore .... 

Work, suspension of E. Hedburg. . . . 

Austin, L. S Science and Life .... 

Automotive Ignition Systems, book review 

E. L. Consoliver and G. I. Mitchell. . . . 


. 219 

. 609 

. S63 

. 640 

. 645 

. 163 

. 149 

. 656 

. 623 

. 629 









717 ' 











Bain, H. Poster Editorial .... 38 

Ditto Mining as a business. . . . 641 

Bain's Mr., appointment Editorial. ... 38 


Baker, F. D., obituary . . 859 

Balliet, Letson Oxy-acetylene welding and 

cutting 523 

Ball-mill lining, steel rails as E. B. Morse. . . . 465 

Bancroft, W. D Applied Colloid Chemistry, book 

review 309 

Barnes-King Development Co 434 

Company report 572 

Benefaction, a noble Editorial. . . . 114 

Benguet Consolidated Mining Co., company report. . . . 572 

Benitez, F Rising tide of color. ... 351 

Bigness, the craze for mere Editorial. ... 664 

Bin, louvred Newton L. Hall. . . . 593 

Ditto W. M. Hutton. . . . 323 

Storage, with louvred hoppers. .Newton L. Hall. ... 88 

Bingham Mines Co., company report 572 

Black Range tin district of New Mexico 

F. S. Naething 557 

Black sand, gold in ' J. Gross. . . . 869 

Ditto J. S. Taylor. . . . 833 

Sand, recovery of gold from 

J. A. Davis and J. Gross. ... 504 

Blasting with liquid air 843 

Blue Horse mine 573 

Blue-sky laws Editorial. ... 665 

Book-reviewing A. W. Allen. ... 708 

Ditto F. H. Mason. ... 833 

Borcherdt, W. O Institute affairs. . . . 217 

Borzynski, F Arizona Silver Mines mill. . . . 717 

Botsford, R. S Placer mining in Russia. . . . 671 

Bramble, C. A Prospecting in Canada. . . . 183 

Braschi, V. M Origin of Spanish names. . . . 805 

Brazil, high-level diamond deposits of 

A. M. Pontie. . . . 397 

Brinsmade, R. B Alaska Gold Mines Co. . . . 149 

Britannia Mining & Smelting Co 468 

British Columbia, mining during 1320 61 

Broad-lode hypothesis Editorial. ... 37 

Ditto A. G. Ologist .... 79 

Ditto. '. L. S. Ropes. . . . 284 

Ditto F. L. Sizer .... 150 

Broken Hill Proprietary Co., Ltd., report 311 

Strike 22 

Brooks, Lyman H., Jr Cooke City and the New 

World mining district 682 

Brunton, David W.: Consulting engineer, an interview 

T. A. Rickard. . . . 745 

Ditto . .History of the Huelva district. ... 130 

Brunton sampler 752 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining & Concentrating Co., 

company report 850 

Smelter T. A. Rickard. ... 42, 47 

Bureau of Mines, professional advice from the 

Editorial. ... 801 

Burgess, J. A. . . .Valuing partly exhausted mines. . . . 703 

Burnham, M. H 486 

Business expansion abroad Editorial. ... 518 

Butson, H The strike at Tonopah. ... 833 

Butte & Superior Mining Co., company report 850 

Butte mine operators, ultimatum to unions 431 


Vol. 122 


Cahill, W. E Electric-furnace practice, at; - 

Treadwell " .' 

California's metal output in I'M') .." 

Callahan. J A., obituary 

Callahan Zinc-Lead Co.. company report 

Calumet & Hecla 

;ipan7 report . 

Cam Design and Manufacture, book review 

F. S. Jacobs. . . . 

Camp Bird. Ltd , company report. . . 

Cams, Elementary and Advanced, book review 

F. DeR. Furman. . . . 
Canada, prospecting in C A. Bramble. . . . 

Canadian Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co 

Canadian metal and mineral production 

Mining in IMS ... .... 

Carman. E I Foundry Molding Machines and 

Pattern Enuipmenr. boot review 

Carnegie. Andre . ;i'aphy at, book review 

1 of lead poisoning 

L Slemmons. . . . 
, ... 

Champion Reef npany 

Chen:' oo* review 

\l. Johnson. . . . 
Chief Consolidated Mining Co . companv report 

Walrer Fitch. Jr.. Co . . . . 
Chile I 
Chilean nitrate and syuthetic compoun I 

F. H. Mason ... 

China, min- tor 

id famine in T. T Read .... 

•al raft 

IB A. \V Allen 

llH. ... 
- is book 


E r 

H Hi .'orging. . 


Editorial .... 
• 3 ' ■' i 


0. H Fairchiv 
3 7 Watson 
rimes Ft 

W. H. Sh ■•■■ . 

' : . .... Ed 

Compan" r ,j ii 

Anacoud i .".•■•,- \, •; 3i \- 

. ■. 

. . . - . 

. ■■ 












: : • 
ta l 

• .< 



'Jim Butler' tonopah Mining Co 

... ..Judge WaiRS & Smejting Co 

: .: "..KinilecoUlCtonWer^QJTiortition 

: : ".Litrf shoA anhis: £tn 

La Rose Mines. Ltd 

Mclntyre Porcupine Mines. Ltd 

Miami Copper Co 

Mt. Bischoff Tin Mining Co 

Mt. Lyell Mining & Railway Co., Ltd 

Mt. Morgan Gold Mining C«., Ltd 

Mysore Gold Mining Co 

N'atomas Mines of California 

N'ipissing Mining Co 

N'orth Broken Hill. Ltd 

North Butte Mining Co 

N'orth Star Mines Co .... 

Old Dominion Co 

Oriental Consolidated Mining Co 

Phelps Dodge Corporation 

Portland Gold Mining Co 

Ray Consolidated Copper Co 

Santa Gertrudis Co., Ltd 

Shattuck Arizona Copper Co 

Silver King Consolidated Mining Co. of Utah 

St. Joseph Lead Co 

Superior & Boston Copper Co 

Tennessee Copper Co 

Tomboy Gold Mines Co., Ltd 

Tonopah Belmont Development Co 

Tonopah Extension Mining Co 

D S. Smelting, Refining ,\i Mining Co 

Un : 

i Consolidated .Mining Co 

Utah Copper Co 608, 

Victoria Copper Mining Co 

Tukon Gold Co 312. 

Compressed Air. book review . . Theodore Simons. . . . 

Compressed Air Plant, book review R. Peele. . . . 

n Mexico Editorial .... 

Conductivity of Solutions, book review 

G. Clinton. . . . 

Belgian, sold mining it Kilo 

Silver Kin . I Edirorial . . . . 

iver. E. L. and i 1 Automotive 

.on Systems, book review 

: notion of reagents used in flotation 

T. Varley .... 

reporting .1 Editorial .... 

> \B Separation. . . . 

md the New W • • ; district 

L --nan H. Brooks, Jr. . . . 

Copper Editorial ... 

Future of Edwin C. Holden. . 


isomer's point of view 

T. E. Wells. . . . 

Proi trtailmen* 

i. review . L. Addicks .... 

Wc- l"s • ■ iction of . 

; iing, book review L. Addicks. . . . 

North Star Mines. . . . 
- ag Edirorial. . . . 

t review. . . . J R. 7 

Editorial ... 

Muihienburg . . Field 
jook review .... 
Craur. 7 K New type ■«.... 

7 H It - :.--er Horn district, near 

- — -- Z.t-r-T-a: 

- - - 

j..:." '--a. 

- -. PHojeittc 

'-.--:■■- - jne weld:.-. - 

' - - " - 

.*. .."rsjo Del Mar 
.-; A. Wait- 
j. repairing 


5 72 
5 6 




8 50 
:,7 1 


3 49 









S " 











i . 

- " 

vw. in : ific p.- $ 

Page Pa*e 

D Battarial 

~-w — . «-■«- r— «« ■■■ Oxy-acotyiaao weMrag aad eatuar 411 

-* i rt ■ •- -■■-?. . aai rapar lu 5 «•■■-. 3k« 

C W . .» Jk-»ctiTttT aad raw maiai p, JJJJJ , ' , V= ,V- '." a [ "^ ] 

Pro«W«i>« ....»#• Poa^protee*.^ 

D " Ttt - "L^ .**^^. CrC<S$ Hew-Terr of go»d fro. Presides aad *araalkaa ! ! 

D»i ;*-D»lT OopO*T Co . report Pt^^^Ml ^ TT « from Tk» R»rvt*« of U<rm fi*l 

De-aerattoa of cyaatte aolatfer «Jf KfaWilar ^^ £•• 

Deaa. R E Theory of fmatfea 191 

> Bwr< C^rfl*!^ Vi««. Ui "^mllM^ 

OW9 Mtatag OV tfc* R*ad 555 ITllBaillMi a mBr^n^n v * 

Defeat* of IDMfikStoimlM .. JJInl A. Cook Roraaoa^ the^ariaia«riair 

MUttM <( MMtnur- Bagiaeer X«!2L^ auaiag law. "♦ 

"""t^SS*' -Hargieal «et*o SS^tU^eRtxi^i«: I« 

iw^-iS^"^""^"**^^^"' i^t/l?^.^ p*^: ::::::: 

DM Mar. Algeraoa Cr«i*deaot« tl« Taxarioa of aUaee 

n^X^- r . M *" UI "' TruactioK a( ike lutiuit 

* - i^^U, m^; :!! Traasaortaiioa hy raotor-traek 

^"SJSSST*" Editorial 7M Treaty with Cotojaaia . 

i «# n. ■ »ei fce.fc ■■■ .i * aaoomp oroocssioa . » 

■-•- ,.. TentttatioB aad misers' phthisis 

M_ Fuji:, j,^ j^^g^ 

£ !■£■" "naapU "afatli ilii " "lT«ail~ii 149 ***%£** T drop-torgiag W. H. Coghfll l«o 

DraktrrtKb . . Cotoriag of glass S*« "•*» . L. O. Howard .. . 

ftrndrlar la Tar aT—dllr . 494 Edacatioa for nlaers Editorial.. 

DriB-owel .O.Hall Of eagi awe Editorial... 

DranheUer. D H . Jr Triewtraiw Ditto A. Locke. . . 

Of a niaiag eagtaeer V.&«nta Ml 

K EOers t. Gagreaheims. .7. «3. 1««. 199. Ii« J«4. ITT. 398 

K»r. 5...W a Ditto... Editorial 1. I. 44? 

UTTI^ .T a 7^ r-.: V.."." V . ' --V.: '_1 Electric Faraaoe. hook reriew H Jlcissaa 

" *"' ^ LT C v p^tier" ' 1«1 Faraae* practice at Treadwell W. E Caafll . 

" f mmBtm Etec tj ol n ic Dea o si Uoa aad HydroaiH illargy of Ear. 

book rftie» O. C. Raistoa *•> 

irti£^2f!S£J£r ZiacreSaiag O. C . Ratetoa . . . 

EtertrolTti* Ziac Co. 

uc_<mur} facts aboat oB P. B. MeDoaalc 

rni r. i. i..i. i':- SI-s ' s»d J. T. Meigs Gaselise aad Other 

- *J? Motor Facte, hook rerie* 

C3 Oro Miaiag 4 Railway Co 

EaHBiager. w SaaaUag ia a aUR 151 

rZZ ^ZL^Z*t~ 3 ™ es - "r Bauaoas.W. U.Oeotoeyof Fetroteaai. hook reTjea- C«» 

cXite^iaMelioo Eahere- J- O Teraaieal practice ia the FUBapiaes 

Coj^^rl^V^-aio.:: ^^gSStt^ ^T-SS-g W.ltSS 

Easiaeeriae CoaacD of Ctak 55* 

Eagiaeeriae Draasfrteaaaa. hook rertea- 

Oaae f»>r auc apneas *• R°'"^ rl h 1M 

g eA a t jr aad fihe^Ste V | . i i l" : SS ««*~«^ Etecrriciry. hook £jrlJX" 3J 

D^rS'tt.'f^i^SSy^ Ha ^e^US^S ^ - 

Edacattoa of ea«ia«ers =v=2r1> V V^J2SI 

v . - ■ ,--. .• --.•--- ■ - • •. 

r . .. ....... 4.. .--.'...»..-. N 

..,_:". ' ill Export Packtas- hook reriev C. C. Mania MS 

..,:../.,;........,.._, - it; &-«»ldiers aad prospect!*? -^psoa... 

Hold fast aad leek forward o?. C. M.. Parkins for export 

Hoar an? boar? 

Iada«aaal rcjmarch ;*S F 

iactftate alair? 

tettHtasa pohlahn raircaDd. D. H Colorado School of Mlaes (IS 

lititatf — eaaaat ~ . ■. ftlihini lil m h ia d difilil Aliens 

':.f. :-.:, ■:■- :■-■*'■. - t - i 7-. :---;.. -ii ;:^:_, .-■ J_ a. Lereasaler. . 

Iessh ate injasactfoao . . Feraie. W, ohiraary 

:r-.c"i . :•. :..t ^ ::• j-..;; ::,::.:; 1 ?,•-. :--.- ;,: . -t :.. : --t,-.. 

Irish «aeEtfoa 1« _rd G. A. MaihleBharr 

Jaaaaese p reh eat Filter, ax iaeeaioas A. T 7 -■■ 

Lead salts sard atagteiasai .. . FSaaace. jateraartnaal Editoria: 

Liceasiag of ffciam ' - 319 Fjaaacaal Eagjaeeriae. h oo t re-riea-.O. B- G oMawr 

MaateaaaCrin • ?:.::•: :.;.,-.:;.. "-,= .:; ;•::.: 

Vii'ir of qniekxalTer Wipaiac hook S3 

Mr. Bail's ipiwialaM a< . Flatey. J. R Cos! of Miaiag. hook reviea-. . . . 1*9 

.■naodr ia go ote gr Fire hazards at auaes. 191 

Xxe pcaat 319 Fitch. Walter. Jr.. Co. . .Chief Consolidate shaft ... 

NoHe heaefacrioe 114 Ffia Fteat aUae 

Oatlook far doaaesUc sirrer Ffiaa. Alfred D Eagiaeartag Foaadat>oa .. U 


Vol. 122 


Flotation litigation Editorial. . . . 115 

Litigation, present status of . . . .T. A. Rickard. . . . 119 

Theory of R. S. Dean. . . . 291 

Flynn, W. A Nickel production. . . . 488 

Foote, A. B Standardization of mining 

and milling materials 739 

Foundry Molding Machines and Pattern Equipment, 

book review E. S. Carman. ... 686 

Fowler, C. G American Trona Corporation. . . . 743 

Franklin Mining Co., company report 656 

Freight-rates, Transatlantic 541 

Freund, J.J 390 

Fry, A. T An ingenious filter. . . . 266 

Furman, F. DeR Cams, Elementary and 

Advanced, book review 686 

Future of copper Edwin C. Holden. ... 14 

Of mining Editorial. ... 444 

Garfield smelter, sampling at the. . .A. B. Parsons. ... 17 

Garlichs, Herman, obituary 140 

Gasoline and Other Motor Fuels, book review 

C. Ellis and J. V. Meigs. . . . 732 

Gasoline Automobiles, book review. . . J. A. Moyer. . . . 852 

Gas Torch and Thermit Welding, book review 

E. Viall 732 

Geology, economic aspect of economic 

C. A. Porter. ... 161 

In development work, methods of recording 

C. E. Wuensch. . . . 233 

Need of quantitative methods in applied 

C. H. White 601 

New methods in Editorial. ... 588 

Of Petroleum, book review. . . .W. H. Emmons. . . . 609 

Of Portland Canal district. .Victor H. Wilhelm. ... 95 

German reparations Editorial. ... 700 

Glass, coloring of Francis Drake. ... 806 

Ditto W. H. Shockley 872 

Gold bullion, sampling 422 

Digging ants W. H. Shockley. . . . 706 

In black sand J. Gross .... 869 

Ditto G. L. Holmes 668 

Ditto J. S. Taylor. . . . 833 

Mining at Kilo, Belgian Congo 606 

Premium 842 

Recovery from black sand. .J. A. Davis and J. Gross 504 

Relief Bill 687 

Reserve H. Zadig .... 744 

Stocks in United States 168 

Goldfield Consolidated Mines Co., company report 572 

Goldman, O. B Financial Engineering, 

book review 658 

Goodale, David, obituary 764 

Gould, H. W. . .Almaden quicksilver mine in Spain. . . . 567 

Gow, P. G, obituary 859 

Gowland, W 446 

Grabill, C. A Laws affecting oil exploita- 
tion in Mexico . 635 

Graefe, L. C. W Amalgamation in the presence 

of oil 593 

Greenawalt, W. E. . .Greenawalt sintering process. ... 81 

Griffin, R. C Technical Methods of Analysis, 

book review 732 

Gross, J Gold in black sand .... 869 

Guggenheims and the smelting industry. .Editorial. . . .179 

Gulick, H Silver in India. . . . 593 


Haley, C. S Colombian treaty. . . . 640 

Hall, Newton L Louvred bin. ... 593 

Ditto Storage bin with louvred hoppers. ... 88 

Hall, O Drill-steel 488 

Hamor, W. A., and F. W. Padgett Technical Ex- 
amination of Crude Petroleum, book review. . . . 109 

Handbook of Building Construction, book review 

G. A. Hool and N. C. Johnson .... 34 
Handbook of Mexican Properties and Securities, book 

review 109 

Haney, J. A. . . .Kantishna mining district, Alaska. ... 881 

Hawxhurst, Jr., R. .Piz Piz gold district, Nicaragua. . . . 353 

Heap-leaching of copper ore at Bisbee 225 

Hecla Mining Co., company report 572 

Hedburg, E Suspension of assessment work. . . . 871 

Hedley Gold Mining Co., Ltd., company report 818 

Hercules Powder Co., absorbs Aetna company 863 

. .Powdered Coal as a Fuel, 







Herington, C. F 

book review . 

Hickok, G. F Standardization of mining and 

milling materials 487 

High-level diamond deposits of Brazil 

A. M. Pontie. . . . 

Hold fast and look forward Editorial .... 

Holden. Edwin C Future of copper. . . . 

Hollinger Consolidated Mines Co 400, 

Company report 572 

Holmes, G. L Gold in black sand. . . . 669 

Ditto Russian placer mining. ... 592 

Holt, Benjamin, obituary 30 

Homestake mine construction R. G. Wayland. . . . 539 

Homestake New South mill 464 

Hool, G. A., and N. C. Johnson Handbook of 

Building Construction, book review 3 4 

Hoover and single-jacking Michael Merrick. . . . 

How many hours Editorial .... 

Howard, L. O Educating v. drop forging. . . . 

Howe, J. L Inorganic Chemistry, book review. . . . 

Howe, H. E New Stone Age, book review. . . . 

Hudson, R. G Engineering Electricity. 

book review 

Huelva district, history of D. W. Brunton. . . . 

District, Spain, pyrite in. . .Courtenay De Kalb. . . . 

Huntley, Dwight B., obituary 374, 

Hutchins, J. P 392, 393, 

Hutchinson, C. T Organic troubles. . . . 

Hutton, W. M Louvred bin .... 




Imports of gold 541 

Income-tax returns 296 

India, silver in H. Gulick. . . . 593 

Industial research Editorial. ... 349 

Ingenious filter A. T. Fry .... 266 

Inorganic Chemistry, book review J. L. Howe. . . . 609 

Inspiration Consolidated Copper Co., company report. . 731 

Institute affairs A Member. ... 118 

Ditto A. W. Allen 281 

Ditto W. O. Borcherdt. . . . 217 

Ditto Editorial. . . .215, 622 

Ditto H. H. Knox. . . . 323 

Ditto A. B. Parsons. . . . 282 

Ditto F. D. Sizer. . . . 324 

Ditto W. W. Wishon 323 

As a publisher Editorial. ... 116 

Expenditure George E. Collins 218 

Magazine 866 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 736 

Membership and professional status. .Editorial. . . . 248 

Mining engineers and the P. B. McDonald. . . . 254 

Transactions Editorial. ... 411, 587 

Institute Magazine 866 

Ditto Editorial .... 736 

Institution of Mining and Metallurgy 409 

Interesting silver deposit H. F. Lunt. . . . 670 

International Association of Silver Producers 

B. Stevens. . . . 253 

International finance Editorial. ... 216 

International Nickel Co 853 

Intimate Pages of Mexican History, book review 

E. O'Shaughnessy. . . . 685 
Introduction to the Principles of Physical Chemistry, 

book review E. W. Washburn. ... 6S6 

Irish question Editorial. ... 146 

Italy's mineral production 538 

Ivens, E. M Pumping by Compressed Air, 

book review , 3 3 

Jacobs, E. A., obituary 618 

Jacobs, F. B Cam Design and Manufacture, 

book review 609 

Japanese problem Editorial. . . . 832 

Jim Butler Tonopah Mining Co., company report 607 

John, W. E. . . .Manufacture and uses of tungsten. . . . 879 
Johnson., C. M Chemical Analysis of Special 

Steels, book review 109 

Johnson, N. C, and G. A. Hool Handbook of 

Building Construction, book review 3 4 

Judge Mining & Smelting Co., company report 818 

Metallurgical operations A. B. Parsons. ... 153 


Vol. 123 



Kantlshna mining district. Alaska. . . . J. A. Haney. . . . 881 

Keith. Frank Allen, obituary 826 

Kennecott Copper Corporation, company report 818 

King. A Lead salts in cyanide practice. . . . 803 

Klondike, dredging in the 494 

Knapp. S. A Prospecting. . . . 742 

Knox. H. H Institute affairs 323 

Koering process T. F. O'Brien. . . . 523 

Labor economics H. L. Turner. . . . 413 

Labor's Crisis, book review. .Slgmund Mendelsohn. . . . 309 

Lake Shore Mines, Ltd 478 

Lancaster, A., obituary 795 

La Rose Mines. Ltd., company report 572 

Lawrence. B. B., obituary 208 

Laws affecting oil exploitation in Mexico 

C. A. Grabill 635 

Lead, book review J. A. Smythe. ... 33 

Lead mining in Western Australia 196 

Poisoning 162 

Poisoning, cause and control of 

W. S. Slemmons. . . . 427 

Salts and plagiarism Editorial. . . . 215 

Salts in the cyanidation of silver ores 

R. W. Perry 221 

Salts in cyanide practice A. King. . . . 803 

World's production of 886 

Lena Goldfields 392 

Lenskoie Gold Mining Co 394 

Levensaler, L. A Fairhaven silver-lead district, 

Alaska 195 

Lewis, W. V Prospecting. . . . 739 

Leyner drill G. E. Collins. . . . 871 

Licensing of engineers 297 

Ditto Editorial. ... 319 

Lincoln, Abraham 219 

Liquid air, blasting with 843 

Locke, A Education of engineers. . . . 521 

Loco-tractor system .' 442, 461 

London silver market, the ways of the 

R. P. Skinner. ... 719 

Loomis, Horace Mining opportunities in 

northern Mexico 707 

Loring, W. J McFadden Bill. . . . 251 

Louvred bin N. L. Hall 88, 593 

Ditto W. M. Hutton 3 23 

Lowery, R. T., obituary 795 

Low-grade and complex ores in Colorado 263 

Luckiesh, M Artificial Light, book review. . . . 852 

Ludlum, A. C Russian placer mining. . . . 806 

Lunt. H. F An interesting silver deposit. . . . 670 

Lynn Big Six Mining Co 409 


MacDougall, F. H. . . .Thermodynamics and Chemistry, 

book review 73 2 

Magnetic, are drill-bits 335 

Malaya tin experts 285 

Tin in 13 

Tin production 884 

Manganese mining in Argentina 389 

Martin, C. C Export Packing, book review. . . . 609 

Mason, F. H Book-reviewing. ... 833 

Ditto Chilean nitrate and synthetic 

compounds 452 

McCornlck, W. S., obituary 764 

McDonald, P. B Elementary facts about oil. . . . 236 

Ditto Mining engineers and the Institute. ... 254 

Ditto Slosson's Creative Chemistry. ... 70S 

McFadden Bill W. J. Loring 251 

Mclntyre Porcupine Mines, Ltd., company report 311 

McKay, R. F. . . .Theory of Machines, book review. ... 33 
Mechanical World Electrical Pocket Book for 1921, 

book review 686 

Mechanical World Year Book for 1921, book review. . . 658 

Meigs, J. V., and C. Ellis Gasoline and Other 

Motor Fuels, book review 732 

Mendelsohn, S Labors Crisis, book review. . . . 309 

Mercury, tariff on 431 

Merrick, M Hoover and single-jacking. ... 80 

Metal market 31, 73, 107, 141, 175, 209, 243, 

275, 307, 345, 375, 407, 438, 475, 513, 549, 582, 

619, 654, 695, 730, 765, 796, 827, 861, 894 


Metallurgical methods at Rio Tlnto 

Courtenay De Kalb. . . . 185 

Ditto L. S. Ropes. ... 638 

Ditto G. D. Van Arsdale 451 

Operations of the Judge Mining & Smelting Co. . . . 

A. B. Parsons. . . . 153 

Planning, simplicity in Editorial .... 831 

Method of calculating the average value of placer 

ground Janshi Sen. . . . 704 

Of recording geology in development work 

C. E. Wuench 233 

Mexlcon affairs Editorial .... 830 

Metal production 360 

Oil production 467 

Mexican Properties and Securities, Handbook of, book 

review 109 

Mexico, conditions in Editorial. ... 485 

Economic situation in 266 

Mining opportunities in northern 707 

Reconstruction in 501 

Miami Copper Co., company report 731 

Miller, Hugo W Silver as money. ... 39 

Mine car compressor, portable 660 

Car recorder, automatic 390 

Timbers, treatment of 336 

Mineral resources of Queensland 462 

Minerals Separation Co 377 

Defence Alfred A. Cook. ... 89 

Patents Gilbert H. Montague. ... 5 

Miners, education for Editorial .... 772 

Mines, taxation of Editorial .... 317 

Valuation of Editorial. . . .379, 486 

Mining as a business H. F. Bain. . . . 641 

Congress Journal 866 

Engineer, education of W. S. Weeks. . . . 321 

Engineer, status as a F. C. Smith. . . . 251 

Engineers and the Institute. . .P. B. McDonald. . . . 254 

Future of Editorial .... 444 

In Alaska in 1920 163 

In British Columbia during 1920 61 

In Dutch Guiana A. R. Rogers. . . .151, 383 

Ditto T. F. Van Wagenen. . . .5, 283, 488 

Law, proposed revision of 845 

Law revision 819 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 830 

Litigation and common sense. . . .A. B. Parsons. ... 813 

Manual and Year Book, 1921, book review 60 9 

Of quicksilver Editorial .... 553 

On the Mother Lode of California 

A. E. Rau Roesler. . . . 807 

Opportunities in northern Mexico 

Horace Loomis. ... 707 

Mining Congress Journal 866 

Mining Manual and Year Book, 1921, book review 609 

Mint for China 292 

Mitchell, B. A., and G. B. Rosenblatt. . .Development of 

vibrating screen 419 

Modern Welding Methods, book review. V. W. Page. ... 33 

Moisson H Electric Furnace, book review. . . . 609 

Molybdenum mine, the R. & S 132 

Monypenny, J. H. G Unstainable steel. ... 463 

Montague, Gilbert H. .Minerals Separation patents. ... 5 

Moonshine power R. H. Sanders. . . . 834 

Morris, E Single-jack in Western Australia. ... 152 

Mother Lode of California, mining on the 

A. E. Rau Roesler. . . . 807 

Motherwell, W Amalgamation in stamp-mills. . . . 383 

Motor-truck, transportation by Editorial. . . . 280 

Mount Bischoff Tin Mining Co., company report 607 

Mount Lyell Mining & Railway Co., company report. . . 312 
Mount Morgan Gold Mining Co., Ltd., company report. 312 

Mountain Copper Co 433 

Moyer, J. A ... . Gasoline Automobiles, book review .... 852 

Ditto, and C. H. Sampson Practical Trade 

Mathematics, book review 33 

Mt. Bischoff Tin Mining Co., company report 607 

Mysore Gold Mining Co., company report 607 


Naething, F. S Black Range tin district of 

New Mexico 557 

Natomas Mines of California, company report 572 

Natural gas, chlorination of 43 

Need of quantitative methods in applied geology 

C. H. White 601 

Nest, E. M Prospecting. . . . 706 


Vol. 122 


Nevada Consolidated E. G. Dean. . . . 413 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co 

A. B. Parsons. .. .325, 525, 709 

Nevada metal production for 1920 200 

New concrete shaft of the Chief Consolidated Mining 

Co A. B. Parsons. . . . 595 

Methods in geology Editorial. ... 588 

Surface plant for the United Verde Copper Co ... . 

L. A. Parsons. . . . 873 

Type of oil-fired assay furnace. . . .E. K. Craig. ... 184 

New Cornelia Copper Co 506 

New Idria Co., tariff on mercury sought by 431 

Newfoundland, copper mining in T. E. Wells. . . . 872 

Nice point Editorial ... . 319 

Nickel production W. A. Flynn. . . . 488 

New Stone Age, book review H. E. Howe. ... 851 

Nipissing Mining Co., company report 656 

Nissen, P. N 483 

Nitrate, Chilean, and synthetic compounds 

F. H. Mason 452 

Deposits, credulity and the Editorial. ... 589 

Domestic and foreign supply Editorial. . . . 249 

Supply M. W. von Bernewitz. . . . 451 

Noble benefaction Editorial .... 114 

Norman, S Protection for the promoter. . . . 673 

North Broken Hill, Ltd., company report 312 

North Butte Mining Co., company report 731 

North Star Mines F. G. Corning. ... 117 

Company report 607 

Northern Ore Co 16 

Noyes, W. A Organic Chemistry for 

the Laboratory, book review 609 


O'Boyle, F Prospecting. . . . 740 

O'Brien, T. F Koering process. . . . 523 

Oil exploitation in Mexico, laws affecting 

C. A. Grabill. . . . 635 

Old Dominion Co., company report 607 

Ologist, A. G Broad-lode hypothesis. ... 79 

Ore testing at Golden, Colorado 194 

Organic Chemistry for the Laboratory, book review . . . 

W. A. Noyes. . . . 609 

Organic troubles C. T. Hutchinson. . . . 259 

Oriental Consolidated Mining Co 478 

Origin of Spanish names V. M. Braschi. . . . 805 

Orsk Goldfields 392,395 

O'Shaughnessy, E Intimate Pages of Mexican 

History, book review 685 

Outlook for domestic silver Editorial. ... 867 

Oxy-acetylene welding and cutting L. Balliet. ... 523 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 411 

Welding and cutting at Anaconda 

T. W. Cunningham. ... 425 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co 865 

Packing for export C. M. Eye. ... 255 

Padgett, F. W., and W. A. HamoJ* Technical Ex- 
amination of Crude Petroleum, book review. . . . 109 

Page, V. W Modern Welding Methods, 

book review 33 

Panama tolls H. W. Reed. . . . 521 

Ditto F. F. Sharpless .... 521 

Tolls dispute Editorial. ... 380 

Paper plants, conversion of gold mills into. . 647 

Parsons, A. B. Institute affairs. . . . 282 

Ditto Metallurgical operations of the Judge 

Mining & Smelting Co 153 

Ditto Mining litigation and common sense. ... 813 

Ditto. Nevada Consolidated Copper Co.... 325, 525, 709 

Ditto New concrete shaft of the Chief 

Consolidated Mining Co 595 

Ditto Sampling at the Garfield smelter. ... 17 

Parsons, L. A Steam-shovel operations at the 

United Verde mine 453 

Pearse, A. L Refining of oil-shale. . . .151 

Peele. R Compressed Air Plant, book review. . . . 109 

Penzer, N. M Tin Resources of the 

British Empire, book review 852 

Perini, S. L Prospecting. . . . 804 

Permissible explosives 9 6 

Perret, L. A 378 

Ditto Russian placer mining. ...391, 415, 457 

Perry, R. W Lead salts in the cyanidation 

of silver ores 221 


Peterson flotation cell 424 

Petroleum consumption 399 

Phthisis, ventilation and miners' Editorial. ... 770 

Phelps Dodge Corporation, company report 818 

Philippines, technical practice in. . . .J. O. Enberg. . . . 670 

Pittman Act C. A. Porter. . . . 594 

Act, silver and Editorial .... 443 

Piz Piz gold district, Nicaragua. .R. Hawxhurst, Jr. . . . 353 
Placer ground, method of calculating the average value 

of Janshi Sen. . . . 704 

Mining in Russia R. S. Botsford. . . . 671 

Ditto G. L. Holmes.... 592 

Ditto A. C. Ludlum. . . . 806 

Ditto L. A. Perret 391, 415, 457 

Ditto S. J. Speak .... 834 

Plagiarism, lead salts and Editorial. ... 215 

Pontie, A. M High-level diamond deposits 

of Brazil 397 

Poor zones and enrichments. M. W. von Bernewitz. ... 6 

Zones, rich and W. E. Simpson. ... 118 

Porter, C. A Economic aspect of economic 

geology 161 

Portland Canal district, geology of 

Victor H. Wilhelm ... . 95 

Portland convention Editorial .... 517 

Portland Gold Mining Co., company report 572 

Position of silver Editorial. ... 37 

Powdered Coal as a Fuel, book review 

C. F. Herington. ... 33 

Power from low-grade fuels. .M. W. von Bernewitz. ... 41 

Projects Editorial .... 77 

Resources, destructible Editorial. . . . 700 

Practical Trade Mathematics, book review 

J. A. Moyer and C. H. Sampson. ... 33 

Practice of Lubrication, book review 

T. C. Thompson. ... 34 

Present status of flotation litigation. T. A. Rickard. ... 119 

Presidency and journalism Editorial. ... 279 

Price of silver Editorial .... 279 

Prices of commodities 477, 655, 798 

Procaska, E Coal Washing, book review. . . . 309 

Producer-gas G. M. S. Tait. . . . 252 

Ditto M. W. von Bernewitz. . . . 384 

Professional advice from the Bureau of Mines 

Editorial.... 801 

Promoter, protection for S. Norman. . . . 673 

Proposed revision of the mining law 845 

Prospecting A Prospector. . . . 218 

Ditto W. Crocker. . . . 774 

Ditto F. P. Davis .... 740 

Ditto Editorial.... 800 

Ditto R- S. Everit. ... 41 

Ditto S. A. Knapp. . . . 742 

Ditto ; W. V. Lewis. . . . 739 

Ditto E. M. Nest .... 706 

Ditto F. O'Boyle .... 740 

Ditto S. L. Perini. . . . 804 

Ditto D. C. Simpson. . . . 803 

Ditto E. C. Watson. ... 743 

Ditto E. M. West. ... 706 

Ditto F. W. Wright 707 

Ex-soldiers D. C. Simpson. . . . 117 

In Canada C. A. Bramble. . . . 183 

Past and future T. A. Rickard. . . . 559 

Protection for the promoter S. Norman. ... 673 

Pumping by Compressed Air, book review 

E. M. Ivens 33 

Purington, C. W 393, 394 

Pyrite in the Huelva district, Spain 

Courtenay De Kalb 125, 487 


Queensland, mineral resources of 

Quicksilver mine, Almaden, in Spain.. H. W. Gould. 

Mining of Editorial . 

Ore, sampling and estimation of.C. M. Schuette. 

Tariff on 

Quiet times Editorial . 


R. & S. molybdenum mine 

Radio-activity and some practical applications. . . . 

C. W. Davis. 


Railroad problem Editorial . 





Vol L22 



Ralston. O. C Electrolytic Deposition and 

lt\ drometallurgy of Zinc, book review 309 

Ditto Electrolytic zinc refining. . . . 352 

Rand dividends 377 

Minins costs 878 

Ray Consolidated Copper t"o. . 466 

Company report 850 

Ray Hercules Copper Co 432 

Read. T. T Silver prices and famine in China. . . . 284 

Ditto Transactions of the Institute. . . . 592 

Reconstruction In Mexico 501 

Recovery of gold from black sand 

J. A. Davis and J. Gross. . . . 504 
Recovery of Nitrate from Chilean Caliche, book review 

A. W. Allen. . . . 732 

Reed. H. W Affinity of oil for mineral 640 

Ditto Panama tolls .... 521 

Refining of oil-shale A. L. Pearse. ... 151 

Regeneration of cyanide during precipitation 

A. W. Allen 870 

Repairing iron vats 286 


Reparations Editorial 

Reporting a convention Editorial. . . . 

Research, industrial Editorial .... 

Residue re-treatment 

Revision of the mining law Editorial .... 

Rice. John A Valuing partly exhausted mines. . . . 

Rich and poor zones W. E. Simpson. . . . 

Rickard. T. A Bunker Hill smelter. . . .42, 

Ditto David W. Brunton: consulting 

engineer, an interview' 745 

Ditto Present status of flotation litigation. ... 119 

Ditto Prospecting, past and future. . . . 559 

Rto Tinto, metallurgical methods at 

Courtenay De Kalb. ... 185 

Ditto G. D. Van Arsdale. . . . 451 

Rising tide of color F. Benitez. . . . 351 

Rock temperatures in South Africa 426 

Rod-mill Algernon Del Mar. . . . 384 

Roesler, A. E. Rau Mining on the Mother 

Lode of California 807 

Rogers, A. R Mining in Dutch Guiana. . . .151, 383 

Rollsright car-tipple 895 

Ropes. L. S Broad-lode hypothesis. . . . 284 

Ditto Metallurgical methods at Rio Tinto. . . . 63S 

Ditto Valuing partly-exhausted mines. ... 667 

Rosenblatt, G. B Underground haulage for 

mines of moderate size 785 

Ditto and B. A. Mitchell Development of 

vibrating screen 419 

Rowarth, E Engineering Draughtsman, 

book review 109 

Russia, trade with 538 

Russian placer mining R. S. Botsford. . . . 671 

Ditto G. L. Holmes. ... 592 

Ditto A. C. Ludlum. . . . S06 

Ditto L. A. Perret 391, 415, 457 

Ditto S. J. Speak .... 834 


Siberian mining 449, 450 

Silver and the Plttman Act Editorial. . . . 443 

As money Hugo W. Miller. ... 39 

Deposit, an interesting H. F. Lunt. . . . 670 

In India H. Gulick 598 

In pre-historic times Editorial. . . . 446 

Market, ways of the London. . . .R. P. Skinner. . . . 719 

Outlook for domestic Editorial .... 867 

Position of Editorial .... 37 

Price of Editorial .... 279 

Prices and famine in China T. T. Read. . . . 284 

Silver Horn district, near Picche, Nevada 

T. H. M. Crampton. . . . S83 
Silver King Consolidated Mining Co. of Utah, company 

report 607 

Silver State Chemical Co 399 

Simons, T Compressed Air, book review. . . . 571 

Simplicity in metallurgical planning. .. .Editorial. .. . 831 

Simpson, D. C Ex-soldiers and prospecting. ... 117 

Ditto Prospecting. . . . 803 

Simpson, W. E Rich and poor zones. . . . 118 

Single-jack in Western Australia E. Morris. ... 152 

Sintering process, Greenawalt. .W. E. Greenawalt. ... 81 

Sizer, F. L Broad-lode hypothesis. ... 150 

Ditto Institute affairs .... 324 

Skinner, R. P The ways of the London 

silver market 719 

Slemmons, W. S Cause and control of 

lead poisoning 427 

Slosson, E. E. . . .Creative Chemistry, book review. ... 570 

Slosson's Creative Chemistry P. B. McDonald. . . . 707 

Smith, F. C Status as a mining engineer. . . . 251 

Smith, R. E 393 

Smythe, J. A Lead, book review. ... 33 

Soddy, F Science and Life, book review. . . . 657 

Spanish names, origin of V. M. Brasehi. . . . 805 

Spassky copper mine 295 

Speak, S. J Russian placer mining. . . . 834 

St. Joseph Lead Co 400,478 

Standardization of mining 13 

Of mining and milling materials. .A. B. Foote. ... 739 

Ditto G. F. Hickok 487 

Ditto E. A. Wraight .... 361 

Status as a mining engineer F. C. Smtih. . . . 251 

Steam-shovel operations at United Verde mine 

L. A. Parsons. . . .447, 448, 453 

Steel companies' earnings 399 

Rails as ball-mill lining E. B. Morse. . . . 465 

Stevens, B International Association of 

Silver Producers 253 

Stockton Coal Co 410 

Storage bin with louvred hoppers. .Newton L. Hall. ... 88 

Of coal 131 

Strike at Tonopah H. Butson. . . . 833 

Superior & Boston Copper Co., company report. . . .478, 608 

Suspension of assessment work E. Hedburg. . . . 871 

Sampling and estimation of quicksilver ore 

C. N. Schuette. . . . 293 

At the Garfield smelter A. B. Parsons. ... 17 

In a mill W. G. Emminger. ... 152 

In gold bullion 422 

Sampson, C. H., and J. A. Moyer Practical Trade 

Mathematics, book review 33 

Sanders, R. H Moonshine power. . . . 834 

Santa Gertrudis Co., Ltd., company report 731 

Savage, A. C, obituary 694 

Schuette, C. N Sampling and estimation of 

quicksilver ore 293 

Science and Life A. W. Allen 741 

Ditto L. S. Austin .... 741 

Ditto, book review F. Soddy. . . . 657 

Sen, Janshi Methods of calculating the 

average value of placer ground 704 

Sharpless, F. F Panama tolls. . . . 521 

Shasta Zinc & Copper Co 8 53 

Shattuck-Arizona Copper Co 432 

Company report 607 

Shockley, W. H Coloring of glass .... 872 

Ditto Gold-digging ants .... 706 

Ditto Washington B. Vanderlip. ... 79 

Shut-down Editorial. . . . 484 

Of copper mines 505 

Taconite treatment 455 

Taft, W. H 505 

Tait, G. M. S Producer-gas. . . . 252 

Taxation of mines Editorial. . . . 317 

Taylor, J. S Gold In black sand. . . . 833 

Teaching engineering students to write. H. A. Watt. . . . 192 
Technical Examination of Crude Petroleum, book re- 
view . . . .W. A. Hamor and F. W. Padgett. . . . 109 

Technical Methods of Analysis, book review 

R. C. Griffin 732 

Technical practice in the Philippines. .J. O. Enberg. . . . 670 

Tennessee Copper Co., company report 850 

Theory of flotation R. S. Dean .... 291 

Theory of Machines, book reviews. . .R. F. McKay. ... 33 

Thermodynamics and Chemistry, book review 

F. H. MacDougall. ... 732 

This World of Ours, book review. .J. H. Curie. . . .441, 479 

Thompson, A. P 379 

Thompson, T. C Practice of Lubrication, 

book review 34 

Tidewater mine D. M. Drumheller, Jr. . . . • 423 

Tin in Malaya 13 

Tin Resources of the British Empire, book review. . . . 

N. M. Penzer. . . . 852 

Tintic Standard Mining Co 890 

Tomboy Gold Mines Co., Ltd., company report 311 

Tom Reed Gold Mines v. United Eastern Co 677 

Tonopah Belmont Development Co., company report.. 731 


Vol. 122 


Tonopah Extension Mining Co., company report 818 

Tonopah Mining Co 434 

Tonopah, strike at 573 

Ditto H. Butson. . . . 833 

Topographic Maps and Sketch Mapping, book review. . 

J. K. Finch 33 

Tractors, trailers, and the loco-tractor system . . .442, 461 

Transactions of the Institute Editorial. . . .411, 587 

Ditto T. T. Read 591 

Transportation by motor truck Editorial. ... 280 

Treadwell, electric-furnace practice at 

W. E. Cahill 535 

Treatment of mine timbers 336 

Treaty with Colombia Editorial. ... 555 

Tungsten, manufacture and uses of. . .W. E. John. ... 879 

Turner, H. L Labor economics. ... 413 


Underground haulage for mines of moderate size 

G. B. Rosenblatt. . . . 785 

United Eastern Mining Co., company report 818 

United Verde Copper Co., new surface-plant for 

L. A. Parsons. ... 873 

Mine, steam-shovel operations at.L. A. Parsons. ... 453 

Unstainable steel J. H. G. Monypenny. . . . 442, 463 

U. S. Smelting Co 506 

U. S. Smelting, Refining & Mining Co., company report 731 

Utah Copper Co., company report 608, 850 

Utah Consolidated Mining Co., company report 608 

Utah power plants 820 

Valuation of mines Editorial. . . . 379, 486 

Valuing partly exhausted mines. . . . J. A. Burgess. . . . 703 

Ditto J. A. Rice .... 667 

Ditto L. S. Ropes. . . . 667 

Ditto Morton Webber. . . . 385, 489, 524 

Vanadium Corporation 467 

Van Arsdale, G. D Metallurgical methods at 

Rio Tinto 451 

Van Wagenen, Theo. F Mining in Dutch 

Guiana 5, 283, 488 

Vanderlip concession Editorial. ... 76 

Vanderlip, Washington B W. H. Shockley. ... 79 

Varley, T Consumption of reagents used in 

flotation 262 

Ventilation and miners' phthisis Editorial. . . . 770 


Viall, E Electric Welding, book review. . . . 732 

Ditto Gas Torch and Thermit Welding, book 

review 732 

Vibrating screen, development of 

B. A. Mitchell and G. B. Rosenblatt. ... 419 

Victoria Copper Mining Co., company report 

von Bernewitz, M. W Nitrate supply. 

Ditto Poor zones and enrichments. 

Ditto Power from low-grade fuels . 

Ditto Producer-gas . 








Wade, Isunashiro, obituary 374 

War Minerals Relief Commission 735 

Washburn, E. W. . . .Introduction to the Principles of 

Physical Chemistry, book review 686 

Watson, E. C Prospecting. . . . 743 

Watson, S. P Colorado School of Mines. . . . 773 

Watt, H. A Teaching engineering students to 

write 192 

Wayland, R. G Homestake mine construction. . . . 539 

Waughoist 862 

Ways of the London silver market. .R. P. Skinner. . . . 719 

Webber, Morton 379 

Ditto Valuing partly exhausted 

mines 385, 489, 524 

Weeks, W. S Education of a mining engineer. ... 321 

Welding and cutting, oxy-acetylene Editorial. . . . 411 

Wells, T. E Copper mining in Newfoundland. ... 872 

West, E. M Prospecting .... 706 

Western Australia, lead mining in 196 

Western Precipitation Co 483 

■White, C. H Need of quantitative methods in 

applied geology 601 

White. H. A De-aeration of cyanide solutions. . . . 430 

Whitmore, W. K Assessment work. . . . 704 

Wilfley tables 659 

Wilhelm, Victor H Geology of Portland Canal 

district 95 

Williams, W. J Amalgamating practice. ... 592 

Wishon, W. W Institute affairs. ... 323 

Worthington, Union, obituary 826 

Wraight, E. A Standardization of mining and 

milling materials 361 

Wright, F. L Prospecting. . . . 707 

Wuenscb, C. E Method of recording geology in 

development work 233 

Yukon Gold Co., company report . 312, 731 


Zadig, H The gold reserve. ... 744 

Zinc, electrolytic recovery of 880 

Industry 886 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 519 

Mine in New York State 16 

World's production of , 886 

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Volume 122 No. 1 

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Martin Building, El Paso 

Now York Boston 


Philadelphia Pittsburgh 

St. Loui. 




January 1, 1921 



includes all the necessary valves, fittings 
.,: and piping to take care of the various con- 
ditions of high pressure superheated steam 
and high or low pressure saturated steam. 






































































We arc manufacturers of about 20,000 articles, including valves, pipe fittings and steam specialties, made of brass, iron, ferrosteel, } 
cast steel and forged steel, in all sizes, for all pressures and all purposes, and are distributors of pipe, heating and plumbing materials. 



Great Falls Type 
Tuyere boxes with Williams 
connection* can be detached 
without disturbing the Tuyere 
pipes. They save the lining. 

Wiile for Data. 

LOOKING back over centuries and 
contrasting present day mining, 
milling and smelting methods with 
those of Agricola's time creates a 
stimulating picture of progress. 

Consider the modern Traylor Great 
Falls Type Converter with its record 
of exceptional economy and service — 
and then realize how few handicaps 
are now set in the way of profitable 
copper production. 


Allentown, Pa. 

30 Church St., 
New York 

1414 Fisher Bldg., 

211 Fulton Bldg., 

Citizens Nat'l. Bank Bldg. 
Los Angeles 

Mohawk Blk., 

Truck and Tractor Division, Cornwells, Bucks Co., Pa. 











January 1, 1921 

Uniformly Satisfactory Service 

That is the reason for the ever-increasing popularity of Ingersoll-Rand 
Class "PRE" Compressors. Wherever electric power is available, these 
direct-connected, motor-driven units are the eventual selection. 

One instance is the 30-inch stroke compressor at the Arizona Copper 
Company, Clifton, Arizona. This one unit, shown above, has a piston 
displacement of 6587 cu. ft. per minute. 

Mr. Cooper, Purchasing Agent of this property, stated in his letter of 
August 19, 1920: — 

"This machine has given uniformly satisfactory service 
since it was installed in 1916, and we are well satis- 
fied with the work it does." 

Let our engineers discuss your compressed air problems with you. Mean- 
while, send for Bulletin No. 3216 describing Class "PRE" Compressors. 

Ingersoll-Rand Company 

General Offices: 11 Broadway, New York Offices Everywhere 



January 1, 1921 




Mucking or shoveling consumes 35% to 45% of the 
total mine working time. 

Certainly here is the logical place for a labor saving 
method and the logical method is — 

Shoveling and loading with a "Little Tugger" Hoist 
connected to a scoop or scraper. 

The method is called "Slushing" and the outfit is 
called the "Little Tugger Slusher." 

It is not an experiment but has been proved in the 
largest mining districts in the world. 

The "Little Tugger Slusher" shovels, scrapes, and 
hauls the rock and loads it into the tramcar. 


Write us to tell you more about it 



General Offices: 11 Broadway, New York 

Offices Everpwhere 91-LH 

Ingensoll -Rand 



Economical: Low delivered cost, ease of handling 
this flaky product, and reduced time required for 
settling and filtering solutions (due to coagulating 
effect on slimes) result in large savings in the course 
of a year. 

Efficient: Aero Brand Cyanide is being used suc- 
cessfully on the widest variety of gold and silver ores, 
from the simplest to the most complex, with extrac- 
tion efficiencies equal to the highest. 

Dependable: Shipments of Aero Brand Cyanide 
have always been made promptly, as needed, without 
disappointment to a customer in four years. 



January 1. 192] 



Since 1827 

WHEN Joseph Dixon 
made the first 
successful "black lead" 
crucible, Dixon Cruci- 
bles have maintained a 
standard of efficiency 
and quality that has 
kept them in the lead. 
The accumulated knowl- 
edge of nearly a cen- 
tury of crucible manu- 
facture is woven into 
the walls of every 
Dixon Crucible. 


E^ROM graphite mine to finished 
* crucible, the entire process is in 
the hands of Dixon operatives many of 
whom have made the manufacture of 
Dixon Crucibles their life-work. 

Each crucible that bears the 
name DIXON carries the 
endorsement of an organiza- 
tion which has been through 
every stage of crucible evolu- 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Co. 


Established 1827 
Pacific Coast Office: 

444 MARKET ST.. 



January 1, 1921 

Union Dredges Will 

Solve Your Problems 

This cut shows Union Dredge No. 25 operating on Glacier 
Creek, near Nome, Alaska. The dredge is oil engine driven, 
has two cubic foot, open connected bucket line, digs thirteen 
feet below water level, and has made an average of 1000 cubic 
yards per day. 


And our experts will be glad to show you how easily the right 
type of UNION Dredge will overcome them. That is because 
the study and experience of years is behind every UNION 
Dredge that we build. 




January 1, 1921 




Victory B-49 1 ! 



: £ZS : 

Sa: *-«*te 

Are the 
You Use Equalling 
the Victory B-42 Average of over 57 Heats? 

Fewer and fewer are the complaints about short-lived crucibles as 

more BARTLEY VICTORY B-42's are used. 

Mixing, forming, shaping, burning by the Lawton Process— using 

only the finest Ceylon graphite, skilled operatives trained in this 

special system — these produce BARTLEY VICTORY B-42 


Quality is. built into every VICTORY B-42— they are made to en- 
dure heat — and the average of over 57 heats taken from the 
service records of 21 crucibles tells the tale. 


Jonathan Bartley Crucible Co. 

Oxford Street, Trenton, N. J. 

Pacific Coast Representatives : 

The Merrill Company 



January 1, 1921 

Exceedingly high-grade zinc, electrically deposited from a solution of 
the ore,hasplayed a vital part in maintaining American Independence 

Five 5800-KW. Synchronous Converters at Anaconda Copper Co., Great Falls. Moot. 

Continuity of Operation 

TX7HEN zinc is being electrically 
* deposited the current must not 
stop or the zinc already deposited 
will begin to go back into solution 
and its deposition must be paid for 
all over again. 

To insure maximum continuity ot 
operation, specially designed G-E 
synchronous converters having a 
wide margin in capacity are used. 
These machines have a voltage 

regulation to allow for the difference 
between starting and running voltage 
of the cells and the variation in 
temper; ture and density of the solu- 

This regulation is obtained by split 
pole converters, or by induction regu- 
lators or boosters in the alternating 
current circuit. 

Our specialists will be pleased to study 
your requirements. 


General Office ^1^^ 


Schenectady, "N.Y 

January 1, 1921 










known Triple*— 350 1 illoru per minutr •!■■"*< 1SO0 poundi 
e— filled villi Aldricn P» '.mid Mcchuuul U nl™ d .n s Derke 









I SAT f 




5 6 






12 13 


r 15 




19 20 






26 27 


, 29 

'•» DECEMBER «• <«. FEBRUARY i«> 


12 3 4 12 3 4 5 
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 I 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
26 27 28 29 30 31 27 28 






Sign -Tear off -Mail. 


No. 7 Gordon Street, 


Please send a copy of your 1921 Calendar. 





January 1, 1921 

t<» *— » «* 








O&nC s -ySr£.V%n™. 

L. ~~ -J 

Dryers of Approved Design 

The men responsible for the design 
and construction of Ruggles- Coles 
Dryers have made drying equipment 
and drying problems their life study. 

They are specialists — concentrating 
their entire efforts on one particular 
subject — drying. They have fixed their 
aims towards one end — dryers of the 
highest degree of perfection and 
mechanical excellence. 

Ruggles- Coles Dryers, made in 
eight standard types for drying with 

direct heat, indirect heat or steam, are 
dryers of large capacity and low operat- 
ing costs. They are representative of 
the efforts of these experts. 

Ruggles-Coles Dryers are built for 
constant service. They combine the 
greatest thermal efficiency with the 
lowest maintenance charges and give 
complete satisfaction wherever they are 

Numerous repeat orders are con- 
clusive proof of their merit. 

Ruggles-Coles Engineering Company, 50 Church Street, New York City 

Branch Offices: Newhouse Building, Sail Lake City; Old Nalional Bank Building, Spokane 

January 1, 1921 



Sca/e or? P/pe 

Welding-Scale on 
Ordinary Pipe 

Accelerates corrosion 
Reduces working capacity 
Produces friction losses 

L Prevents good galvanizing coatings 
Clogs delicate apparatus 


Minimizes corrosive tendencies 
Gives full working capacity 
Minimizes friction losses 
Good base for galvanizing coatings 
No loose scale to clog apparatus 

"NATIONAL" Welding-SCALE FREE Pipe is made by a process whereby the heavy mill 
scale, or welding-scale, which forms during manufacture is removed, leaving the pipe surfaces clean 
and smooth. All " NATIONAL" butt-weld pipe (sizes ]/> to 3-inch) is made by this process. 



General Sales Offices : Frick Building 


Atlanta Boston Chicago Denver Detroit New Orleans New York Salt Lake City Philadelphia Pittsburgh St. Louis St. Paul 

PACIFIC COAST REPRESENTATIVES : D. S. Steel Products Co. San Francisco Los Angeles Portland Seattle 

EXPORT REPRESENTATIVES : U. S. Steel Products Co. New York City 



January 1,1921. 

Power to Take the Grade- 
Do You Get It? 

The New 

£Xl6e Battery 


How this new development 
in construction, radically dif- 
ferent from that of any other 
battery, increases its already 
long life. 

Four ribs of 2^4 laches. Instead 
of the usual two of iH inches, pro- 
vide a much larger sediment space. 

In the usual construction all 
plates rest on the same two ribs. 
In the new Exide construction, 
however, positive plates rest on 
one set of ribs and negative on 
another By this means short- 
circuiting from sediment building 
upon the ribs is practically elimi- 

The plates areprovided with feet 
which raise them above the level 
of the separators. Thus sediment 
may completely fill the space at 
the bottom without producing an 
Internal short-circuit. 

When you don't take the grade look for 
the reason in your battery. It may have 
plenty of power, but if you can't get enough 
of it at one time, your locomotive won't 
pull its load up the grade. 

Your battery may be like a narrow- 
necked bottle. No matter how much is in 
it, only a little at a time can get out. 

Replace such a battery with a rugged, 
long-lasting, highly efficient Exide-Ironclad. 
A mine locomotive equipped with an Exide- 
Ironclad will take any grade up to the limit 
of its tractive effort. It will haul and keep 
on hauling, late afternoon as well as early 

Regardless of your haulage conditions, it 
will pay you to install Exide-Ironclads in 
your battery locomotives. Write us today 
for our booklet— "FACTS." It is a text 
book on what a storage battery ought to 
be and ought to do. 


Oldest and largest manufacturers in the world of Storage Batteries for every purpoie 


Branches in seventeen cities 

Exide Batteries of Canada, Limited, 133-157 Dufferin Street, Toronto 





January 1. L921 




Cameron impellers are individually designed to suit 
the needs of your particular pumping problem. 

They are machined to an accurate balance, eliminat- 
ing vibration. All accessible surfaces are carefully 
polished and the interior is hand finished to reduce 
water friction. 

After assembly, every pump is given a thorough test 
duplicating your operating conditions. 

A Cameron installation means certainty of pumping 

Ingersoll-Rand Company 

A. S. Cameron Steam Pump Works 

General Offices: 11 Broadway, New York 103-DV 






W 1 

January 1, 1921 

With more than fifty-eight years of success in service 
have established their reputation for quality. And 
" Lunkenheimer Quality" means reliability, continuity of 
service and economy in maintenance. 

The Lunkenheimer system of test and inspection gives a 
perfect knowledge of the condition and actual performance 

of the article before it leaves the 
factory; proves its serviceability, 
and assures the user safe and effi- 
cient operation. 

Write "Lunkenheimer-Equip- 
ped" in your Engine and Boiler 
Specifications. It is a guarantee 
for Safety, Efficiency, Perma- 
nence and Satisfaction. 

Lunkenheimer Products are 
obtainable from supply houses 
everywhere. Insist on having 
the genuine. 



Largest Manufacturers of 

High Grade Engineering Specialties 

in the World 

New York 



Export Department: 

129-135 Lafayette St., 

New York, N. Y. 

Jammi-v 1, 192] 


Low Pressure 


Is Expensive 


it is drawn from a 90 pound high pressure line. It is economy to 
install an Oliver Low Pressure compressor. Built along the same 
lines as the Oliver Vacuum Pump. 

Oliver Made Pumps and Compressors 

are backed by the same engineering experience that has made the 
OLIVER CONTINUOUS FILTER famous in the mining districts of 
the world. 

Sizes range from 50 to 800 cubic feet per minute. Equipped 
with light steel-leaf valves, interchangeable inlet and discharge valves 
and seats, and enclosed crank case with splash lubrication. 

Oliver-made dry vacuum pumps offer an inexpensive solution for 
your vacuum pump troubles. Remarkably efficient and trouble-proof. 
Compact and free from outside valve gear. All working parts easily 

Send for particulars, prices and specifications. 


501 Market Street 
San Francisco 

33 West 42 Street, 
New York 

No. 11, Southampton Row 
London, W. C. 



January 1, 1921 

Technical Writing 


179 Pages R ce $1™ 


AS editor of the MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS, the author needs 
** no further introduction. 

'TECHNICAL WRITING' was prepared in response to popular demand 
after the last imprint of the author's first book on the subject, 'A Guide to 
Technical Writing' was exhausted. 

The B. F. Goodrich Company, Akron, Ohio, write: 

"We have found this book of great benefit in 
our chemical and development departments to the 
men who write reports." 

An important feature of this book is the inclusion of 6G0 examples of faulty writing, 
with corrections. These examples are taken from manuscripts edited by the author. The 
correction of them is a practical method of instructing those desiring to improve their 
methods of literary expression. 




Send for our latest catalog. 

We offer some of the latest min- 
ing and metallurgical books in 
COMBINATION with a sub- 
scription to the MINING AND 
new or renewal) . Write us re- 
garding this combination offer. 

420 Market St., San Francisco 

Gentlemen: Enclosed find $1.50 for which send me one copy of 
'Technical Writing', by T. A. Rickard. 



January 1. l!*2l 




Motors for Every Mill Requirement 

In many cases an ordinary motor can be applied to 
do the work, but a motor particularly designed for the 
application will do it better, will be more efficient, and 
will require less maintenance. Many such Westinghouse 
motors have been developed and standardized for the 
various operations in metallurgical plants. 

Westinghouse Engineering Service is at your com- 
mand to determine on the best motor drive for every 
process in your mill. Westinghouse Engineers will help 
you to reduce first cost, power costs, and costly mill 




January 1, 1921 

Pacific Products /Vt Me Field 

A Pacific Redwood Pipe Line Carries 
Water to the City of Oroville, California 

The illustration shows part of a 20-inch Pacific Machine-banded 
Redwood pipe-line which was laid in 1911. It supplies water 
for the city of Oroville and has given uninterrupted service since 
its installation. 

Pacific Redwood pipe is unequalled for carrying water, acid or 
alkaline solutions. Its long life, satisfactory service and adapta- 
bility to extremes of climate have made it the standard wood 
pipe for mining use. 




General Offices: 802 Market St., San Francisco 

Lob Angeles 902 Trust 4 Savinra Bids. New York 2605 St. Paul Bid*. 

Salt Lake City 329 Newhouse Bldg. Philadelphia 422 Liberty Bid* 

«y/ 7 

.minimi. m 


T. A. RlCKARD. Editor 
, Parsons, associate editor 

Member Audit Bureau of Circulation! 
Member Associated Business Papers, Inc. 


Publiihrd at L10 Market St., San Francisco, 
bv the Itewy Publishing Company 



E. H. LESLIE, OOO Fisher sot, ChicASO 


iiiiiiinuiiitiiiiiiii in mi in iiimmiiii i i until in iiilttiiiti itltiiliiliiltitliiilliitilliililitii 



Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, January 1, 1921 

$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 







Comment on the petition of Karl Eilers for a writ 
of mandamus to compel the American Smelting & 
Refining Co. to give him access to its stock 
register. Personal character of Mr. Eilers, and 
the reputation of his late father. Good faith o£ 
his action. Importance of the attack. Facts dis- 
closed in the petition. Gambling by the Guggen- 
heims in copper futures and the interplay of finan- 
cial interests. 


A New Year greeting and a word of cheer. Pres- 
ent depression is the logical sequel to a period of 
extravagance that ignored the inevitable conse- 
quences of the War. Basic conditions in the 
United States are good. This country is a going, 
not a liquidating, concern. Outlook for the metal 



By Gilbert H. Montague 

Attention called to two points that may be mis- 


By Theo. F. Van Wagenen 

An inviting field for mining. 


By M. W. von Bernewitz 

The lesson to be derived from the operations of the 
Plymouth mine. 



The petition of Karl Eilers for a writ of man- 
damus requiring the American Smelting & Re- 
fining Co. to give him access to the stock register 
of the company. His request for such permission 
was denied. Reasons set forth why a change of 

management is for the best interests of the stock- 
holders. History of the management of the com- 
pany. Mr. Simon Guggenheim made president in 
1919. His policy since that time. Methods of 
controlling the directors as used by Messrs. Gug- 
genheim. Other actions not approved by Mr. 
Eilers. Letter from Mr. Guggenheim asking for 
Mr. Eilers' resignation as a director. Mr. Eilers' 
reply. Records of the stock held by the different 
directors of the company. 


By Edwin C. Holden 16 

Copper statistics since 1901. Deductions from 
these data and considerations of economic condi- 
tions, as to the future trend of copper prices. The 
conclusion is that the price should during the en- 
suing ten years fluctuate between 14 and 22.5c. 


By Arthur B. Parsons 

The difficulties of sampling flotation concentrate. 
Description of the Martin machine for unloading 
and sampling concentrate from the Utah Copper 
Co.'s mills. The new building for cutting-down 
samples. Equipment and methods. 
















Established May 24, 1860. as The Scientific Press: name changed October 
20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. Cable 
address: Perlusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 600 Fisher Bdg.: New York. 31 Nassau St.: 
London. 724 Salisbury House, E.C. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. Cable 
address: Pertusola. 



January 1, 1921 

The cap broke at 6,200 pounds 

THE Oxy-acetylene welded joint in this test length of pipe 
easily held a hydrostatic pressure of 6,200 pounds. At this 
high pressure the cap blew off, but the weld withstood the pressure 
without an indication of failure. 

The Universal Gas with The Universal Service 

was of course used exclusively in making these welds. 

This test proves again the fact that for permanency — for strength 
— for perfect welds — Prest-O-Lite is the surest choice. 

Ask us all about Prest-O-Lite and the Nation- Wide Service of our 
forty plants and warehouses. 



General Offices, Carbide and Carbon Building 

30 East 42nd Street, New York 

Kohl Building, San Francisco 

In Canada 
Prest-O-Lite Co. of Canada, Limited, ToeontS 

January l. 1923 



T. A. ■KICKARD, .... Editor 

iiiimiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiimini until mi inn iiiiiiiimiiiiimmiiimiiini 

ii illinium imiini i in nil iiiiiniilldlinlBH 

A ID to the mining industry of Mexico is promised by 
■'*• the government of President Obregon. It is pro- 
posed to reduce Federal taxes and freight-rates on the 
railroads, and also to annul laws restricting the im- 
portation of such materials as steel, powder, acids, and 
tools. The President has been in consultation with the 
Governors of the mining States, including Guanajuato, 
Zacatecas, and Durango, for the purpose of devising 
means to assist the operation of mines. 

f~* OOD SENSE was shown by the employees of the 
^-^ Granby Consolidated company at Anyox by their 
voting, in the proportion of 750 to 175, to accept the new 
scale of wages offered by the company. The manager, 
Mr. H. S. Munroe, told the men definitely that the com- 
pany could not continue operations on the present scale 
of wages, having regard to the fall in the price of copper. 
and would have to close the plant unless the proposed 
reduction, of 75 cents per shift, was accepted, this reduc- 
tion to be revised three months hence. Both management 
and men have shown moderation and, we repeat, good 

"DEFORE international commerce can be restored to 
■'-* anything like a healthy condition it will be neces- 
sary to stabilize international exchange. That can best 
be done if the League of Nations, now in session at 
Geneva, is successful in its efforts. The world is called 
upon to choose between solvency and armaments ; eleven 
out of twelve European countries showed a deficit last 
year, but in most cases disarmament would convert the 
deficit into a surplus. Of the world's total expenditure, 
20%, goes to preparation for war, and the burden is not 
only exhausting the European nations economically but 
it threatens to destroy them politically. 

TJEOPOSALS are heard for dropping sundry taxes 
■*-■ that operate unfairly, or that are uneconomic in 
their incidence. The excess-profit tax is one, the zone- 
rate of postage is another. We would like to see the 
check-tax revived because it is one that would be paid by 
those who can afford to do so; but the best expedient 
undoubtedly is the sales-tax, which at 2% is estimated to 
yield $3,000,000,000 per annum, and therefore would go 
far to produce the revenue needed. Another good tax 
would be one on applicants for Federal appointments, 
at the rate, say, of 2|% on the salary of the desired office. 

This would save a lot of time and trouble at Washing- 
ton, besides conserving paper, of which there is such 
lamentable wastage at this time. 

OENATOR HENDERSON has introduced a bill for 
*^ amending Section 2324, Revised Statutes, dealing 
with assessment work on mining claims, so that the final 
date may be changed from January 1 to July 1 each 
year. This is commendable because the present date 
falls in the very dead of winter, and, as many of our 
mining districts are in the mountains, the season co- 
incides with heavy snow and other inclement conditions 
prejudicial to the performance of the annual labor re- 
quired by law. Assessment work is usually, and not un- 
wisely, postponed as much as possible ; for a man does 
not spend his money until he has to. We hope Senator 
Henderson's successor or his present colleague from Ne- 
vada will continue the effort to legislate in this direction. 

T> EFERRING to the petition of Mr. Eilers, reproduced 
■"-*• elsewhere in this issue, it is curious what blunders 
of phraseology are made by lawyers. For example, men- 
tion is made of "Messrs. Daniel, Murry, Isaac, Sol and 
Simon Guggenheim", and one asks naturally whether 
the fourth in order was named Sol or Solomon, but four 
paragraphs later reference is made to "the said Solomon 
R. Guggenheim". There is no "said" Solomon R., al- 
though there is a Sol — and long may he shine ! Again, 
later, a paragraph begins with a reference to "their 
policy of gambling in metals", which they "carried fur- 
ther". There has been no previous mention of "gam- 
bling", so it is not clear how it could be carried "fur- 
ther". Obviously, in the previous paragraph the lawyer 
should have characterized the method, there described, as 
'gambling', by saying, for example, that the policy of 
selling for future delivery involved transactions that 
were essentially of a gambling character. The punctua- 
tion of these legal documents is lamentable ; it would be 
better if commas were omitted altogether, as is done by 
some attorneys, rather than use them undiscriminating- 
ly. For example : ' ' The staggering losses to the Com- 
pany to which I have made reference herein". Does he 
make reference to the 'company' or to the 'losses'? 
Again: "When I found myself and my fellow directors, 
who had actively attempted to assist me in opposing the 
Messrs. Guggenheim, eliminated from the directorate of 
the Company". All his fellow-directors were not "elim- 


January 1, 1921 

inated", only those that had been backing him in his 
opposition to the Guggenheims ; the comma before ' who ' 
should be deleted. 

T^HIS country is not threatened with a panic, but we 
■*- are in the midst of a period of financial and indus- 
trial depression; how long and how serious this period 
will be depends upon the level-headedness of the Ameri- 
can people. "This is the time for sanity and courage, 
not for pessimism and doubt," declared Mr. Frank B. 
Anderson, president of the Bank of California, in a nota- 
ble address delivered recently before the Commonwealth 
Club in San Francisco. Mr. Anderson analyzed the 
events leading to the present abnormal condition of 
business; he suggested four fundamental tilings that 
must be accomplished before the necessary readjustment 
will be possible. First, the existing Federal revenue laws 
must be repealed ; these he characterized as destructive, 
unfair, and unsound. They discount initiative, tax 
fictitious profits, put a premium on waste and extrava- 
gance, and penalize economy. Second, the great undi- 
gested mass of Liberty bonds must be absorbed by legiti- 
mate investors; in other words, these bonds must find 
their way into safe-deposit boxes instead of being per- 
petually pledged and re-pledged as security for bank- 
loans. One-third of the Federal Reserve loans today are 
based on Liberty bonds. Third, labor must be liquidated ; 
which is another way of saying wages must come down. 
The fair thing would be to delay the reduction in wages 
until retail prices have been lowered ; but the sequence 
will probably be reversed. Fourth, ways must be de- 
vised for financing the purchase of our excess products by 
the rest of the world, which needs them so badly but 
which cannot cope with the handicap of unfavorable rates 
of exchange. To these might be added the need for re- 
storing the normal volume of buying on the part of the 
American people. Following a period of unprecedented 
extravagance, which lasted for several years, we suddenly 
went to the opposite extreme six months ago. A revulsion 
against $100 suits, $20 shoes, and $5 neckties swept like 
a wave over the country and the consumer stopped buy- 
ing. Thrift is always beneficial, but any radical change 
is likely to be attended with disaster. The various phases 
of business in the country are too intricately interlocked 
to permit extreme stagnation in the retail markets with- 
out a sympathetic reaction in industry and finance. 
What is needed is confidence on the part of the consumer 
that he is getting fair treatment from the retailer. 
Today he is distrustful ; his attitude will be changed only 
by convincing action on the part of the merchants. All 
these things, except the last, are in the process of solution 
today. We agree with Mr. Anderson when he says that 
' ' patience and the same common sense that has pulled us 
through emergencies in the past will do so again. We 
have bountiful harvests, we have 105 million people to be 
fed, clothed, and amused ; we are under-built, not over- 
built as we have been when most of the past booms burst. 
There is a world of work to be done and therefore I be- 
lieve that we shall escape the long period of depression 
that usually succeeds such periods of inflation." 

Eilers v. Guggenheims 

In this issue we publish the text, verbatim et literatim, 
of the petition filed by Mr. Karl Eilers for a writ of 
mandamus calling upon the American Smelting & Re- 
fining Company to give him access to the company's 
stock register. The reason, which is plainly stated, for 
these proceedings is to enable Mr. Eilers to address him- 
self to the stockholders, said to number 19,000, for the 
purpose of requesting their support in an effort to oust 
the Guggenheim family from 'the control of the com- 
pany's administration and more particularly to eject Mr. 
Simon Guggenheim from the presidency of the company. 
In justification of his action, and of the further action he 
intends to take, Mr. Eilers gives facts, with arguments 
based upon those facts. The affair will interest our read- 
ers keenly, for it affects the mining industry in a large 
way, the administration of the affairs of such a corpora- 
tion as the American Smelting & Refining Company 
being a matter of direct concern to those engaged in 
mining operations all over the country. We confess at 
once that our sympathy goes to Mr. Eilers, because we 
know him to be a professional man of high character and 
an operating metallurgist of the first rank. Moreover, 
he speaks, as it were, for his father, the late Anton Eilers, 
the pioneer of lead smelting in the West and one of the 
worthies of American mining history, a man of the high- 
est type. Mr. Karl Eilers has long been identified with 
the Smelting company and we find it not at all difficult 
to believe that he has a genuine pride in its past and feels 
a genuine anxiety over its future. In short, we assume 
that he is prompted by worthy motives. It is fair to 
remark that his continued holding of such a large block 
of stock shows his loyalty to the company. Whether the 
writ of mandamus will enable Mr. Eilers to obtain the 
names and addresses needed by him for his appeal to 
the stockholders, we do not know. Possibly, by legal 
devices, the Guggenheims may balk his efforts long 
enough to enable them to obtain all the proxies required 
to re-elect themselves at the next annual meeting in 
April, but it is quite certain that the exposure of the 
management by Mr. Eilers' petition will have decisive 
results in other ways. In the first place, it marks a deep 
cleavage across the administration. Mr. Judd Stewart 
died not long ago, and we regret to recall the fact. Like- 
wise Mr. Brush is no more. It has been known for some 
time that the directorate was splitting into two factions, 
but so long as the trouble was not ventilated publicly 
there was a chance of its being adjusted. Obviously it 
has gone so far now that those in control will have to give 
an account of themselves. It should be possible for the 
stockholders to assert themselves by appointing a com- 
mitte of inquiry, but probably it will be difficult to do so 
if the Guggenheims oppose such an investigation. The 
old question arises, are directors to be regarded as trus- 
tees for the stockholders or • are they only privileged 
speculators? Next, is the president of a company the 
spokesman for the directorate or is he a high cockalorum 
without accountability to his fellow-directors? It is 
evident that the story of the Smelting company is like 


January 1. 1021 



that of other creations of high finance. First a group of 
clever men organize a private business, which, as soon 
as it becomes successful, is turned into a public corpora- 
tion, on a capitalization that discounts future expansion; 
the stock goes to a premium ; the insiders sell out, but 
remain in office and retain handsome official salaries, long 
after they have ceased to give the service for which the 
salary is supposed to compensate. The Guggenheims 
started with 300,000 shares, or nearly half the entire 
common stock of the company. By April 1919, accord- 
ing to the statement made by Mr. Eilers, they had sold 
all except 100 shares of their common stock, and owned 
only 201 shares of the preferred stock. The entire board 
of directors, outside Mr. Eilers and his family, held only 
700 shares of common stock, out of 650,000. Now the 
question arises, whether the directors of a company 
should be chosen for their stockholdings or for their 
ability as managers and their worthiness as trustees? It 
is to be presumed that so long as the Guggenheim family 
owned nearly half the property, as expressed in shares, 
they were entitled to a predominant voice in the manage- 
ment, particularly if their dominance synchronized with 
the distribution of satisfactory dividends, but when they 
sold their stock and their decreased shareholdings syn- 
chronized with diminished dividends, it became proper 
to question the advisability of a change in the adminis- 
tration of the enterprise. To put it bluntly, would Mr. 
Simon Guggenheim be engaged as the chief of the enter- 
prise on account of his knowledge of mining and metal- 
lurgy, or of the business relating thereto, on his own 
merits as a technician and financier ? That is a debat- 
able point. Similarly most of the brothers and nephews 
might not be picked by other people to manage a mining 
and smelting business of large dimensions. Mr. Daniel 
Guggenheim, before he started his various speculations 
outside the Smelting company, was a man whose ability 
and acumen would be sought and would be engaged at a 
large salary, but it is evident, from the data given by 
Mr. Eilers, that the Guggenheims have treated the Smelt- 
ing company as a perquisite of the family. This might 
not have proved too expensive to the shareholders, even 
at the rate of a total of $500,000 per Guggenheim in ten 
years, but the gambling in copper, up and down, selling 
first for future delivery on a rising market and then 
holding copper on a falling market, has entailed losses 
that are much less agreeable, particularly as the} r are 
mixed inextricably with private interests in copper-min- 
ing companies. The other transactions in which the 
duties of the Guggenheims as directors of the Smelting 
company clashed with their private speculations and pro- 
motions are likewise manifestations of a kind of dealing 
that unfortunately is all too common in 'big business' 
circles, and it deserves to be pilloried. We appreciate 
the humorous side of the letter to Mr. Simon, retorting 
upon the latter's demand for the resignation of Mr. 
Eilers by insisting upon the resignation of the ex-Sena- 
tor, who, by the way, acquired that senatorship by means 
not altogether according to Hoyle, however conventional 
in political circles in Colorado. Our readers will be able 
to form their own opinion of the merits of the quarrel 

by reading Mr. Eilers' petition ; when the Guggenheims 
make a reply, we shall publish it promptly, but we pre- 
sume that their legal response will be a demurrer and a 
general denial. The test may come at the annual meet- 
ing of stockholders in April. Meanwhile we hope, in the 
interest of clean business in mining, that Mr. Eilers will 
succeed in getting at the stock register, so as to make an 
appeal to his fellow-sufferers and bring the issue to a 
public test. 

Hold Fast and Look Forward 

These are days that call for a steadfast mind and a 
virile optimism. Only now are we feeling the effects of 
the readjustments that were bound to come as the after- 
math of a great war. The liquidation of commodities, 
securities, and labor was inevitable. In other countries, 
more deeply engaged in the bloody struggle of the 
calamitous years, the sequel to the Armistice of 1918 was 
a realization of lives lost, of finances depleted, and of 
government disorganized. We missed the acuter phases 
of the immediate post-war period; indeed, our loss of 
manhood in battle was relatively small, our gain in 
wealth was enormous, and our government, even if it did 
not suit everybody, was never shaken. Even after our 
share of fighting came to an end we failed to face the in- 
evitable reorganization of industry, which had been 
stimulated unhealthfully by the manufacture of every- 
thing needed, and some things not needed, for the cam- 
paign overseas. Wages continued abnormally high, the 
prices of commodities were maintained on a false level, 
the extravagance of our people as a whole resembled an 
orgy. We are now in the cold gray dawn of the morning 
after. The conditions obtaining during the last three 
years could not last, because they were unreal. During 
the last quarter of 1920 the play of economic forces be- 
came insistent and prices generally suffered a nearly 
perpendicular drop, causing the appearance of a collapse 
of the market for textiles, foodstuffs, and metals. Wages 
remained firm until the very end of the year, when 
notices of severe reduction began to be issued on every 
side. Turning to the industry in which our readers, with 
us, are particularly interested, it is a fact, of course, that 
many mines had to he closed down on account of the 
decreased price of the metals, notably copper and lead. 
No disposition was shown on the part of labor to accept 
lower wages, as might he thought logical in deference to 
the fact that wages had been advanced when metal prices 
were rising; therefore the owners of mines were com- 
pelled in many cases to suspend operations. The un- 
willingness of labor to meet the conditions caused by the 
depression in the metal market is intelligible on account 
of the fact that the high cost of living had not been 
abated to any considerable degree, the drop in wholesale 
prices having been disregarded by the middlemen and re- 
tailers. In short, profiteering, that is, inexcusably high 
prices prompted solely by greed, was still dominant. The 
consequence was a widespread feeling that the bottom 
had dropped out of everything and that a calamity was 
impending. This feeling was not shared by those who 


January 1, 1921 

were well informed and capable of intelligent retrospec- 
tion. Some of our friends, scared by conditions that they 
ought to have anticipated, reminded us of an inland 
child that sees the tide go out, not understanding its 
meaning. The child sees the waters withdraw from the 
beach, the rocks bared, the seaweed exposed, the boats 
stranded, and thereupon imagines that the ocean is about 
to dry up. The ebb and flow of the tide is a phenomenon 
no more natural than the rise and fall of markets, which 
are as obedient to the law of supply and demand as are 
the waters of the sea to the moon's behest. The world of 
economics swings and balances on a thin edge between 
'must have' and 'must sell'. A man needs not to be a 
Methuselah to recall similar apparently catastrophic, but 
actually normal, ups and downs in the prices of metals, 
for example. What if silver is selling at 60 cents, cop- 
per at 13, and lead at 5 ; did not silver sell for 46 cents in 
1915, did not copper sell at 11 cents in 1911, and did not 
lead sell at 3 cents in 1908 ? There have been depressions 
before, many times, and they have been followed by re- 
vivals, have they not ? The tide comes back as surely as 
it goes out; shall we imitate the ignorant child and 
boohoo because our little sand-castle is left high and dry 
for a while? 

Why should we be depressed unduly, much less de- 
spair, at the temporary recession of our tide of industrial 
activity? There is much to encourage us at this time. 
During the past fiscal year our foreign trade reached a 
total value of over 13 billion dollars, of which $5,238,- 
621,000 represented imports and $7,950,429,000 exports, 
our commerce overseas being three billion dollars more 
than it was in 1919 ; moreover, five billions of it was car- 
ried in American vessels as against only $368,359,000 
carried in American bottoms during the year before the 
War. Our population, according to the completed cen- 
sus, is 117 millions, in itself a splendid market for our 
products and a huge reservoir of productive energy if 
properly organized. There is nothing unexpected or 
mysterious in the present condition of business; it has 
been foretold repeatedly by intelligent observers ; we had 
no reason to expect to escape a time of liquidation in 
commodities, securities, and labor*; we can thank our 
stars and the Federal Reserve system that the unpleasant 
process can be effected nowadays without a financial 
panic. The unpleasantness of the process of deflation is 
due mainly to the effort of some elements in the com- 
munity to escape their part of the readjustment, and the 
rebound to a healthy recovery will be delayed until they 
are compelled to participate. The business of this coun- 
try since the beginning of the War has been on a false 
basis of profit rather than of cost, whereas sound business 
is built upon economy. Our part of the world, like the 
other part upon which some of us look with a much too 
complacent pity, needs to work harder and save more. 
Only honest labor and decent thrift can establish indi- 
vidual and national self-respect. The Government must 
set the example; it is idle for statesmen to preach 
economy so long as they condone Federal extravagance ; 
they must make an earnest and concerted effort to stop 

the reckless expenditure of Government bureaus and de- 
partments, such as is exhibited by duplication of offices, 
multiplication of office-holders, and unending petty ex- 
penditures that in the aggregate run into millions daily. 

Another change that we need is a broader outlook. It 
is absurd to expect to export without importing; it is 
ridiculous to anticipate a generous market for our own 
products while planning to erect a high wall of tariffs; 
it is foolish to expect to be prosperous while chuckling 
over the insolvency of our customers. The parochial 
view must be replaced by a world view. Too many of 
our men of business continue to show symptoms of shell- 
shock; they are so afraid of what the laborer and the 
tax-gatherer will take from them that they are unable 
to look abroad and realize the extraordinary opportuni- 
ties offered to American capital and American initiative 
in foreign lands. At a time when foreign exchange 
favors exploitation abroad and acts as a most effective 
check to importation from abroad they strive apparently 
to shut themselves within their own borders and wish to 
regard the United States as an island in space, instead 
of seeing that it is today the senior partner of all the 
nations and the big brother of all the peoples. 

The members of the mining profession hardly need to 
be lectured in this way ; they have a mind of wider angle ; 
they have traveled too much to be attracted by the ideas 
that cling to the parish pump ; they realize the oppor- 
tunity offered to our country in world-wide mining en- 
terprise in consequence of the position of the United 
States as the creditor nation of the present epoch. Let 
us take a hint from the example of the English, who, 
when their country occupied a position of similar finan- 
cial vantage, went forth into distant lands and sowed 
the seeds of a great commerce by starting mining ex- 
ploration and exploitation in every corner of the earth. 
We have the captial to do it and the engineers that know 
how to do it. And now is the appointed time ; for now is 
the time to buy prospects cheaply, especially in Mexico, 
where order has been restored and a new government 
welcomes foreign participation in genuine development. 
The prices of the metals are low, and therefore mines are 
cheaper than they will be when the metal market re- 
covers. It is sure to recover soon, for civilization is built 
on a structure of metal and the growth of material prog- 
ress involves a constantly increasing consumption of iron 
and copper, of lead and zinc, besides a score of minor 
metallic elements. For a while production is reduced on 
account of the high cost of everything involved in the 
production, but the incorrigible ratio of supply and 
demand will assert itself in due course, and then will 
come a revival of mining from its temporary slump. 
Financial arrangements for giving credit to European 
buyers are inevitable; they are already under way. 
There exists a great lack of metals in the countries de- 
vastated by war. Our own domestic consumption never 
stops, but increases progressively. There will be a good 
market for the miner's harvest from underground. 
Cheer up, gentlemen of the mining industry. The year 
will end much better than it begins. 

.January 1, 1921 


Minerals Separation Patents 

The Editor: 

Sir — Two points in your admirable editorial of De- 
cember 4, 1920, entitled 'The Flotation Conference', may 
possibly mislead some readers who for years have relied 
upon your information and guidance in all matters re- 
lating to flotation and Minerals Separation : 

First : Referring to the exchange of telegrams between 
Mr. Cook, counsel for Minerals Separation North Ameri- 
can Corporation, and Mr. Ballot, its president, on the 
question whether Minerals Separation claim that "if a 
licensee uses first patent in suit after its expiration in 
1923, and operation thereafter does not come under other 
patents, he must continue to pay royalties to us", to 
which Mr. Ballot replied that "we do not claim payment 
of royalty on the patent in suit or on any other patent at 
time of expiration, but we do claim royalty for any other 
unexpired patents", you state: "Mr. Montague expressed 
gratification at Mr. Ballot's telegram, characterizing it 
as 'magnificent' and more than justifying all the efforts 
made by the American Mining Congress, in behalf of 
flotation users". Most of your readers caught the sig- 
nificance of your quotation marks around the word 
"magnificent", and everyone who heard me at the Con- 
ference will recall that I promptly called Mr. Cook's at- 
tention to Article 5 of Minerals Separation's standard 
license agreement which provides that "the licensees 
shall not directly or indirectly during the continuance of 
this licene nor at any time after the termination thereof, 
dispute or object to the validity of the letters patent 
within this license, or the novelty or utility of the inven- 
tions specified therein", and that I then told the Confer- 
ence^ — notwithstanding Mr. Cook's interruptions, protest- 
ing that there had been enough talk from lawyers — that 
any licensee who used after 1923 the process of the first 
patent in suit would be obliged, because of this provision 
in his license agreement, to accept Minerals Separation 's 
opinion as to whether such process was covered by any of 
the scores of other "letters patent within this license", 
and would be prevented from ever "disputing or object- 
ing" to Minerals Separation's opinion on this subject, 
and that until Minerals Separation rescinded Article 5, 
Mr. Ballot's apparent concession was not "magnificent", 
nor even any concession at all ; to all of which Mr. Cook 
replied that he would not answer that question now. 
"Without this colloquy — which you allude to merely as "a 
further altercation between the lawyers" — some of your 
readers may miss the significance of your quotation 
marks around "magnificent", and may impute to me an 

attitude regarding Mr. Ballot's telegram which is ex- 
actly opposite to my true attitude, and may fail to appre- 
ciate that I am exactly in accord with your subsequent 
remark to the Conference to the effect that "as to the 
'magnificence' of Mr. Ballot's telegram, he (Mr. 
Rickard) thought that interpretation ridiculous". 

Second: You state: "It needed no lawyer to see that 
the Minerals Separation company could not collect roy- 
alty on a patent after it had expired." Lest some of 
your readers assume that this is a truism, and that Min- 
erals Separation concedes it, and that no one anywhere 
denies it, and that any licensee of Minerals Separation 
may confidently act upon it, I must inform you that, 
except for the anti-trust laws and the Federal Trade 
Commission law, there is nothing whatever to prevent 
the owner of a patented process from requiring an op- 
erator desiring to use the patented process during the 
17-year period of the patent to pay royalties for 25 years, 
or 50 years, or 75 years, or, like Minerals Separation, for 
17 years from the date of any patent it may acquire in 
the future, which practically means eternity. The reason 
is that such a contract, harsh though it be, if voluntarily 
entered into by any operator of sound mind is, except for 
the anti-trust laws and the Federal Trade Commission 
law, a valid contract, absolutely enforceable in law. This 
is exactly what Minerals Separation in its standard 
license agreement has actually done, and manifestly in- 
tends to continue to do, unless, as I confidently expect, 
the anti-trust laws and the Federal Trade Commission 
law are successfully invoked to frustrate Minerals Sep- 
aration's intention and purpose and to invalidate this 
provision of its standard license agreements. 

Both of the points above mentioned were comprehen- 
sively discussed in my paper before the Conference, 
which you printed in full on December 11, 1920. Know- 
ing, however, how natural it is for your readers to attach 
to your editorials greater weight than they do to any 
contributed article, I hope that, to prevent perhaps dis- 
astrous misunderstanding on your readers' part, you will 
find space for this overlong letter. 

Gilbert H. Montague. 

New York, December 18, 1920. 

Mining in Dutch Guiana 

The Editor: 

Sir — It is surprising — even in these days when gold 
has lost so much of its purchasing power — to see a region 
so rich in that metal as the three Guianas neglected. 
For there is a field close to the United States ; quiet and 


January 1, 1921 

orderly politically ; well connected with the rest of the 
world by steamships, cables, and wireless; healthy; of 
low altitude; producing within its own borders most if 
not all of the staple supplies required by the mining in- 
dustry, and presenting by undeniable evidence mineral 
resources that have yielded richly in the past, and whose 
possibilities have yet scarcely been touched. 

All this is particularly true of that part known popu- 
larly as Dutch Guiana and officially as the colony of 
Surinam. Here labor is cheap, docile, efficient, and ob- 
tainable under a contract system that eliminates all pos- 
sibilities of strikes. In addition, the mining law is re- 
markably favorable for corporate operations on either a 
small or a large scale. Though within the tropics the 
country is healthy, and even salubrious for all who exer- 
cise reasonable temperance in eating and drinking, and 
wear clothing which experience has shown to be most 
suitable under the circumstances. Yellow fever and other 
tropical maladies are practically unknown. The death- 
rate — including natives — averages from year to year 
about 14 per 1000, a record equalled by comparatively 
few communities in any part of the world. 

I have recently been studying the records of opera- 
tions there by a well-known "Western mining man of high 
standing and confess myself rather surprised at the re- 
sults he has obtained. He has been operating on gold- 
bearing quartz during the last seven years. Beginning 
with a small outfit capable of crushing but 8 tons in 24 
hours he has gradually enlarged this out of profits until 
at the present time his plant will treat 125 tons in the 
same time. During the interim he has crushed 60,000 
tons, from which gold to the value of $135,000 has been 
recovered and marketed, and by plate amalgamation 
only. His record on tailings indicates that his loss has 
been not less than $1.50 per ton, of which at least 75% 
could have been saved by the installation of a cyanide 
system or concentrating machinery. 

Now here is a demonstrated proposition that has been 
built up on its own profits, that is based upon an ore 
carrying $3.37 in recoverable metal, and of which there 
are millions of tons in sight directly on the surface both 
on and off his claims, all available by the simplest meth- 
ods of quarrying. No underground work, no water to 
fight. No hoisting. Yet Siberia seems to be more attrac- 
tive. What is the reason ? Is it political, or economical, 
or merely psychological? 

Theo. F. Van Wagenen. 

Denver, December 4. 

Poor Zones and Enrichments 

The Editor: 

Sir — The re-opening of the Plymouth mine in Amador 
county, and the results, as recounted so concisely by W. 
J. Loring in your issue of November 27, should start 
others thinking. The policy of the Plymouth manage- 
ment, since the beginning of operations in 1911, has been 
an open and helpful one. The occurrence of poor zones 
along the Mother Lode in other counties of California 
has been frequent, resulting in many companies suspend- 

ing operations in the past, while others have exercised 
better judgment and continued, benefiting thereby. The 
Plymouth found a poor zone for 600 ft. below the 2450-ft. 
level, followed by high-grade ore ; the Empire had no ore 
between the 1300 and 2100-ft. levels; the North Star had 
about 600 ft. of barren vein below the 1200-ft. level ; and 
the Central Eureka seemed to be exhausted at 3400 ft. 
during 1918, but sinking to 3700 ft. revealed another 
shoot, and now the company is disbursing regular divi- 
dends. Another splendid example is the Carson Hill, 
now the third largest gold-producer in California, and 
the result of Mr. Loring 's experience. Considering past 
results and lacking their geologic deductions, we find 
praiseworthy work under way in re-opening the Allison 
Ranch, Idaho-Maryland, and Old Eureka mines, all old 
producers. The North Star is resuming work at its 
Massachusetts and New York claims, closed years ago 
presumably through the usual barren zone; also the old 
Murchie mine near Nevada City. Note how the Tonopah 
Belmont resuscitated the old Shawmut mine. Apart 
from abnormal conditions, what is the matter with the 
Bunker Hill, Fremont, Amador (Original Amador), 
South Eureka, Oneida, Gwin, Black Oak, Utica, and 
others ? Cannot more capital be raised to go ahead with 
these mines? All are fully equipped. At Sierra City 
is another instance : the Sierra Buttes mine yielded gold 
worth $17,000,000 to a British company between 1870 
and 1905, but save for spasmodic exploration and milling 
little has been done since. Nearly all mining was done 
through nine tunnels. I was told recently that geologic 
conditions have not changed, and that a wide vein re- 
mains, although of low value. The veins are quartz fis- 
sures with a greenstone and serpentine foot-wall, and a 
quartz-porphyry hanging wall. It is a pity that a mod- 
ern 40-stamp mill and cyanide plant, such as on the 
Sierra Buttes, is left to the mercy of the elements, snow 
having already caved part of the roof. "While on this 
topic, it is not out of place to draw attention to the 
bulletins recently published by the State Mining Bureau 
at San Francisco. I refer to 'Mines and Mineral Re- 
sources of Nevada, Plumas, and Sierra Counties', three 
separate volumes, compiled by Errol MacBoyle after a 
personal inspection of those regions. They are of great 
value. My work here has necessitated a close study of 
these bulletins, and I am surprised that so many ap- 
parently worthy mines are idle. There are also a number 
of drift-gravel properties that should demand attention. 
Exploration companies would do well to have copies of 
these reports on file. Perhaps they know all about the 
counties mentioned, yet something worth-while may have 
escaped their attention. It is to be hoped that when con- 
ditions improve, genuine investigation will be resumed 
in California. Mr. Loring has given a most practical 
hint ; let others profit by it. 

M. "W. von Beenewitz. 
New York, December 10. 

Emery is mined at Naxos, in Greece, 9000 tons being 
the output in 1919. 


January 1, 192) 



Karl Eilers v. Guggenheims 

Petition of Karl Eilers for a Writ of Mandamus Requiring the American Smelting & Refin- 
ing Co. to Give Him Access to the Stock Register of the Company 

Supreme Court. New York County 

In the matter of the application of Karl Eilers for a 
writ of mandamus against American Smelting & Refining 
( lompany and David A. Crockett. 


Please take notice that upon the annexed petition of 
Karl Eilers duly verified the 11th day of December, 1920, 
the undersigned will move this Court, at a Special Term 
Part I thereof, to be held at the County Court House in 
the Borough of Manhattan, The City of New York, on the 
20th day of December, 1920 at 10.15 o'clock in the fore- 
noon or as soon thereafter as Counsel can be heard, for a 
peremptory writ of mandamus under the rules of this 
Court, directed to the above named American Smelting 
& Refining Company and David A. Crockett, requiring 
the said American Smelting & Refining Company and 
David A. Crockett thereafter forthwith to permit the said 
Karl Eilers, his agents, accountants and servants, to in- 
spect the stock book of the American Smelting & Refining 
Company and to make extracts therefrom, and for such 
other and further relief in the premises as may be just. 
Dated, New York December- 11th, 1920. 

William U. Goodbody, 
Attorney for Petitioner. 

To : American Smelting & Refining Company 
David A. Crockett, Esq., 

"William F. Schneider, Esq., Clerk of County of New 

New York Supreme Court, New York County 

In the matter of the application of Karl Eilers for a 
writ of mandamus against American Smelting & Refining 
Company and David A. Crockett. 

To Special Term, Part I, of the Supreme Court of the 
State of New York for the County of New York : 

The petition of Karl Eilers respectfully shows and 
alleges : 

First : That your petitioner resides at Sea Cliff, Long 
Island, New York. 

Second: That American Smelting & Refining Com- 
pany is a corporation organized and existing under and 
pursuant to the laws of the State of New Jersey. Said 
Company was incorporated on the 4th day of April, 
1899. It has an authorized capital of $115,000,000, rep- 
resented by 500,000 shares of preferred stock and 650,- 
000 shares of common stock. To the best of my knowl- 
edge and belief all of said preferred stock is issued and 
outstanding, and of said common stock, 609,980 shares 
are issued and outstanding. 

Third: I have been since the incorporation of said 

Company, and am now the owner of 210 shares of ils 
preferred stock. I have been since 1916 and am now the 
owner of 17 shares of its common stock. I am also the 
owner of 200 shares of the preferred stock of said Com- 
pany which I acquired from the Estate of Franz Fohr, 
who died July 27th, 1919, but which stock has not yet 
been transferred to my name by the Executor of such 

As one of the three co-executors of the Estate of my 
father, Anton Eilers who was one of the founders of said 
Company, I am the holder and owner of 2170 shares of 
its preferred stock. In this stock I am beneficially inter- 

Other members of my family whom I represent are 
holders and owners of preferred stock of said Company ; 
their holdings aggregate 941 shares. 

In my personal and representative capacities my total 
holdings are 3536 shares. For many years prior to the 
last annual meeting of the Company, which was held on 
the 7th day of April, 1920, I was a director and latterly 
Senior Vice-President of said Company. 

Fourth : The American Smelting & Refining Com- 
pany is not a monied or railroad corporation and has 
offices for the transaction of its business in this State and 
within the County of New York, to wit: at No. 120 
Broadway, Manhattan, New York City, and another 
office for the transaction of such business, and particu- 
larly for the transfer of its securities, at No. 149 Broad- 
way, Manhattan, New York City. 

I am informed and believe that said corporation keeps 
at its said office at No. 149 Broadway, New York City, a 
book known as a stock book containing the names, alpha- 
betically arranged, of all persons who are stockholders of 
the corporation, showing their places of residence, the 
number of shares of stock held by them respectively, the 
time when they respectively became owners thereof and 
the amount paid thereon, and that said stock book is in 
charge of one D. A. Crockett, who is known as the 
"Transfer Agent" of said Company. 

Fifth : That on the 11th day of December, 1920, dur- 
ing business hours, to wit, at 11 : 30 A.M., I went to the 
said office of the said Transfer Agent of the American 
Smelting & Refining Company at No. 149 Broadway, 
New York City, and being then a stockholder of record 
of such corporation for at least six months immediately 
preceding such time, made a demand upon the said cor- 
poration and upon the said D. A. Crockett for an inspec- 
tion of said stock book and for the opportunity to make 
extracts therefrom. 

I am informed and believe that in March, 1920, said 
stock book contained the names of about 19,000 persons 


January 1, 1921 

who were then stockholders of said corporation and I be- 
lieve that the number of names has not materially di- 
minished since that time. 

At the time I made such demand said corporation and 
said D. A. Crockett, the Transfer Agent thereof, wrong- 
fully and in violation of Section 33 of Chapter 61 of the 
Laws of 1909 (New York), known as "The Stock Cor- 
poration Law, ' ' refused to allow said stock book to be in- 
spected by me or to allow me or my duly accredited 
agents and attorneys to make extracts therefrom. 

Sixth: The next regular annual meeting of said cor- 
poration will occur in the month of April, 1921. 

The purpose for which I desire to inspect and make 
extracts from the stock book of said corporation is to 
enable me to communicate with other stockholders of 
said corporation in order to consult with them relative to 
effecting a change in the management of the affairs of 
said corporation by the election at said annual meeting 
of a new Board of Directors for said corporation. To 
that end it is necessary that I place myself in communi- 
cation with stockholders whose holdings of stock are as 
large or nearly as large as my own, for the purpose of 
forming a Stockholders' Committee, and then to com- 
municate with other stockholders to secure proxies, or 
the direct votes of stockholders, for the election of per- 
sons as directors of said corporation other than those now 
holding office as directors. I can accomplish this only if 
given free access to the stock book of said Company. 

I am moved to do this because of an honest belief that 
a change in management is vitally necessary for the well- 
.being of said corporation. I desire the interests of said 
corporation promoted that I and those whom I represent 
may as stockholders be thereby benefited. Also because 
of the association of my father with said Company from 
its inception to his death, and my own association with 
said Company as employee, director and officer for over 
thirty-one years I feel a keen personal interest in said 
Company, and its well-being and development. 

Seventh : From 1907 to 1920 I was a director of said 
Company. From 1916 to 1920 I was Vice-President of 
said Company. As a director and particularly as an 
officer of said Company, I had opportunity to observe the 
methods of its management and I was finally convinced 
that said Company has been for several years, and is now 
.under the control of persons who dominate its affairs and 
under whose direction the Company is managed, not for 
the benefit of its stockholders or for the well-being of 
said Company, ' but for the purpose of furthering the 
personal and selfish ends of said persons and in disregard • 
of the interests of said Company. I am convinced that 
such domination of the Company's affairs has resulted in 
retarding its development ; to my personal knowledge the 
Company has been thereby directly caused losses aggre- 
gating millions of dollars. I am convinced that a con- 
tinuance of such domination will further retard its de- 
velopment and entail further large losses to the Com- 
pany. I am convinced that only by a change in the 
Board of Directors of said Company, can such domina- 
tion of its affairs be ended. 

In evidence of all of which I make the following state- 
ment of facts and circumstances upon the information 
gained by me during my association with said corpora- 
tion as a director and officer. 

The said corporation was organized in 1899, a consoli- 
dation of various smelting interests being thus effected; 
the smelting concerns entering the corporation receiving 
cash or stock of the corporation in exchange for their 
assets. At that time the Messrs. Daniel, Murry, Isaac, 
Sol and Simon Guggenheim, owners of certain smelting 
concerns were invited to become stockholders in said cor- 
poration ; to sell their smelting interests to the corpora- 
tion in exchange for its stock. The said Messrs. Guggen- 
heim refused such proposition. 

In 1901 the said corporation had shown itself to be in 
every way successful, and thereupon the Messrs. Guggen- 
heim proposed to place their smelting interests within 
the corporation in exchange for its corporate stock. They 
insisted that they be admitted to the corporation and 
their proposal being accepted, they thus secured ap- 
proximately 300,000 shares of the corporate stock ($30,- 
000,000 par value). 

The Messrs. Guggenheim at once demanded represen- 
tation on the Company's Board of Directors, and were 
successful in placing upon said Board Mr. Daniel Gug- 
genheim as Chairman and Messrs. Murry, Isaac and Sol 
Guggenheim as members. 

In or about 1907 the holdings of stock of the Messrs. 
Guggenheim, except for a very small portion, were sold 
by them. As I am informed and believe such sale was 
forced upon the Messrs. Guggenheim by reason of busi- 
ness reverses. From that time the Messrs. Guggenheim 
apparently ceased to regard the interests of the corpora- 
tion and sought to employ it solely to serve their own 
ends. In spite of the fact that they no longer held stock 
in the corporation to an amount which gave them any 
substantial interest in its affairs they continued their 
membership on its Board of Directors and insisted upon 
dominating that Board and the affairs of the corporation. 

Early in 1919 the said Solomon R. Guggenheim re- 
signed from the Board; the said Messrs. Isaac, Daniel 
and Murry Guggenheim remained upon the Board, and 
the said Simon Guggenheim became President of the 
Company. By that time the Messrs. Guggenheim had so 
perfected their domination of the Company that they 
did and could with confidence presume the acquiescence 
of a majority of the directors. When in January of that 
year they decided that Mr. Simon Guggenheim should 
become President of the Company and Mr, Daniel Gug- 
genheim, the then President, announced this in a circular 
letter to the stockholders as "the expressed wish of the 
Board of Directors". The Board of Directors had not in 
fact been notified, much less consulted, in respect of the 
proposed change in the presidency of the Company; 
they had been given no opportunity to express any wish 
in the matter. The Board met the expressed wish of the 
Messrs. Guggenheim and elected Mr. Simon Guggenheim 
their President. The situation in the Company under 
Mr. Simon Guggenheim was well stated by one of my 


January 1, 1921 


fellow directors — "Simon snaps the whip and all the rest 
have to jump". 

During all the time aforesaid, from 1907 to 1920 while 
1 w;us a director and officer of said corporation I found 
it im|>ossible for me, or any of my associates on the 
Board of Directors to secure the adoption of any plan for 
the operation of the Company against the opposition of 
the Messrs. Guggenheim. The majority of the members 
of the Board of Directors were controlled absolutely by 
the orders of the Messrs. Guggenheim and were in fact 
merely dummies representing the Guggenheim interests. 
This was true to such an extent that on one occasion 
when I protested to a member of the Board for his 
obedience to all mandates of Mr. Simon Guggenheim, he 
replied to me: "I don't like to do this, but what are yon 
going to do when you are working for a man". 

About 1910 the Board of Directors on the orders of the 
Messrs. Guggenheim and over the protest of myself and 
Mr. Morse, adopted a resolution that the salaries of 
officers, directors and employees should be fixed by a so- 
called Salary Committee, of which Mr. Murry Guggen- 
heim was then made Chairman. At this time Mr. Daniel 
Guggenheim and Mr. Sol Guggenheim had been drawing 
salaries ranging from $25,000 to $50,000 per annum 
while they were devoting almost their entire time and 
attention to business matters not connected with the 
affairs of the Company. This was a cause of irritation 
among the other officers and directors. From that time 
the Board of Directors had no power to fix the salaries 
of the officers and directors of the Company, and the 
Board of Directors could obtain no information from the 
Messrs. Guggenheim or from those directors who acted 
in concert with them as to the amount paid to the officers 
and directors of the Company. I believe the real pur- 
pose of this arrangement to have been to enable the 
Messrs. Guggenheim to perfect and continue their in- 
fluence over the directors ; by means of this Salary Com- 
mittee controlled by the Messrs. Guggenheim they could 
by increases and decreases in salary reward the obedient 
and punish the recalcitrant. 

About 1910 Mr. Newhouse and Mr. Stewart reported 
an opportunity to enter the business of tin mining in 
Bolivia. The Company with the consent of the Messrs. 
Guggenheim, expended considerable money in a thor- 
ough investigation of this proposition. Upon the report 
of such investigation coming in, the Messrs. Guggenheim 
opposed any action relative to the proposition. There- 
after the sons of Messrs. Murry and Daniel Guggenheim 
representing Guggenheim Brothers, the Messrs; Guggen- 
heim's co-partnership, were permitted to examine the 
report of the investigation on file with this Company, 
and thereupon Guggenheim Brothers sent representatives 
to Bolivia and have since engaged in large tin mining 
Operations there. A demand by certain of the directors 
of the Company that it be allowed to share in such oper- 
ations was refused by the Messrs. Guggenheim. 

In 1919 Mr. Guess, managing director of mines for the 
Company, advised the Board of Directors that he had 
secured an opportunity to purchase a one-fourth interest 

in the Premier Silver & Gold Mine in British Columbia 
at a price which would be most advantageous to the Com- 
pany. A majority of the members of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Company to which the matter was referred 
were in favor of accepting this offer but Mr. Simon Gug- 
genheim, a member of the Executive Committee, and Mr. 
Murry Guggenheim, a director, objected and opposed its 
acceptance. It later developed that the sons of Messrs. 
Murry and Daniel Guggenheim representing Guggen- 
heim Brothers, desired to purchase one-half of such one- 
fourth interest. Upon an arrangement being effected 
which permitted Guggenheim Brothers to purchase one- 
half of said one-fourth interest, Messrs. Simon and 
Murry Guggenheim withdrew their objection to a pur- 
chase by the Company of the remaining half of such one- 
fourth interest. 

The business of the Company is the purchase and 
smelting of ores of various kinds, and the sale of metals, 
copper, lead, silver, etc. thus produced. The prices paid 
by the Company for the various ores are based on the 
current New York quotations for the metals in such ores. 
The Company learned from bitter experience that if 
losses from fluctuations in the prices of metals were to be 
avoided, metals must be sold as fast as smelted and re- 
fined, and only to the quantity smelted and refined ; no 
sales substantially in advance of production could be 
made. Prior to the domination of the Company by the 
Guggenheim interests this was the established policy of 
the Company. 

In respect of sales of copper, this policy was abandoned 
so soon as the Messrs. Guggenheim secured predominat- 
ing influence in the Company's affairs. In copper, under 
the direction of Mr. Murry Guggenheim, futures were 
dealt in by the Company; that is to say, the Company 
made sales for future delivery against ore to be pur- 
chased and copper to be produced therefrom. I believe 
the Messrs. Guggenheim were influenced to this change 
in policy in respect of copper sales by their interests in 
various copper companies. I know that through the 
Messrs. Guggenheim contracts were entered into making 
this Company selling agent for such copper companies. 
In 1915 I was informed by a Mr. Willard Morse, one of 
the Company's directors, that as the result of this method 
of selling for future delivery the Company was losing 
on copper at the rate of $1,000,000 per year. A state- 
ment prepared by a Mr. F. W. Hills, the Comptroller of 
the Company, disclosed losses from this source for the 
seven years 1912-1919 to aggregate over $5,000,000. 

My fellow directors, Mr. Morse, Mr. Brush, Mr. New- 
house, as well as myself, protested against this policy, 
but Mr. Murry Guggenheim insisted upon it and its con- 
tinuance. Mr. Murry Guggenheim attempted to justify 
these losses upon the ground that the Company, through 
sales for future delivery, was enabled to retain the busi- 
ness of selling for the group of copper companies with 
which it had entered into the aforesaid contracts to act as 
sales agent; that this Company could thereby retain 1% 
selling commission from such copper companies. Had 
this Company abandoned the policy of selling for future 



January 1, 1921 

deliveries it would have reduced its losses from fluctua- 
tions in the price of copper to a minimum and I am con- 
vinced it could have retained the agreements with the 
copper companies. As I am informed and believe the 
more important of those companies were controlled by 
the Messrs. Guggenheim through stock ownership; and 
the abandonment of the policy of selling for future de- 
liveries would have prevented very large losses from 
fluctuations in the price of copper to those companies as 
well as to this Company. The copper companies to which 
I refer are the Utah, Nevada Consolidated, Kennecott, 
Braden, Chino and Ray. 

In 1920 the Messrs. Guggenheim carried their policy 
of gambling in metals further. At this time the copper 
market showed a tendency toward a sharp decline in 
prices. Having made the mistake of selling for future 
delivery in a rising market, the Messrs. Guggenheim, now 
withheld copper from sale in a falling market. In April, 
1920, as the result of this policy, the Company had on 
hand approximately 160,000 tons of refined copper. In 
the meantime the price of copper had declined at least 5 
cents per pound ($100 per ton) with a consequent loss, 
traceable to the Guggenheim influence, of at least $15,- 
000,000 to the stockholders of the companies concerned, 
the copper companies and this Company. 

In the Company's purchase and sales of silver and 
lead, Mr. Brush continued to follow the policy, previous- 
ly followed in sales of copper, of selling currently in- 
stead of for future delivery. The fluctuation of prices 
in the lead market during the period 1914-1918 were 
similar in percentage to the fluctuation of prices in the 
copper market and the Company's tonnage in lead was 
greater by far than its own tonnage in copper. Under 
Mr. Brush's policy the Company made a profit on its 
transactions in silver, and the Company's losses from 
fluctuation in prices of lead were held down to the com- 
paratively small sum of $465,060.71 for the period 1904- 
1918. For the same period, under Mr. Murry Guggen- 
heim's policy, the Company's losses in sales of copper, ac- 
cording to a statement by Mr. F. W. Hills, amounted to 
$4,638,934.85. The Messrs. Guggenheim were not so 
largely interested in silver or lead producing companies 
as in copper companies. 

Of the directors of the company, Messrs. Prosser, New- 
house, Stewart, Morse, MeGowan and I were those who 
were outspoken in expressing their views relative to the 
business and policies of the company; Messrs. Prosser 
and Newhouse were more ready to yield to the opinions 
and directions of the Messrs. Guggenheim ; Messrs. Stew- 
art, Morse, MeGowan and I were insistent in pressing our 
views irrespective of whether they were in accord with 
the opinions and decisions of the Messrs. Guggenheim. 

The majority of the remaining directors of the Com- 
pany were men dependent for their livelihood upon the 
salaries they received. These the Messrs. Guggenheim 
could control by fear of dismissal, and these directors did 
not venture actively to oppose the mandates of the 
Messrs. Guggenheim. 

At the time when Mr. Simon Guggenheim was elected 

President of the Company, Mr. Newhouse. was made 
Chairman of the Board of Directors. It is significant 
that immediately after the annual meeting in April, 
1920, when I was forced from the Board, to which I shall 
hereafter refer, Mr. Prosser was promoted to the position 
of Vice President and at the same time three new vice 
presidencies were created and three other directors were 
placed in those offices. The opposition of Messrs. Prosser 
and Newhouse was silenced by these promotions and the 
loyalty to the Messrs. Guggenheim of the three other di- 
rectors secured by the same means. 

Immediately after his election as President, Mr. Simon 
Guggenheim informed Messrs. Stewart and Morse that 
their services were no longer required, and demanded 
their resignations. Mr. Stewart ceased to be a director. 
I am infomed that at this, time Mr. Newhouse protested 
to Mr. Simon Guggenheim that he was going too far, and 
thereupon Mr. Morse was allowed to continue as a di- 
rector of the company but in a position of no influence 
and at a greatly reduced salary. At this time Mr. Me- 
Gowan declined to continue as a director of the com- 
pany under Mr. Simon Guggenheim and resigned from 
the Board of Directors. 

In March, 1920, a few days prior to the regular annual 
meeting of the stockholders of the Company, I received 
from Mr. Simon Guggenheim a letter informing me that 
because of the difference in our views relative to the man- 
agement of the Company, I must sever my connection 
with the Company. In the next month (April) I failed 
of re-election as a director. I append as Exhibits A and 
B Mr. Simon Guggenheim's letter to me and my reply 

With the ousting of Messrs. Stewart, MeGowan and 
myself, and the shelving of Mr. Morse, directors who 
actively opposed the Messrs. Guggenheim, and the silenc- 
ing by promotion to office of Messrs. Newhouse and 
Prosser, directors who had been rather active in their 
criticisms of the policies of the Messrs. Guggenheim, and 
with the loyalty of the three directors promoted to the 
office of Vice-President assured by such promotion, the 
Messrs. Guggenheim have disposed of any possible oppo- 
sition on the part of the Board of Directors and have 
placed themselves in a position to control and manage 
the Company as they may see fit without fear of effective 
criticism by the Board. Re-election of the present Board 
will continue the Messrs. Guggenheim in such position of 
dominance ; a position which in the past has resulted in 
the staggering losses to the Company to which I have 
made reference herein. 

Eighth : I have stated that I am moved to the instant 
proceedings by the honest belief that it is necessary for 
the well-being of the Company that steps be taken to 
secure a change in the Company's management. I have 
herein set forth with some particularity matters concern- 
ing the present management as establishing ample 
grounds for such belief on my part and therewith the 
honesty of my motives. I am not acting as a disgruntled 
ex-director or officer seeking revenge for his removal or 
his own re-instatement. I am convinced and I submit I 

January 1, 1921 



have grounds tor the conviction, that the interests of the 

stockholders demand that they be acquainted with the 
situation in their Company. Because of my long associa- 
tion with the Company and because of the number of 
shares owned and represented by me I consider that I 
am the logical person to move that the stockholders may 
be so informed and that I am in a manner morally obli- 
gated to do so. My own holdings in the Company, those 
owned and represented by me, also make it a matter of 
great importance, financially, to me that I secure a cor- 
rection of the existing situation in the Company affairs. 
In this connection I invite attention to the statement of 
the number of shares of stock held by the directors of the 
Company in 1919 and 1920 as disclosed by my letter. 
Exhibit B, and by a statement hereto annexed, maiked 
Exhibit C. 

"While a director and officer of the Company I did not 
take the action which I now propose for the reason that 
the dominance of the Guggenheim interests was a matter 
of development and readied its climax only just prior to 
my removal as a director and officer. Owing to the fact 
that I was absent from New York City engaged in busi- 
ness matters for the Company, I was not in a position to 
realize how successfully the Guggenheim interests were 
campaigning to secure control of the Company or to 
what extent such control had worked to the Company's 
injury. When I discovered the facts relative to these 
matters I hoped through my own influence and the in- 
fluence of my fellow directors, Messrs. Prosser, New- 
house, Stewart, Morse and McGowan to secure a cor- 
rection of the situation ; I believed it better in the inter- 
ests of the Company to attack this from the inside and it 
was only when I found myself and my fellow directors, 
who had actively attempted to assist me in opposing the 
Messrs. Guggenheim', eliminated from the directorate of 
the Company, that I realized the impossibility of success- 
ful opposition to the Messrs. Guggenheim unless by and 
through the assistance of the stockholders of the Com- 

Wherefore your petitioner respectfully requests that 
a peremptory writ of mandamus issue directed to the de- 
fendants directing them to permit the petitioner and his 
agents, accountants and servants to inspect the stock 
book of the defendant American Smelting & Refining 
Company, and to make extracts therefrom. 
Dated, New York, December 11th, 1920. 

Karl Eilers, 
William U. Goodbodt, Petitioner. 

Attorney for Petitioner. 

State of New York ) 

\ ss 
County of New York J 

Karl Eilers, being duly sworn, deposes and says : that 
he is the petitioner in the above entitled matter ; that he 
has read and knows the contents of the foregoing petition, 
and that the same is true to his own knowledge except as 
to the matters therein stated to be alleged upon informa- 
tion and belief, and that as to those matters he believes it 

tobetrue: . .-''..". Karl Eilers 

Sworn to before me this 
ll.h day of December, 1920. K| , wu;| , ,.. ,. „ 

Notary Public, Bronx Co. No. 18 
Bronx Co. Register's No. '-'140 
Certiorate filed in X. V. c... No. 225 
N. Y. Register's No. 127ii 

Exhibit a 

American' SMELTING & REFINING < '•>., 
120 Broadway. New York. 
Mr. Karl Eilers. March 31st, 1920 

Vice President. 

American Smelting & Refining Company. 
120 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
My dear Mr. Eilers : 

Shortly after I became President of the American 
Smelting & Refining Company, it became evident that 
you were not in sympathy with my administration. 

I had hoped that time would work a change in your 
attitude, and bring about a better accord between us, but 
a year has gone by with no prospect of such a result. Our 
views differ so fundamentally and on so many questions, 
that we cannot, with advantage to the Company or in 
justice to either of us, continue to be longer associated in 
the management. 

I have reached this conclusion with the deepest regret, 
because of our long association. The decision was reach- 
ed after careful consideration, and I regard the step as 
being absolutely necessary for the welfare of the Com- 

This letter is written that you may have an opportun- 
ity of yourself taking the initiative and tendering your 
resignation before the coming annual election on April 
7th, if you so desire. 

With assurance of personal regard and. good will. 
Respectfully yours, 

(signed) S. Guggenheim 

Exhibit B 

120 Broadway, New York City. 
Hon. Simon Guggenheim, April 3, 1920 


American Smelting & Refining Company. 
Dear Sir: 

I have your personal letter dated March 31st, which 
was delivered to me the next afternoon and which sug- 
gests that I should resign from the American Smelting 
& Refining Company for the sole reason that you and I 
are not in accord. 

You are very right when you say that I have not been 
in sympathy with your administration. That is, perhaps, 
one of the strongest reasons why my continued connec- 
tion with the company should be to its advantage. Since 
your brothers caused you to be made President, your 
views and mine as to the administration of the company 
have differed fundamentally, possibly because we repre- 
sent different interests and may be working for different 
ends. My family and I are now among the largest stock- 



January 1, 1921 

holders and have held the stock from the company's 
beginning, and we have no interests of any kind adverse 
to the company. You and your family associates have 
disposed of practically all of the 300,000 shares which 
you had when you assumed control and now, unless as 
traders in and out of its stock, you have practically no 
stake whatever in the company and may not be free from 
adverse personal interests. 

I find from the stock records that at the time of their 
last election our directors held stock in the company as 
follows : 

Preferred Common 

P. H. Brownell ... 5 

E. Brush (and family) 205 10 

Joa. Clendenin 390 179 

W. M. Drury 100 120 

Charles Earl ... 40 

L. C. Eakins 10 

Karl Eilers (and family) 3375 502 

L. Frederick ... 1 

H. A. Guess 5 

D. Guggenheim ... 100 

Isaac Guggenheim 1 ... 

Murry Guggenheim 100 

S. Guggenheim 100 

F. W. Hills 132 16 

William Loeb, Jr ... 100 

W. S. MeComiek ... 1 

W. E. Merriss 

Willard S. Morse 10 

E. L. Newhouse 700 

E. L. Newhouse ( family) 340 

Walter T. Page 500 

H. A. Prosser 10 100 

P. R. Raiff 

C. A. H. deSaulles 100 

E. B. Schley ... 100 

John N. Steele ... 5 

Roger W. Straus 1 

H. R. Wagner 

C. W. Whitley (family) 100 

E. R. Reets ... 12 

Total stock held by directors 6089 1291 

Total stock outstanding 500.000 660.000 

Throughout your administration my views as to policy 
have systematically been overridden by you. 

I disapprove of gambling in copper, as I have disap- 
proved of the gambling in copper during the year 1912 
to 1918, when it occasioned a loss to the company of five 
or more millions of dollars. I feel that that loss should 
be made good. I have disapproved of the payment to 
certain members of your family of sums aggregating at 
least $500,000 each in salary and office facilities during 
the past ten years, without services rendered. 

I have disapproved of the arbitrary manner in which 
you have failed to consult the directors of the company, 
men who, in many cases, have had far more experience 
than yourself, or, consulting them, have failed to give the 
slightest attention to their views. 

Prom the time when your brothers treated the di- 
rectors as puppet's in order to bring about your election, 
you yourself seem to have regarded and treated them as 
puppets. One of our present directors summed up the 
matter correctly when he stated: "Simon snaps the 
whip and the rest all have to jump". Such a method of 
operation would be harmful under any circumstances, 
but when employed by one whose interest may not neces- 
sarily be that of the company, it becomes appallingly 
dangerous. Now I have not had to jump, and I do not 
propose to jump, and I will not resign. 

I have disapproved of your vacillation, of your finan- 
cial policy and your lack of any consistent operating and 

extension policy, of your treatment of the company's 
valuable employees. I believe that you have been under- 
mining the loyalty of the men and destroying the organ- 
ization which should be the company's most valuable 

I have disapproved of the management being in the 
hands of those who have disposed of their stock interest 
and who have what should be competitive interests, of 
the failure in prosperous times to put aside proper funds 
for more difficult times, of the policy which has made it 
necessary to take up measures needful for the company 
through indirect and personal suggestions of a particu- 
lar few, rather than through the company's regular or- 

I have viewed with alarm our unsatisfactory earnings 
and the decline of the market price of our stock during 
the period of your direction. 

In requesting me to resign, it is evident that you, with 
at most a transitory interest in the company, have found 
my single minded zeal in the company's behalf incon- 
venient. If I could consult only my own personal con- 
venience, I would be inclined to accede to your request. 
But I cannot forget that there are many matters that 
demand attention in the interest of the stockholders and 
that, as shown by the stock books at the time of the last 
election, I am one of the few directors who represent a 
substantial stock ownership and whose personal stake 
therein is so great as necessarily to make the company's 
prosperity their own first interest. Furthermore, as 
from length of service, I have become the company's 
senior Vice President and have devoted practically my 
entire life to its service and that of its predecessor, it is 
quite possible that I might be of more service and value 
to the stockholders than one otherwise similarly situated 
but without that training and experience. 

I have desired, perhaps mistakenly, to preserve har- 
mony in the company, in the hope that you might yield 
to advice or to evident result or lack of results, and soon 
might find other fields of activity more suitable for you, 
and the company thereby obtain the necessary change in 
management without the publicity and other disad- 
vantages of a contest. As for those reasons I have up to 
this time made no effort to prevent it, it may be within 
your power for the time being to force my retirement 
from the Board. Nevertheless, I must most emphatically 
decline to resign, as I feel that it would be a betrayal of 
my duty to the stockholders voluntarily to abandon them, 
even for only a few days. 

In so far as our views have not been in accord, as we 
both say that they have not been, the event seems to have 
proved that it would have been to the interest of the 
company and of all, perhaps, except yourself and yours, 
if my views and not yours had prevailed. It would seem 
obvious that under the circumstances the proper remedy 
would be your resignation and not mine. It is also ob- 
vious that the interests of the company and its stock- 
holders require an immediate change in the management. 

I therefore suggest that you should forthwith tender 
your resignation as President of the American Smelting 

January l. 1921 



i Refilling Company and should at one,' take steps to 
make up to tin' company, for tin' stockholders, the vari- 
ous losses which it wrongfully and unnecessarily suffered. 

Yours Very Truly, 

(signed) Karl Eilers 

Exhibit C 

Stock of the American Smelting & Refining Company Held by .Members of 
the Hoard of Director* 

April 1. 1919 — April 1. 1920-, 

Preferred Common Preferred Common 

E. L. Newhouse 700 . . . 700 

family 340 . . . 340 

F. H. Brownell 5 ... 5 

Mrs ... 100 

E. Brush and family 205 10 

J. Clendenln 390 179 390 1711 

W. M. Drury 100 120 Hill 200 

Charles Earl 40 ... 40 

L. G. Eakins 10 ... 10 

Karl Eilers and family 3375 602 3575 47 

L Frederick 1 ... 1 

H. A. Guess 5 ... 5 ... 

D. Guggenheim 100 . . . 100 

Isaac Guggenheim 1 ... 123 

Murry Guggenheim 100 ... ... 1500 

Simon Guggenheim 500 . . . 100 

F. W. Hills 132 18 132 16 

William Loeb Jr 100 ... 10 

W. S. McCorniek 1 ... 1 

W. E. Merriss ... ... 8 

W. S. Morse 10 ... 10 

Walter T. Page 500 . . . 600 

H. A. Prosser 10 100 10 

F. R. Raiff ... ... 5 

E. R. Reets ... ... 12 

C. A. H. deSaulles 100 ... 100 

E. B. Schley 100 ... 100 

John N. Steele 5 ... 205 

Roger W. Straus 1 ... 1 

Mrs ... 74 

H. R. Wagner ... ... 200 

C. W. Whitley (Dorothy) ... 10 

C. W. Whitley ... 10 

Total held by directors 6489 1279 6380 2629 

out of a total of 500.000 preferred 
610.000 common 

Tin in Malaya 

Fifteen years ago Malaya produced over 60% of the 
world's tin; today the figure stands at less than 40%. 
In 1903 Bolivia was credited with under 10,000 tons; 
today that country is the second largest tin-producing 
country of the world and unofficial estimates give it 20 
to 25% of the total output. Nigeria, whose output ten 
years ago was practically negligible, is returned in official 
statistics as producing in 1917 nearly 10,000 tons. The 
Malayan production in 1919 is given as 36,867 tons, com- 
pared with 50,000 tons five years before. Yet here is a 
rather curious circumstance. Taking official statistics for 
the years 1903, 1904, and 1905, and those 12 years later 
it is noted that the total output of ore has on the whole 
increased. The loss on Negri Sembilan output is more 
than offset by the gain in Pahang, while the loss on Se- 
langor is easily cared for by the gain in Perak. The de- 
duction is that although the percentage comparison of 
Malayan output with the world's total has fallen owing 
to greater production elsewhere, the actual production 
has considerably increased. Although production has 
been affected by cumulative years of war restrictions and 
hindrances and present figures do not indicate the real 
strength of Malayan ore production, there is sufficient 
ground for urging that the industry should be taken more 

carefully into consideration. At present there is one large 

ami well-known American mining company operating in 
the Federated Malay States. This firm is importing 
large quantities of material and sending out capable men 
as prospectors. Realizing that they must do more than 
mere surface mining to obtain results in the future and 
perhaps stimulated by the advent of the American com- 
pany, already referred to, many of the local mining cor- 
porations are taking a keener interest in scientific mining 
and are preparing to go ahead on a much more thorough 
principle. — Commerce Reports. 

Standardizing in Mining 

Standardizing mining operations presents problems 
quite different from the problems of the manufacturer. 
Methods of a successful factory may be duplicated by 
copying its arrangement and equipment and following 
its production details; standardization can readily be 
applied to most manufacturing processes, especially if 
the article manufactured is produced in large quanti- 
ties. Mining operations, on the other hand, are carried 
on under conditions that vary widely in different mines 
and even in the same mine. No two mines are alike and 
methods that prove efficient and economical in one mine 
are inefficient and uneconomical in another, where the 
formation and ore occurrence are of a different type. 
Standards to be effective must be specially worked out 
to meet the conditions of the particular mine in which 
they are employed, says Robert Linton, president of the 
North Butte Mining Co., in 'Mining and Metallurgy'. 

It should be emphasized at the outset that any studies 
of standardization and efficiency should primarily be 
directed to helping the underground workman do his 
work more skilfully with less effort and less fatigue. 
It is an axiom in every line of industry that the most 
skilful workman is, as a rule, the workman who does his 
work with the greatest ease. The purpose should be to 
devise means for further development of skill, to make 
it possible for more men to possess it, to eliminate all 
avoidable delays and lost motion in the working organi- 
zation, and thus enable them to do the maximum amount 
of work without injurious overexertion. Given good 
working conditions and a square deal, the average work- 
man would rather feel that his day's work turns out 
something of benefit to his employer than not, and is 
willing to do his best if he knows his efforts are recog- 
nized and compensated for on a fair basis. 

The miner was formerly a member of a highly special- 
ized trade — skilled in the manipulation of drills and the 
use of explosives, familiar with varying kinds of rock, 
trained to observe anything and everything that affected 
the particular mining job on which he was employed. 
There are still many such skilled miners working under- 
ground, and every mine superintendent is on the look- 
out for them, but there are also many who do not possess 
this skill and who work much harder without accom- 
plishing as much because their efforts are not utilized 
to the best advantage. Standardization of methods 
benefits such men particularly. 



January 1, 1921 

The Future of Copper 

By Edwin C. Holden 

The rapid change in copper prices during the past few 
months has made producers and consumers alike eager to 
look into the future. Prophecy is an extra-hazardous 
occupation, but in the case of copper a review of its rec- 
ord during and prior to the War and a consideration of 
present industrial conditions make some general deduc- 
tions possible. In any event, the valuer of copper mines 
must make the attempt if he is to reach any clear-cut 

The record of the copper industry in recent years is 
summarized in the accompanying table compiled princi- 
pally from the 'U. S. Mineral Resources' and modified 
as to foreign production by 'The Mineral Industry'. 

matte, blister, refined, manufactured, and scrap copper; 
the stock is of new refined copper and is not to be con- 
fused with that far more important figure, the copper 
surplus, which includes blister and copper in all uncon- 
sumed forms, whether in the hands of producers or con- 

Data on the copper surplus are only approximately 
obtainable. The normal surplus for the United States 
has been stated as about 400,000,000 to 500,000,000 lb. 
In January 1919 it was variously estimated as between 
1,000,000,000 and 1,800,000,000 lb., the increase being 
due to the agreed continuance of war production after 
the Armistice. It was reduced during the spring of that 

Copper Statistics 

In millions of pounds 

— Production — 

Year Foreign U. S. 

1901 55S 602 

1902 559 660 

1903 682 698 

1904 712 813 

1905 '.- 692 902 

1906 659 918 

1907 717 869 

1908 723 943 

1909 778 1093 

1910 848 1080 

1911 . : 856 1097 

1912 988 1243 

1913 984 1224 

1914 878 1150 

1915 990 1388 

1916' 1162 1928 

19-17 ' 1243 1886 

1918 1137 1909 

1919 J 131,1 

1920* * 1343 

Hypothetical data based on projecting 1901-13 

1920 1180 1580 

1921 1220 1630 




Price, cents 

, Imports 





per pound 





































































365 ' 


















































curves to 1920 

and 1921 









The curves based on these figures are given in Fig. 1. 
The average price of New York electrolytic copper for 
the pre-war years 1906-1913, inclusive, was 15.274c. Sev- 
eral of the large porphyry mines came into production 
during this period, otherwise the production and price 
curves would diverge and show that under pre-war cost- 
schedules the price of 15.274c. per pound was not suffi- 
ciently profitable to stimulate production. The sharp 
break in production when the price dropped below 14c. 
in the depression preceding and during the opening 
months of the War is another indication of this. 
• In the above table the domestic production is that from 
United States ores ; the imports and exports include ores, 

year and in November 1919 was reported as 1.000,000,000 
and in January 1920 as 940,000,000 lb. During the first 
half of 1920 the stock of refined copper was reduced about 
150,000,000 lb., but blister probably increased, leaving 
the surplus in the early summer at about 850,000,000 lb. 
Exports dropped off sharply during the summer, June 
actually showing an excess of imports, and the surplus 
had probably increased considerably up to the time of 
the break in price to 15c. in October. 

The normal consumption of the United States before 
the War had risen to 65,000.000 lb. per month. It 
doubled during the War and the indications for 1920 are 
for about 95,000.000 lb. per month, or 20,000,000 lb. more 


January I, 1921 



than normal expansion would require. This groat do- 
consumption goes tax toward neutralizing the de- 
pressing effect of the abrupt shrinkage of the European 

Copper's war record was unique. The world's pro- 
duction rate increased over 4o< ; , whereas steel increased 
only about 10%, and coal, pig-iron, and lead never 
reached their pre-war maximum. See Fig. 2. 

Projecting the average curves of the copper industry 
for the period 1901-1913, inclusive, through to date, they 
indicate that had there been no war and a constant rate 
of increase, the United States production for 1920 would 
have been 1,580,000,000 11... or 230,000,000 more than 
the actual, the imports 450.000.000 lb., or 40,000,000 lb. 
above the actual, the domestic consumption 900,000,0(10 
11'.. and the exports would have risen to 1,100,000,000 lb., 
or .300,000,000 lb. above the actual and within 30,000,000 
lb. of the record shipments of 1917. 

The excess produced during the past six years over the 
normal increase was 1,290,000,000 lb. in the United States 
and about 150,000,000 lb. abroad, the total being equiva- 
lent to about one year's United States production. 

The monthly statement for copper in the United States 
for 1920 so far as available is as follows : 

Copper in the United States in 1020 

Price per 





Jan. . . 





Feb. .. 





March . 





April . 





May . . 





June . 





July .. 





Aug. .. 





Sept. . 




Oct. .. 



Nov. . . 



Dec. . . 



1,342,998,011* 408,000,000* 580,000,000* 17.522* 

The excess of exports over imports for 1920 is about 
178,000,000 lb. For the past three years the total of 
350,000,000 lb. shows a drop to one-third the pre-war 
rate, thus indicating sharply the retrenchment abroad 
due to unfavorable exchange, money stringency, and the 
existence of available munition-scrap copper. 

Regarding the future of' copper, prophecies covering 
temporary fluctuations are almost worthless, but a study 
of past performance and consideration of present eco- 
nomic tendencies make some general deductions possible. 

It has become too trite to say that the present depres- 
sion in copper, as in all other basic products, is healthy 
though disagreeable. Tonics are usually bitter. The 
reaction has already carried copper far below present 
costs of production and it is not impossible that we may 
see 13c. copper before the inevitable adjustment is ac- 

We produce 60% of the world's copper and ourselves 
use 35%. The remaining 25% we must market abroad. 

The productive capacity of American copper mines 
was increased 60% and of refineries 70% during the War. 
but they arc this year producing 200,000,000 lb. less than 
the normal pre-war rate of growth would require. Since 
the abortive buying of copper by Japan in 1919, how- 



% S ^ *> * "> * '- ^ ?> 9 ^ $ C 5 B S £ S 2 si 
£,§>*-- ------- -------- a, . 

Fig. 1. THE COPPER INDUSTRY, 1901-1920 

ever, the foreign demand has been light for reasons al- 
ready given and because Germany, our largest customer, 
is still almost out of the market. 

Until Europe can come back' in the market on her pre- 
war scale, or our production shrinks to the consumption, 


<\j "i -^ 















PP e 















r S' 








Coal in Millions 

.ead in Thousands 




opper in Thousands 



in / 



of 7 




Fig. 2. world's production op coal, iron, steel, cop- 

the price of copper will be low. Europe will continue to 
get along on her stock of war scrap until she absolutely 
must buy or exchange is more favorable. It is conceiv- 
able that her scrap will last another six months and that, 
meanwhile, the copper market will continue in the dol- 
drums. Domestic consumption has been excellent, how- 



January 1, 1921 

ever, and there are large prospective requirements. The 
lew price is rapidly curtailing production, the full re- 
sults of which will not be apparent in the market for sev- 
eral months. 
What should be the future price of copper ? 
A recent tabulation* from the last annual reports of 
ten of the largest producers representative of all the im- 
portant copper districts gives their average cost of pro- 
duction at 16§e. per pound. Six of the reported costs 
were exclusive of depreciation or of Federal tax or other 
head-office charge, so we can safely assume that these 
large producers required a selling price of not less than 
17.5c. to make a profit, and the rapidly declining produc- 
tion indicates that the smaller producers were not pros- 
pering at the prevailing price of 18.69c. None of the im- 
portant copper dividends declared in 1919 were fully 

Under the conditions prevailing in 1920, it is probable 
that a price of 20c. would have maintained normal pro- 
duction. Relative costs and returns must ultimately keep 
step. Deflation is now taking place and the reaction so 
long delayed will probably have momentum enough to 
pass the neutral point. The world has not only its regu- 
lar industrial growth to care for, but unprecedented war- 
bills to pay, and it will be so difficult to do this on the 
basis of the pre-war value of money that a 10% advance 
on the old standards of value seems a moderate deprecia- 
tion to expect for the world's currency. If this were the 
only consideration affecting copper, a simple addition of 
10% to the pre-war curve of copper prices would tell the 
story of probable prices ; but this is not the only factor. 

The copper market was unique during the War, and 
its future is also unique. The world's copper surplus 
cannot, with most liberal allowance for war salvage, fill a 
single year's requirements. A long-postponed era of 
electrification is due and the productive capacity of the 
industry, as a result of the War, is already provided. 
The United States will continue for a long time to be 
the world's copper store-house, but already depletion is 
keeping close pace with development, and when the home 
market absorbs our entire production, the domestic in- 
dustry will be protected by the ' freights from South 
America, Asia, and Africa. This, however, is in the dis- 
tant future. 

A 10% advance on the average price from 1906 to 1913 
of 15.274c. makes 16.8c. as a probable average price, with 
production, export, and consumption as given in the 
hypothetical figures for 1921. Costs will not apparently 
average so low in 1921 as 10% over 1913, but it is also 
certain that exports will not approach the theoretical 

Judging by the analogy of pre-war experience, then, 
the price of copper for the next decade should fluctuate 
between 14 and 22.5c, depending upon market condi- 
tions ; but the average price on which a mine-valuation or 
other long-time operation should be based may be taken 
at 17c. The financial optimist who believes in the return 

*'E. &M. J.'. Vol. 110, p. 889. 
tSame. Vol. 109, p. 1147. 

of the old-time dollar, and the industrial pessimist who 
does not believe in the continued expansion of copper 
consumption will join hands and continue to figure on 
15c. copper. 

A Zinc Mine in New York State 

The Northern Ore Co., operating the Brown mine, 
near Edwards, St. Lawrence county, New York, treated 
51,411 tons of zinc-bearing ore, which yielded about 
10,240,000 lb. of zinc during 1919. 

The 400-ft. inclined shaft has been abandoned, and 
only a vertical shaft 900 ft. deep and an 800-ft. inclined 
shaft are now operated. Considerable prospecting was 
done with a diamond-core drill on the large tract of land 
owned by the company, and the drill was also used in 
workings to find ore and reduce the amount of drifts 
run. Ore now being extracted from levels at 840 to 860 
ft. is dropped to the 900-ft. level, hoisted, and trammed 
by means of a gasoline motor to the mill. The mill, 
which is constructed of steel and tile, is equipped with 
crusher, rolls, Dorr thickener, and 17 concentrating 
tables. The ore had been treated by flotation prior to 
1919, but that prosess is not now in use. No jigs are 
used and the concentrate recovered is exclusively a table 
product, though experiments that are being made will 
probably result in an increased quantity of ore being 
treated and in the installation of jigs to treat middling. 
The table concentrate, which assays about 32 to 33% of 
zinc, is treated by 13 Electric Ore Separating Co. ma- 
chines, which, by removing much of the pyrite, raise the 
zinc content to 49 to 53%. These electric machines treat 
wet concentrate, and to avoid the clogging of the riffles 
in the separator and ensure their proper operation it is 
necessary to remove by means of a powerful magnet all 
the small particles of metallic iron abraded from the 
rolls and crusher. 

The average zinc assay of the crude ore treated ranges 
from 15 to 20%, and the finished concentrate, which is 
practically free from lead, usually averages about 49%. 
The pyrite concentrate, which contains about 43% of 
sulphur, is in good demand when cars are available for 
its shipment. The developed bodies of ore are large, and 
it is probable that others will be found on the large tract 
owned by the Northern Ore Company. 

Almost every known gem is mined in Australia, but 
New South Wales leads all other States in the variety 
and value of precious stones produced. The black opal 
is said to be Australia's most beautiful gem, and it is 
claimed that Lightning Ridge, New South Wales, is the 
only part of the world known to produce it. The black 
opal has increased in value 300% in the last two years, 
the best quality bringing from £6 to £8 per carat. The 
stone ranges in size from 1 to 100 carats. Other stones 
of commercial importance found in Australia are the 
pearl, sapphire, diamond, emerald, ruby, topaz, and the 
turquoise. Of less value but of great beauty and bril- 
liance are the peridot, zircon, tourmaline, and the aqua- 
marine, which are found in New South Wales. 

.January 1, 1921 



Sundry Details of Sampling at the Garfield Smelter 

By Arthur B. Parsons 

An accurate determination of the exact amount of 
metal and other constituents in each lot of ore received 
at a custom smelter is necessary for two reasons: first, it 
is the basis of settlement between the smelting company 
and the shipper of the ore; second, upon the exact knowl- 
edge of what is in the ores received depends the intelli- 
gent operation of the furnaces. Both these factors are 
recognized by the American Smelting & Refining Co. as 
being vital to the success of its smelting enterprises; the 
company wishes to pay for all the metal in the ore, but 
it does not want to pay for anything that is not there, 
and inefficient methods are as liable to be in error on one 
side as on the other. The first and most difficult step in 
a determination of the true contents of a shipment of 
ore is the sampling; this is one of the most carefully 
organized and thoroughly equipped departments at the 
Garfield smelter of the American Smelting & Refining 
Co. In January 1919 there was completed the construc- 
tion of a new building in which is done the cutting-down 
of samples of crude ore coming from the sampling-mill 
together with the final preparation for the assay-office 
of all samples including ores, concentrates, by-products, 
and other material to be treated in the smelter. This 
building was designed after a careful study of the re- 

quirements, and included in its equipment are a number 
of devices that make it of particular interest. 

Another notable feature is the Martin unloading and 
sampling machine recently developed expressly for han- 
dling the concentrates, both from tables and from flota- 
tion-cells, shipped from the neighboring concentrators of 
the Utah Copper Co. Since this part of the process 
precedes the reduction of the samples in the 'bucking 
plant', as it is called, the Martin machine will be de- 
scribed first.* 

The old scheme for sampling shipments of concentrate 
was the simple, almost primitive, but reliable method of 
unloading the cars by shoveling onto a belt-conveyor, 
each fifteenth or twentieth shovelful being set aside on a 
conveniently placed platform, where it was later half- 
shoveled once, twice, or even more times, depending upon 
the number of carloads in the lot. 

The belt-conveyors and platforms were placed ad- 
vantageously so as to expedite the work. The sample 
so obtained could be depended upon, and, although the 
amount of manual labor required was considerable, it 

•The machine has been patented and the patent has been 
assigned by Mr. Martin to the American Smelting & Refin- 
ing Company. 




January 1, 1921 

was not deemed excessive. However, when notation be- 
gan to supplant the older methods of concentration a 
new problem appeared. Instead of the comparatively 
dry granular concentrates from tables and vanners, a 
material that was ideal for shoveling, there appeared a 
product more nearly like soft putty than any other fa- 
miliar substance. When the Arthur mill was completely 
equipped with flotation machines and operations were at 
the maximum, 12 to 15 ears of flotation concentrate were 
received daily at the smelter. It was hard to get men to 
work at all and it was still harder to get them to shovel 
this putty-like concentrate. It had to be chopped to get 
it on a shovel ; and by no means the least difficult opera- 
tion was to cause it to let go of the shovel when it was 
once on. The work at one timet was done under contract 
by Greek and Italian laborers, the prevailing price be- 
fore the War being 6 to 8 cents per ton, depending upon 
the moisture content and upon the amount of table-con- 
centrate mixed with the flotation product. It may be 
noted that at the present time only enough straight 
table-concentrate is reserved at the plants of the Utah 
Copper Co. to supply the needs of the sulphuric-acid 
plant at the smelter. This plant is operated under a 
joint agreement between the mining and smelting com- 
panies, so that it is mutually advantageous to make the 
separate shipment; although, except for the aeid plant, 
it would be better to mix all the table-concentrate with 
that from the flotation cells prior to the filtering process. 
This procedure gives a more porous cake on the vacuum- 
filters and consequently a drier one. Reverting to the 
coast of unloading by hand, it may be said that during 
1917 and 1918 the contract price increased to such an 
extent that 20 cents per ton was paid on some lots. Even 
then strikes caused continual trouble, and congestion of 
cars in the yards was frequent. Moreover, mixing and 
half-shoveling were difficult and a great deal of work 
was needed to get a satisfactory sample. 

Accordingly F. M. Martin, chief engineer for the com- 
pany, with the assistance of his staff, undertook to de- 
vise a mechanical process for unloading and sampling 
the flotation concentrate. Their efforts were successful. 
After the usual experimenting, altering, and adjusting, 
a suitable machine was developed. It makes a sample in 
which both vendor and vendee have entire -confidence ; 
it chops up the concentrate and puts it in better condi- 
tion to be conveyed to the bedding-bins; it is much 
quicker, and it is more economical. 

Inasmuch as 'the general scheme, besides many of the 
details, was worked out by Mr. Martin, the machine has 
been given his name. The first unit, a photograph of 
which is shown in Fig. 1, was put in operation in the 
spring of 1919. The illustration shows the mechanism 
before the housing was built about it. This housing, 
made of wood, protects the sampling-machinery from 
rain and snow, and is heated for the convenience of the 
operator during winter. A second machine has recently 

tAs described by T. A. Rickard in. the 'M. & S. P.' of 
^cember 28. 1918. 'The Utah Copper Enterprise, No. IX. 
The Smelting of the Concentrate'. 

been completed, the only difference being certain changes 
in the steel frame. A drawing giving the general ar- 
rangement is shown in Fig. 2. 

The method of operation is as follows: The concen- 
trate is brought in flat-bottomed steel railroad-cars, hold- 
ing 75 tons, to tracks on either side of the platform on 
which the unloader operates. The entire machine is 
mounted on a traveling gauntry, which is moved by an 
electric motor as the car is unloaded ; in fact, the gauntry- 
track is so long that a train of five ears can be unloaded 
without the need for any switching. The actual unload- 
ing is done by a li-yd. Williams clam-shell bucket so ar- 
ranged that it can operate in cars on either side of the 
gauntry-track, its load in either event being discharged 
in a central hopper at the top of the machine. The 
bucket has square-nosed shells and empties the car- al- 
most completely without assistance from hand-shovelers. 
The receiving hopper has a capacity of about 20 tons ; in 
order to prevent packing too tightly, the force of the 
fall of the material from the clam-shell is broken by 
steel I-beams, spaced 3 ft. and resting over the top of 
the hopper. 

The bottom of the hopper, 9 ft. square, consists of a 
rubber belt supported by, and traveling slowly with, an 
endless conveyor composed of wooden slats, 2 by 4 in., 
reinforced on the under side by 4-in. steel channels, these 
slats being carried on roller-chains. The speed of ad- 
vance of the belt is variable, depending on the character 
and condition of the concentrate. It forces a continuous 
layer of concentrate through a horizontal space about 
six inches high across the 9-ft. width of the hopper just 
above the surface of the belt. A belt 9 ft. wide is un- 
usual; the belts so far used were made specially by the 
B. F. Goodrich company by being placed crosswise in the 
press. They are six-ply and have a ^-in. pure rubber sur- 
face. It was planned at first to have them endless, but 
as this would necessitate tearing the machine to pieces 
when replacement was required, the ends of the belt 
were joined by a square-lapped splice made with copper 
revets. The only visible wear after operation for a year 
is some snagging resulting from scraps of steel or iron 
that accidentally got into the concentrate. 

The essential part of the scheme comes nexfr. It is a 
'chopping' device that meets the advancing layer of con- 
centrate as it comes off the belt and cuts it into wide 
ribbons about J in. thick. The arrangement consists of 
a central shaft at right-angles to the 'flow' of the con- 
centrate on which are mounted 11 equally spaced discs, 
15 in. diam., dividing the shaft into ten 12-in. sections. 
Threaded through \-m. holes in each of these discs, near 
the circumference are 12 wires that are fastened on one 
of the end discs and are tightened and kept taut by small 
ratchets on the outside of the disc at the opposite end. 
As the cylinder revolves, the wires, of No. 12 spring 
steel, do most of the cutting, although the discs obviously 
cut the ribbons into sections. Smaller wire was tried at 
first, but the continual abrasion wo;re it out in a few 
dsys. No. 12 does better -work than -larger -wire, and 
lasts from three to six weeks, depending on conditions. 

January l, 192] 



Revolving below the falling stream 
of 'chopped* concentrate with its 
axis parallel tu the disc-shaft is a 
hollow cylindrical iron drum :jo in. 
diam. along the entire length of 
which is a lti-in. opening; that is, 
a portion of the circumferential sur- 
face is eut away. As this drum re- 
volyes, a fractional part, a tenth, 
of the concentrate falls through 
the opening onto a small 12-in. belt- 
conveyor traveling in the direction 
of the axis of the drum, while the 
remainder falls to the principal 24- 
in. belt-conveyor, by which the re- 
ject, after a series of transfers, is 
delivered to the bedding-bins. A 
precaution that has assisted smooth 
operation is the sanding of the belt- 
conveyor before the concentrate 
reaches it. A small portion of a 
peculiar linie-sand obtained from a 
deposit near Great Salt Lake is re- 
quired for fluxing. Accordingly, 
the storage-bin for this sand is so 
placed that a quantity flows onto 
the belt before it passes under the 
Martin machine. The sticky con- 
centrate falls upon the sand and 
the difficulty of removing it is les- 
sened. The same belt system was 
utilized for unloading by hand be- 
fore the Martin machine was built. 
To prevent concentrate sticking to 
the drum, a simple wire scraper is 
placed near the bottom just over 
the belt-conveyor. All parts of the 
machine are designed on the prin- 
ciple that the concentrate must 
drop vertically onto a moving belt ; 
no matter how steep the incline, a 
chute will not do, because of the 
unavoidable accumulation of the 
extremely sticky material. 

The small belt-conveyor within 
the drum carries a one-tenth cut of 
the entire bulk of concentrate. At 
its discharge end is a smaller and 
simpler wire chopper and a similar 
drum, which takes a further cut of 
one in fifteen, this sample being 
carried on a 10-in. belt-conveyor to 
an ordinary one-ton mine-car. The 
car is attached to the housing of 
the machine and travels in com- 
pany with it during the unloading 
of a railroad-car. A new sample- 
car is used for each 75-ton car of 
concentrate unloaded. The ma- 



January 1, 1921 

chine is operated by direct-current motors at 250 volts. 
When the Garfield smelter was built, direct current 
was used exclusively and with a few exceptions it is 
used today. A 25-hp. motor controls the travel of the 
gauntry, a series-wound 5-hp. motor propels the carriage 
for moving the bucket crosswise. These are all operated 
from the crane-man's cab. The sampling machinery is 
all run through gear and sprocket-chain connections by a 
variable-speed, 600 to 1800 r.p.m., shunt-wound motor. 
With flotation concentrate a slower speed is required. 
To protect the mechanism against breakage in the event 
of excessive feed, a shearing-pin disc is inserted in the 
transmission system. 

In addition to the flotation product, the Martin ma- 
chine is used to unload and sample the table-concentrate, 
which is received in lots of four or five cars, at intervals 
of two or three days, to supply the acid-plant, as pre- 
viously mentioned. This material is handled much more 
rapidly, though quite satisfactorily, and the expense of 
building a machine would be warranted even if there 
were no flotation concentrate to treat. Small lots of 
concentrate from miscellaneous sources are still sampled 
by the old method, that is, by reserving the fifteenth or 
twentieth shovelful and subsequently half-shoveling; the 
point is that the Martin machine is peculiarly adapted 
for large lots of concentrate of comparatively uniform 
grade, where no cleaning of the equipment is required 
when changing from one shipment to the next. The 
moisture in the flotation concentrate varies between 15 
and 25%, the rate of operation of the machine varying 
with the comparative dryness. 

Utah Copper concentrate is being unloaded at the rate 
of one car, or 75 tons, per hour at a cost of approximately 
10c. per ton, including labor, power, supplies, repairs, 
and depreciation. 

The ear-samples, weighing approximately half a ton, 
are cut down to lot-samples of 75 to 100 lb. in a separate 
room. There are 38 covered bins along two sides of this 
room, each of which has a capacity of five or six tons of 
concentrate; these bins are just below the level of the 
track on which the one-ton sample-cars run, and they 
open on a lower working-floor entirely covered with ^-in. 
steel sheets. The samples from all the cars, from three 
to six, in a given lot are first shoveled by hand out of the 
bin; the pile is then moved by half-shoveling, the re- 
jected portion going into wheelbarrows and thence to a 
small hopper feeding a belt-conveyor which joins that 
going to the bedding-bins. The sample is then coned and 
quartered by hand in the usual way by means of a sheet- 
steel cross until the resultant sample weighs about 100 
lb. ; it is then put in a covered galvanized-iron can and 
taken to the bucking-room for treatment, as will be de- 
tailed later. 

The sampling-mill is a well organized department 
where the usual precautions are taken in crushing and 
cutting a sample of from 800 to 2000 lb. of crude ore re- 
duced to quarter-inch. There is nothing particularly 
novel in the procedure, however, up to the point where 
this large sample is delivered to the newly built bucking- 

plant. This building has a floor-space of 100 by 64 ft. 
and is built throughout of reinforced concrete, with an 
exceptionally large window-area, the walls being almost 
entirely of glass. On the ground-floor are the crusher, 
rolls, the equipment for mixing and cutting, and storage 
space for the rejects ; on the upper floor are the drying- 
cabinets, pulverizers, and bucking-boards, the last, as a 
matter of fact, being used very little, although the whole 
is known as the bucking department. There are also con- 
venient glass-enclosed rooms for the use of the repre- 
sentatives of the ore-sellers when observing the sampling 

Samples from the sampling-mill are received in cars 
on the upper bench, where, after being dampened, if 
necessary, they are fed by gravity into either of two 12 
by 24-in. rolls made by the Mine & Power Machinery 
Co., the crushed material falling into a specially de- 
signed hopper-bottomed sample-buggy. This buggy is 
made of sheet-iron, is 33 in. square and 35 in. high over 
all, as shown in the accompanying sketch, Fig. 3. On 
each side at the top is a hook by means of which the car 
can be conveniently and quickly engaged by a sling 
hanging from a one-ton suspended Detroit electric crane, 
which runs to any part of the room on a series of over- 
head tracks and turntables. The buggy can likewise be 
moved about on the floor on four small wheels, two of 
which are swiveled. The hopper-bottom of the first 
buggy was made like an inverted pyramid, but it was 
found that an inverted gable was better for the purpose, 
and the present buggies or cars are shaped that way. A 
small arc-gate fitted along the entire vertex of this V- 
shaped bottom permits the contents of the suspended car 
to be emptied in a small uniform stream. There are five 
such buggies in the equipment. The buggy containing a 
crushed sample is lifted by the crane and carried to a 
point above a second buggy, fitted with a specially-made 
6-mesh screen, fashioned like a shallow funnel. The 
arc-gate is opened and the ore runs in a sheet-like stream. 
By whirling the suspended buggy the ore is scattered 
over the screen and a little manipulation helps the under- 
size through. The oversize is poured into a wheelbarrow 
and fed to a Rodgers bell-grinder. This discharges di- 
rectly into the second buggy, which has been rolled a 
short distance to be under the spout. 

The next step is to mix the sample. Here again two 
buggies with a large funnel are used, three transfers 
being usually sufficient to thoroughly mix the 6-mesh ma- 
terial. The operation is thorough, rapid, and economical. 
After the third mix a one-inch split riffle is attached to 
the bottom of the suspended buggy by suitable hooks, so 
that when the gate is next opened only half of the ore 
goes into the buggy beneath, the remainder being di- 
verted into an iron reject-can. This is repeated until a 
sample of 75 or 80 lb. is obtained ready for further re- 
duction in the bucking-room upstairs. The exact pro 
eedure will depend on the approximate grade of the ma- 
terial being sampled but the variation will be unimpor- 
tant. The resulting sample is an improvement over that 
obtained by the former methods of coning and quarter- 

January 1, 1921 



4 ft. It in. 

U / ft. lOtin. *\ 

Fig. 3. details of sampling-buggy 

ing by hand ; being largely mechanical, it avoids many of 
the vagaries that may result from the personal equation, 
and at the same time is in accord with the principles on 
which fair sampling is based ; moreover, it is rapid and 
economical, particularly in respect to the labor required. 
An interesting point is the care taken of the rejects 
pending the final settlement. Instead of the customary 
wooden box, a clean tightly-covered sheet-iron can is 
used; there are 100 of these, 36 in. high and 30 in. diam., 
eacli mounted on a low wooden stand made of 2-in. plank, 
and with a clearance between the supports of approxi- 
mately 4 in. from the floor. The purpose of this stand 
is to permit the use of a li-ton Stu Bing lift-truck, an 
ingenious contrivance borrowed from other industries, 
but well adapted for the work of moving the heavy re- 
ject-cans. The operator runs the truck under the stand 

and by means of a foot-lever lifts the whole load about an 
inch off the floor. After moving it to the desired point, 
the same simple mechanism lowers the stand and can to 
the floor. Another contrivance is a home-made dumper 
for reject-cans when they are released by the final set- 
tlement on the samples that they contain. It consists of 
a wood and strip-iron frame into which the can fits, and 
which is hinged to the edge of a small hopper that feeds 
a bucket-elevator. This elevator, just outside the build- 
ing, delivers the reject directly into a railroad-car. The 
Detroit crane is used to dump the cans into the hopper 
after they have been suitably harnessed to the frame. 

The bucking-room upstairs is divided by means of glass 
partitions into four sections, each for a definite class of 
samples. Each has practically the same equipment, the 
following segregation of the work being made: (1) regu- 




January 1, 1921 

lar miscellaneous ores; (2) ores rich in silver; (3) ores 
rich in copper, matte, and other hy-products; and (4) 
Utah Copper Co. 's concentrates. The manipulation of a 
sample of regular ore will be described. The 75-lb. sam- 
ple is put through a 12-mesh screen, the oversize being 
crushed in a Rodgers bell-grinder until the entire sample 
has passed the screen. This crusher can successfully 
grind material that is somewhat damp. Instead of a 
cloth, a 16-in. cubical box of galvanized iron with a small 
door or gate at one corner is used as a mixer. This cube 
is placed in a lathe-like machine that revolves it at about 
20 r.p.m., two opposite corners forming the axis of revo- 
lution. After mixing for from two to five minutes the 
sample is cut to a bulk of approximately 60 oz. by means 
of a f-in. Jones riffle, and is then dried. Each section is 
equipped with a drying-cabinet composed of a series of 
shelves made of steam-pipes, and fitted with 12 separate 
doors. A Bristol recording thermometer is attached to 
each drier, the line of standard temperature, 230°F., 
being closely followed at all times. The dried sample is 
then ground in a McCool pulverizer, a disc machine with 
an accentric motion ; any oversize on a 120-mesh screen is 
either run through the pulverizer a second time or is 
ground by hand on an ordinary bucking-board. The 
final mixing is done in a small 8-in. revolving cube simi- 
lar to the one previously mentioned. When revolved at 
slow speed this mixer does remarkably good work, one 
point in its favor being the absence of a tendency to 
classification, which is frequently found when mixing is 
done improperly on a cloth. An advantage is that the 
mixing is uniformly good, providing the cube is kept 
revolving for the specified time ; the result is not affected 
by carelessness or inexperience on the part of the man 
doing the work. After mixing, the sample is divided 
into the required number of portions for analysis by the 
vendor of the ore and by the smelting company, for um- 
pires, and for extras. 

I am indebted to A. H. Richards, general superinten- 
dent of the Garfield smelter, for his kindness in authoriz- 
ing the publication of these notes, and to N. L. Stewart, 
chief engineer at the plant, for courteous assistance in 
supplying me with detailed information. 

The Broken Hill Strike 

The Broken Hill strike, said to be the longest in his- 
tory, has at length come to an end. "When the last mail 
left New South- Wales, about the middle of November, 
work had been resumed at one mine, but it was expected 
to be several weeks before operations could be got 
into full swing at all of the mines. Since the special 
tribunal appointed to settle the dispute gave its decision 
a couple of months ago, several conferences and contro- 
versies have taken place between the men and the com- 
panies as to just what the decision meant and on other 
matters, but an understanding, at least for the time 
being, had been arrived at, and the mines were ready for 
active work as soon as circumstances permitted. There 
are questions still outstanding, but both sides have been 

so 'filled up' with this strike, which has lasted between 17 
and 18 months and is estimated to have cost the nation 
about £12,000,000, that there is not expected to be any 
more striking for a long time. Another thing that makes 
this less likely is that the stringency of the money market 
throughout Australia is beginning to cause unemploy- 
ment, and the time is believed to be approaching when 
all workmen will think more seriously than they have 
done in the past before throwing up regular and well- 
paid occupation. 

Will This Work? 

The question as to what shall be done with our dumps 
has long been a subject of discussion in mining and other 
circles, says 'The South African M. & E. J.' The low 
gold content of the residues, especially of recent years, 
due to improved metallurgical processes, has made the 
question of re-treatmeht of the dumps a remote possi- 
bility only. In any case the re-treatment of sorted 
residues containing one pennyweight or less has not 
hitherto been attempted on the Rand. A brief descrip- 
tion of a novel plan is here given in order that our read- 
ers may understand the nature of the process and be 
enabled to form their own opinions as to its value. Seem- 
ingly it is based on Rittinger's law of concentration of 
particles of differing specific gravity in water. The sand 
is acted upon by water under a pressure of 35 lb. per 
square inch, and is thereby thrown into the atmosphere ; 
in its descent the particles of different low gravity become 
separated and fall in layers. The heavier concentrate, 
which contains most of the gold, is collected and passed 
over Wilfley tables for final concentration, after which the 
recovered concentrate will be ground fine in tube-mills, 
or treated direct with cyanide to extract the gold; the 
other portion of the concentrate will be roasted for the 
ultimate recovery and the manufacture of sulphuric 
acid. A unit of three machines will treat about 1200 
tons of sand per day, the concentrate from which will 
give from 12 to 25 tons per day for Wilfley-table treat- 
ment. Should the sand be refractory, roasting of the 
concentrate may be done, or fine grinding, which will 
have nearly the same effect so far as regards the extrac- 
tion of the gold. The residue remaining after the treat- 
ment for the recovery of the gold will be further treated 
for the extraction of sulphuric acid, and with the very 
large tonnage to be treated daily this will form a con- 
siderable source of revenue, as the acid is in demand for 
many purposes on the Rand and elsewhere, as, for in- 
stance, in reduction works and in explosive-factories. 
The sand, it is claimed, will, by the process, be completely 
purged of its cyanide, and will then be amenable to 
treatment for the manufacture of bricks, concrete, etc., 
thereby affording a third useful industry. The pyrite 
residue can also be sold at a profit. Of the claims ad- 
vanced we shall soon have demonstrable proof, since a 
new company is about to start treating at least one large 
dump near Johannesburg, and has on hand contracts 
for the treatment of millions of tons of residue. 


January 1. 1921 





imnith Hunan i ujmuui iiiiiiimiiiiiHliiimiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiirimiiHr tiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiirliiiiiiiirliiiiiiHiliiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 



Clifton. — Final payment to the Stargo Silver Belt 
Mining Co. on 26 claims was made on December 16 by the 
Stargo Jlines, Inc. It is announced by George J. Stone- 
man, president of the company., that the erection of the 
50-ton cyanide plant will be delayed and that .+50,00(1 
•will be spent immediately in developing the lower levels 
of the mine. It is hoped that the development will 
justify the erection of a 100-ton plant the latter part of 
1921. Milling tests on the ore have been made by the 
General Engineering Co. of Salt Lake City and the 
plans for the mill are complete. The Stargo Mines, Inc., 
has shipped high-grade silver-gold ore continuously for 
15 months to the smelter at Douglas. The stockholders 
of the company are residents of Arizona. 

The Sierra De Oro Mining Co. has been sold at Sheriffs 
sale to D. M. Potter for $22,338 and costs. This prop- 
erty consists of 17 patented claims and a large acreage 
of patented and unpatented land on the San Francisco 
river, including water-rights and placer deposits, and 
adjoins the Copper King property of the Phelps Dodge 
Corporation. The development consists of a 2000-ft. 
tunnel which if continued should cut the vein system at 
a depth of approximately 1000 ft. below the outcrop. 

Jerome. — The Jerome Superior Copper Co. has been 
closed down since December 13 and the shaft allowed to 
fill with water to the 700-ft. level. A legal fight for con- 
trol of the company has been launched by a group of Los 
Angeles stockholders w T ho filed complaints with the Ari- 
zona Corporation Commission charging George Mitchell, 
manager, and M. P. Frasier, president, with mismanage- 
ment. The Commission in its filing upon the case has 
urged the stockholders to . settle their difficulties and 
called attention to a provision of the civil code charging 
the Commission to communicate with the attorney-gen- 
eral to apply to the courts for the appointment of a re- 
ceiver where it appears that the business of an invest- 
ment company is being conducted in an unsafe and un- 
authorized manner. 

Kingman. — Drifting toward the ore-shoot on the 350- 
ft. level of the I.X.L. mine is now under way, the station 
and sump having been completed a few days ago. The 
ore opened on the upper levels has been sufficiently plen- 
tiful to warrant confidence in continuation at depth. The 
I.X.L. vein is reported as being the largest in the district, 
being 40 ft. wide in some places. Very rich ore is re- 
ported as having been opened in a winze on the 185-ft. 

level of tlir Goldeja Star mine at Mineral Park. A re'- 
cent shipment of ore to the Humboldt smelter yielded 
satisfactory returns and shipments will be continued; A 
large tonnage of good mill-ore is reported as having been 

Miami. — Full operations at the Van Dyke Copper Co. 
are now to be resumed as a result of the increased, power 
recently made available by the local power plant. Dur- 
ing the past two months only sufficient power to keep the 
mine open has been at hand. Lateral exploration is to 
be continued at two horizons ; at the 1220-ft. level where 
the station and ore-pocket have been cut and 150 ft. of 
drifting has been done; and at the 1550-ft. level where 
only 50 ft. of drifting has been done. All this work has 
been done in the two ore-horizons indicated by the shaft 
and diamond-drill work. The upper ore-zone is copper 
carbonate and the lower is disseminated chalcocite. It is 
the policy of the company to push development work at 
both levels. 

Oatman. — Since the connection by the United Amer- 
ican with the Tom Reed drift on the Aztec vein a sta- 
tion is being cut in the ore-shoot preparatory to sinking a 
winze to prove the depth of the ore recently opened. It 
is reported that this orebody is 300 ft. long and 30 in. 
wide and will average about $100 per ton in gold. 

Prescott. — The Howard Copper Co. has acquired a 
two-thirds interest in the Olive, South Extension of R & 
H, and Alice claims from J. J. Fagan of Phoenix, trustee 
for the owners, for $70,000. The claims are situated in 
the Black Canyon district. While undeveloped the 
claims are said to be promising prospects. 

Superior. — It is reported that as a result of the recent 
visit of Messrs. Stephen, McKay, Smith, and Defty, the 
promoters of the Queen Creek Copper Co., new and more 
powerful machinery for development work is to be in- 
stalled. Arrangements for power have been made with 
the Superior Light & Power Co. The ore of the Queen 
Creek mine carries gold and copper, and development, 
which has been under way for several years, is reported 
to have opened a considerable quantity of pre. 



Houghton. — November production figures for the 
Calumet & Hecla group of mines shows a decrease of 
■616,739 lb. from the October total. .While the curtail- 
ment program became effective November 16, several 



January 1, 1921 

weeks elapsed before the new schedule became fully 
operative and the results will not be noted until the De- 
cember figures are announced. November production 
was 7,326,763 lb. of refined copper. It is estimated that 
a decrease of at least 1,000,000 lb. will be revealed by 
the December figures, due to the closing of Osceola, 
Allouez, LaSalle, and White Pine. 

Copper Range will close the year with finances and 
copper on hand about the same as at the end of 1919. 
It is expected that production for December will show 
a slight increase due to additional men employed at all 
three mines. Champion, Baltic, and Trimountain. The 
yield from these mines shows no material change from 
month to month and the average for the year will be 
about on a par with that of last year. Champion rock 
averages about 36 lb. of refined copper per ton, Baltic 
about 33, and Trimountain 24. Costs are estimated 
about 15c. per pound and at the present price of copper 
the property cannot do much more than break even. 
Normally, Copper Range should produce copper at about 
10c. per pound. The company has no fixed policy in 
regard to 'openings', but keeps well ahead of immediate 
requirements. During the period of curtailment, open- 
ings will be vigorously extended and the property placed 
in the best physical condition to meet increased produc- 
tion when the market strengthens. Copper Range finds 
that its mechanical devices are operating satisfactorily 
and it is expected they will make a material difference 
in costs, at the same time making possible a greater out- 
put. The introduction of mechanical scrapers and shov- 
els, in fact, is the biggest accomplishment of the year 
in the Lake district. 

Repairs have been completed in No. 4 shaft, Wolver- 
ine, and the mine is again 'hitting its stride' in produc- 
tion. Output for the past week has been averaging 900 
tons per day. No. 4 shaft was out of use for several 
weeks to permit the replacing of concrete supports by 
timber between the 30th and 32nd levels. The shaft- 
pillars in this part of the property are being removed 
from the 38th level upward, and the yield per ton' in re- 
fined copper is holding near 17 lb. The removal of 
arches and backs of stopes, and the widening out of 
drifts to both walls of the vein, continue. The showing 
in No. 3 shaft is favorable and the result will be a ma- 
terial increase in copper output this month. 'Rock' 
shipments now are sufficient to keep two heads in the 
Wolverine mill in continual operation. 

In its No. 2 shaft, Quincy is penetrating territory, 
south and under the shaft, acquired from the Hancock 
Consolidated in 1915. The lode is uniformly mineral- 
ized and rich in mass and barrel copper. The new shaft 
recently put in operation at No. 2, with a hoisting ca- 
pacity of 13,500 ft., will materially aid in the deeper de- 
velopment of this shaft and lengthen its life a great 
many years. Production of the mine is now on a 60% 
basis and there will be no further curtailment. Pro- 
duction for the year will show a considerable falling off 
from that of 1919. During the early months of the year 
the property was affected by a shortage of labor, a con- 

dition which prevailed throughout the district, and of 
late months the low metal market has contributed to a 
lessened output. Last year Quincy produced 19,476,- 
770 lb. of refined copper, over 2,000,000 lb. less than 
normal. Quincy, however, is in a position to readily take 
advantage of an advance in the price of copper. It has 
openings in excess of 100 miles in ground that will av- 
erage 17 lb. of refined copper per ton, and in at least 
two shafts, No. 2 and 8, the 'rock' is increasing in cop- 
per content. Improvements in hoisting-equipment, un- 
derground electric haulage, new re-grinding machinery, 
increased capacity of stamp-heads, reduction of loss in 
tailing, and extensive changes in the smelting-plant will 
enable the management to quickly increase production 
when needed and contribute to a lessening of costs. 



Eureka. — The Eureka Croesus produced to June 1 
of this year from new workings, 4814 tons of ore of a 
gross value of $311,806, or $64.47 per ton, according to 
a report to stockholders written in September and made 
public now. The metallic content per ton was 0.68 oz. 
gold, 24 oz. silver, and 16% lead. Freight and treat- 
ment charges totaled $10 to $19 per ton. The cost of 
mining was $93,904 and the operating expense $85,194. 
"The greatly increased cost of labor, freight, machinery, 
supplies, and material of every kind makes necessary 
the erection at the mine of a plant for treating medium 
and low-grade ore," says the report. A method has 
been perfected for treating this ore, "of which we have 
enough to keep a plant in operation for years". The 
directors have authorized the sale of $1,500,000 worth 
of additional treasury stock to finance the plant. 

Manhattan. — The report of W. L. Taylor, general 
superintendent of the White Caps, covering operations 
from May 13 to December 9, shows that 1955 ft. of de- 
velopment work was done during the period. Mr. Tay- 
lor says that work on and between the 600 and 800-ft. 
levels in the east orebody "indicates a probable tonnage 
of 15,000 to 20,000 tons of ore of an average value of 
about $18 per ton". A cross-cut to a faulted segment 
of the White Caps limestone on the 550-ft. level has ex- 
posed ore 41 ft. long, 12 ft. wide, and assaying $22.90. 
The report says work is being done in this territory in a 
search for other orebodies and that, when this has been 
completed, work will be done to explore these bodies on 
the 310 and 800-ft. levels, which are 700 ft. apart on the 
dip of the vein. When this orebody has been opened 
on the 800 and 310-ft. levels the company should be able 
to resume milling at a profit, according to the report. 
It is expected to complete the work by June 1 of next 
year. The largest business houses in Manhattan were 
burned recently with a loss estimated at $30,000. The 
mines were not damaged. 

DrviDE. — A meeting of stockholders in the East Divide 
has been called for January 15 to consider increasing the 
capital stock from 1,500,000 to 2,000,000 shares, the ad- 

January 1, 1921 



ditional stock to be sold and the funds to lw used for 
further work. The company, from the bottom of a 400- 
ft. shaft, has done 1400 ft. of lateral work since October 
1918. The main cross-cut, driven east, is 645 ft. long, 
■with north and south drifts at the 480-ft. point. The 
south drift, on the foot-wall of a vein 45 ft. wide, lias 
bedn driven 245 ft. Important results have not been 
obtained, but general conditions are regarded as justi- 
fying much further work. The south drift is to be con- 
tinued, the vein in which it is driven to be prospected at 
a depth of 200 ft., and sinking of the shaft may be re- 

(YrRiTE. — The Foster Mines Co. has leased for 50 
years 300 acres containing a silica deposit and, starting 

tremely fine dust will Bottle. The tube and tower will 
contain boxes into which the various grades will settle, 
the finest being farthest from the blower. The Hardinge 
mill will be used to grind the coarser air-floated material 
in the tube so as to produce quickly the finer grades when 
there is a demand for them exceeding the production 
direct from the crusher product. Various grades of 
silica are used in many industries and the latest use for 
it is in the manufacture of 'woodstone', made by mixing 
wood pulp, silica, and cement. This is used in making 
sinks and similar articles. Silica also is used in making 
brick, for abrading purposes, as a wood filler, in the 
manufacture of porcelain, paints, scouring-soap, and in 
making art-glass, pottery, fused-silica ware, and as an 


on a small scale, Ernest D. Foster, manager, says he 
hopes eventually to ship 5000 tons of refined silica 
monthly. Belgian silica-sand of a grade that is used in 
the manufacture of glass is being laid down at San 
Pedro, California, for $6.50 per ton, according to Foster, 
who says he does not expect to be able to compete with 
this until he can assure the railroads enough business to 
jusitfy a lower freight-rate, but he does expect to be 
able to make a profit of $5 to $7 per ton on air-floated 
silica such as is used in the manufacture of paint. The 
deposit, 2| miles from the railroad, is pure white, soft, 
breaks easily, with 25% going into 300 to 400-mesh ma- 
terial. He plans to erect a plant consisting of a crusher, 
wire-cloth screens, an 'air-flotation' machine, and a 
Hardinge conical 6-ft. silex-lined pebble-mill. The flota- 
tion machine, specially designed, will consist of a conical 
tube set horizontally, into which the fine silica will be 
blown from the smaller aperture after being crushed 
and screened, and a 30 or 40-ft. tower in which the ex- 

insulator of electricity, for which it is far superior to 



Salt Lake City. — During 1920, the metal-mining 
companies of Utah paid the following dividends : 

Cardiff Mining Co., Big Cottonwood $ 75,000 

Chief Con. Mining Co., Eureka 353,692 

Daly Mining Co., Park City 45,000 

Daly West Mining Co., Park City : 225,000 

Dragon Con. Mining Co., Eureka 37,500 

Eagle & Blue Bell Co., Eureka 311,605 

Grand Central Mining Co., Eureka 42,000 

Iron Blossom Mining Co., Eureka 50,000 

Judge Mining & Smelting Co., Park City 180,000 

Tintic Standard Mining Co., Eureka 469,880 

Utah Apex Mining Co., Bingham 150,000 

Utah Copper Co., Bingham 9,746,940 

Total $11,686,617 



. January 1,: 1921 

The mineral output Of Utah during the past year was 
about: the same as for 1919, in spite. of a constantly de- 
clining market, priee for lead and copper. According to 

! preliminary figures, the gold output' of the State during 
1920 was 89,750 oz.,' as compared with 104.464 oz. for 

: the previous year. The output of silver is estimated at 
11.839.621 oz., as against 11,649,961 oz. Had it not been 
for the Piffman Act. which stabilized the price of silver 
at $1 per ounce, this figure for 1920 would have been 
considerably less. The copper production for 1920 is 
estimated at 115,000.000 lb., as compared with 124,061,- 
087 lb. for 1919. Practically all of the copper produced 
in Utah during the past year came from the Utah Cop- 
per mine at Bingham ; the output of this property being 
estimated at 5,800,000 tons, with a gross production of 
106,500,000 lb. The lead output during 1920 is esti- 
mated at 146,002,000 lb., as compared with 123,829,051 
lb. for 1919. The production of recoverable zinc will 
probably be about the same as for 1919, or about 4,500,- 
000 lb. The four smelters in the State were in operation 
throughout the year, on a reduced basis. High prices 
for silver and lead during the early part of the year 
stimulated the mining of those metals, but with the out- 
law switchmen's strike in April and May, the smelters 
were unable to handle consignments, with the result that 
embargoes were placed on most of the large producers. 
This unfortunate condition existed for some time, with 
the result that operations were necessarily curtailed at 
the mines at a time when the metal markets were favor- 
able to the operators. During the last six months of the 
year, with constantly declining prices for silver, lead, 
and copper, production began to fall off in every dis- 
trict in the State ; and when freight-rates were increased 
on August 26, the smelters immediately increased their 
rates, which added a further hardship on the small pro- 
ducers. During the latter part of October, the Public 
Utilities Commission compelled all of the mining com- 
panies holding special contracts for power-service with 
the Utah Power & Light Co. to accept such service on 
schedule rates, which were from 50 to 100% higher than 
contract rates. As. a result of this decision, the Judge 
electrolytic smelter at Park City, the only plant of its 
kind in the State, suspended operations. The new zinc- 
oxide plant at Murray will be ready for operation early 
in the new year, which will undoubtedly stimulate the 
mining of zinc ores in this State since the Grasselli 
Chemical Co. withdrew from the local field some months 
ago. At the close of the year, production of all the im- 
portant metals is about at its lowest ebb, but as most of 
the large producers of lead and copper have been doing 
considerable development work during the past 12 
months, their . properties are in a position to increase 
output easily as soon- as metal-market conditions justify. 
A meeting of operators of lead mines in Utah was 
held at the office of the Utah Chapter of the America 
Mining Congress on December 21. A resolution was 
adopted, urging Congress to pass a higher protective 
tariff on lead. The present tariff is three-quarters cent 
per pound. Owing to the large stocks of the. metal in 

Europe, which was purchased from this cbuntrj" during 
the War, and attracted by the price of eight cents per 
pound some months ago v this < anetal • started • coming 
back to the United States. With lead at five cents per 
pound, even the largest producers in this State are hav- 
ing a hard time to make both ends meet, and the Utah 
Apex property at Bingham > the' largest producer of the 
metal in the State, has closed down. The committee ap- 
pointed to present the resolution to Congress was com- 
prised of Ernest Bamberger, W. Mont' Ferry, Fred 
Cowans, E. J. Raddatz, Imer Pett, and G. W; Lam- 

Eureka. — With the payment of its dividend on De- 
cember 23, the stockholders of the Tintie Standard Min- 


ing Co. received a brief report, covering operations 
during the third quarter of the year. During that period 
there was shipped 31,090 tons, with a gross value of 
$1,353,421, and after deducting freight and smelter 
charges, the net return was $697,305. There was opened 
on the 1100-ft. level a large stope of ore, as well as one 
on the 1250-ft. level, while stope No. 5 on the 1200-ft. 
level is increasing in size and the ore in value. During 
the week ending December 18, the company shipped 69 
cars of ore, approximately 3100 tons. This is the largest 
weekly output of ore from any one mine in the history 
of this district, the nearest approach having been 66 cars 
shipped by the Chief Consolidated in the early part of 
1920. The Tintie Standard now has 275 men in its 
mine, the largest number in its career, while 125 men 
are engaged in the construction of the new milling plant 
at WaiTQ Creek. The process to be used is identical with 
that in successful operation in the chloridizing-roasting 
plant of the Tintie Milling Company. 

January 1. I9fll 






Prince Rupert. — Heavy snowstorms closed the Dolly 
Varden-Alice Arm railway on December 16. About 
27,000 tons of ore containing more than a million ounces 
of silver has been shipped from the mine. Though 
shipping has been stopped until next May, mining and 
development operations will be continued, and between 
70 and 100 men will be employed. There was between 
three and four thousand tons of ore ready for shipment 
when the railway closed, and, as this quantity will be 
greatly increased during the winter, it is expected that 
the output of the mine next year will be nearly double 
that of the past year. The railway has been greatly im- 
proved during the past season, and its capacity has been 
practically doubled. The new hydro-electric plant was 
put into operation last week. This plant will supply 
both the Dolly Yarden and the Wolf mines with power. 
The first unit has a capacity of 500 kw. ; other units will 

pea red on the list for the first time this year with a ship- 
ment of 1!) tons. The Josie mine, at liusslund. perhaps 
better known as Le Koi No. 2. closed down fur an indefi- 
nite period on December 4. During the present year the 
mine has shipped nearly 12.000 tons of ore to Trail, and 
its closing cuts off practically the last supply of copper 
ore, except that received from the company's own Ross- 
land mines, so the probabilities are that when the present 
supply of ore is smelted the copper department at the 
smelter will close. 

Greenwood. — The Providence mine, which has been 
shipping on an average about 40 tons of high-grade ore 
per week to Trail, has been closed temporarily. A com- 
pressor has been purchased, and when this is in place 
it is thought that it will reduce the cost of mining suffi- 
ciently to justify re-opening the mine. The ore is rich 
in silver, and the slump in the price of that metal is the 
reason for closing the property. 

Antox. — By a vote of 750 to 175 the employees of the 
Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting & Power Co. de- 
cided to accept the new wage-rate offered by the com- 


be added as increased power is needed. Water-rights 
capable of developing 8000 hp. have been secured, and 
other mines in the district will be supplied with power. 
The Granby Consolidated M. S. & P. Co. has made a re- 
duction of 75c. per day in its wage-scale. When work- 
ing at capacity the company gives employment to more 
than 1000 men. 

Vancouver. — The provincial branch of the Canadian 
Institue of Mining and Metallurgy will hold its spring 
meeting in this city on February 9, 10, and 11. H. 
Mortimer Lamb is chairman of the executive committee, 
which includes G. C. Mackenzie and R. W. Brock. A 
number of papers have been promised. 

Trail. — The Consolidated M. & S. Co. continues to 
maintain the rate of output from its mines. Out of a 
total of 9093 tons of ore received at the smelter during 
the second week in December, 8126 tons came from the 
company's mines. The other important producers were: 
Bluebell, Riondel, 220 tons; Josie, Rossland, 285; and 
North Star, Kimberley, 165. Society Girl, Moyie, ap- 

pany. H. S. Munroe told the men definitely when the 
proposal was put to them that the company could not 
carry on business under existing conditions at the pres- 
ent price of copper, and that in the event of their re- 
fusing to accept the reduction the plant would be closed. 
The new rate, which is a reduction of approximately 75c. 
per day, went into effect on January 1, and is to prevail 
for the first three months of the year, at the end of which 
the matter will be taken up again. 

Victoria. — The Tidewater Copper Co., which is op- 
erating a property at Sidney Inlet, on the west coast of 
Vancouver Island, has made its first consignment of con- 
centrate to the Tacoma smelter. The shipment com- 
prises 400 tons and is valued at between $20,000 and 
$25,000. The Tidewater company has been operating 
for the last three years, and is said to have, spent $650,- 
000 in development and plant. A considerable tonnage 
of ore has been demonstrated, which, it is stated, is 
sufficient to keep the plant operating at its present ca- 
pacity for ten years. The ore contains about 2%' cop- 



January 1, 1921 

per, and some gold and silver, the concentrate running 
$3 to $4 in gold and 5 to 7 oz. in silver. The whole 
plant is operated by water-power, and consequently can 
be run cheaply. It is stated that it can produce copper 
profitably at present price of the metal. About 125 men 
are employed. 



Cobalt. — Operations have been narrowed down at 
least 25% in the Cobalt district. The only complete 
shut-down among the producers is the Temiskaniing 
mine. This week, the Kerr Lake will discontinue pro- 
duction, but will carry on development work during the 
winter. The Dominion Reduction custom plant will cur- 
tail operations until spring, this plant having operated 
on ore coming chiefly from the Kerr Lake mine. Work 
has been started on the Haileybury Frontier property 
in South Lorrain, where an effort will be made to mine 
the deposits of cobalt which are found in comparatively 
wide veins. The property lies in the vicinity of the 
Keeley Silver mines, and the operators believe the cost 
of work will be offset to some extent by the recovery of 
some silver as a by-product. This is the first effort made 
to mine cobalt in this district other than as a by-product 
of the silver ores. 

A winze at the 385-ft. level of the Chambers-Ferland 
mine has been sunk through the layer of slate in which 
the cross-cut lies and is expected to reach the under- 
lying conglomerate formation this week. Veinlets found 
extending up into the slate and which contain some sil- 
ver, are believed to have had their origin in a silver de- 
posit in the conglomerate. Arrangements are being made 
to make a bond issue of $35,000 on the Hudson Bay 
mines, the bonds to be supported by a mortgage on the 
property. The money is intended to finance operations 
until such time as shipments are resumed in the spring. 
Announcement is made that ore sufficient to warrant 
this plan is in sight. The shareholders will be asked to 
ratify the scheme this week. Heavy bullion shipments 
are being made from the Nipissing mine, a total of 561,- 
216 oz. having been shipped during the first three weeks 
of December. The greater part of the metal has been 
consigned to Shanghai. 

Preliminary estimates of the output of the silver and 
gold mines of Northern Ontario show a total of approxi- 
mately $23,295,088. The amount of gold produced ex- 
ceeded the silver output, but the figures dealing with by- 
products appear to indicate a fair margin of total value 
in favor of the silver mines. Following is a summary: 

Silver Mines 

Silver (9,931,143 oz.) $9,905,088 

• By-products 1,800,000 

Total $11,705,088 

"The heavy demand and high quotations for cobalt was 
the reason lor the high value o£ by-products from the silver 

Gold Mines 

Gold $11,500,000 

By-products 90,000 

Total $11,590,000 

Total gold and silver 23,295,088 

The silver mines of Cobalt and district have produced 
a total of $191,704,275 since 1903. The gold mines, made 
up chiefly of those at Porcupine and Kirkland Lake, have 
produced $59,879,262 since 1910. The combined total 
amounts to $251,583,537. 

Dividends Paid 

1920 Total to date 

Silver mines $3,458,142 $81,975,040 

Gold mines 3,240,042 18,785,280 

Total $6,698,184 $100,760,320 

Boston Creek. — A discovery of almost pure chaleo- 
pyrite has been made in the west cross-cut at the 500-ft. 
level of the main shaft of the Miller Independence. The 
mineral occurs in the form of a small solid vein paral- 
leling a ealcite vein. Assays in bulk show 32.48% cop- 
per together with $2.80 gold and 1.3 oz. of silver per ton. 
A copper-bearing vein, showing on the surface, which 
has been traced for a considerable distance, has yielded 
assays of only 3 and 4%, but the new find indicates that 
copper deposition increases with depth. 

Porcupine. — The report of the Porcupine Keora for 
the year ending December 1 states that No. 1 vein, 40 ft. 
wide on the surface, has been explored by diamond- 
drilling to the depth of 1000 ft. and gold content shown 
to be $6 per ton. The manager reported, as the result of 
further drilling, the discovery of No. 5 vein with a width 
of 20 ft. and an average value of $110 per ton, and No. 6; 
vein, having a width of 10 ft. with an average of $46.50 
per ton. Arrangements were made to sink a shaft to 
250 ft. and run a cross-cut to open these veins. Three 
40-acre lots adjoining the company's property to the 
north had been purchased, bringing up its total holdings 
to 200 acres. Development work is proceeding steadily. 



The Pas. — The Provincial government has announced, 
through Edward Brown, Provincial Treasurer, that, pro- 
vided the Flin Flon syndicate will deposit one million 
dollars with the Government as an assurance that a 
smelter will be erected, and tonnage to pay a railroad 
supplied, the road now being surveyed from The Pas 
to the mine, will be built at the expense of the Province. 
It is understood that these terms will be accepted by the 
Flin Flon syndicate. The Federal government will, so Mr. 
Brown says, remit all taxes on copper for ten years, and 
not five as reported. This will be a very large under- 
taking. There are more than 20,000 tons of ore proved 
by shafts, drifts, and drill-holes, and the average value- 
is supposed to be almost $10 per ton. If the railroad is 
built it will be operated by the Canadian National Rail- 
ways, that is to say, be part of the Federal railway 

January 1. 192] 




Nevada County. — Despite the adverse conditions, in- 
creased clean-ups are reported in most of the producing 
gold mines of the district and the output is increasing each 
month. At the Empire, the operations are the largest in the 
history of that property and the North Star is also increas- 
ing its activities. The management of the latter mine has 
announced, however, that several months would be devoted 
to development and other dead work before any particular 
effort at large production was made. The producing mines 
here now include the Empire, North Star, Idaho, Maryland, 
Sultana, Alcalde, Grass Valley Boundary, and various small 

properties. M. H. Brock, manager for the Grass Valley 

Boundary Mines Co., the newest company in the Grass Val- 
ley district, announces that the first clean-up at the mill has 
just been made and that the returns show approximately 
$8.50 per ton. The milling was entirely on the dump, which 
was accumulated while the shaft was being sunk and drifts 
run, and is stated to contain a large amount of waste rock. 

Coeur d'Alene. — Five thousand dollars for a 30-day option 
on 1,010,000 of the 2,000,000 shares of the capital stock of 
the Black Bear Mines Co. has been paid. The option has 
been filed with the county recorder by Robert McLaughton. 
It was signed by Dennis Goggin and R. E. Weniger, two of 
the directors, and by J. L. Fitzgerald, secretary. If Mc- 
Laughlin exercises the option he must pay 25c. per share 
for the stock. This places the value of the property at 
$500,000. He agrees to pay on the purchase ?10,000 in the 
first six months and to start work in 6 days and do not less 

than $5000 worth of work per month. Wages of miners 

and muckers in the district were reduced $1 per day on 
January 1. The 'going' wage beginning the first of the year 
will be $4.75 per day. It was said that there will be little 
activity in the mines until spring. The only exception to 
the $1 per day reduction is the Bunker Hill & Sullivan mine, 
which now pays $5.25 per day, and will reduce its scale 50c, 

making the new wage $4.75. Additional men have been 

put to work by the Midnight Mining Co. to push the raise 
which is now up 400 ft. and has 700 ft. more to go. 


Butte. — A general wage reduction throughout the Butte 
district will go into effect on January 20, those now receiving 
$5.75 or over will be cut $1, those now receiving under 
$5.75 will be cut 75c. Single men are being laid off at 

nearly all of the mines. The Butte-Plutus mine, which 

recently closed down owing to the inability to handle the 
additional water, has installed a new electric pump. It is 
understood that a contract has been let for the sinking of 
the shaft 50 ft., to the 400-ft. level, and driving a cross-cut 

to the New Mapleton, a distance of about 1500 ft. Oscar 

Rohn, manager for the East Butte Co., states that unless the 
financial situation becomes so serious that the company can- 
not sell copper, or cannot borrow any money on the copper 
it Is producing, there will not be any shut-down. If the 
East Butte should shut-down the Davis-Daly would neces- 
sarily follow, as the ore from its Colorado mine is treated at 
the East Butte smelter. 

Helena, — Mining activity in this district is at a low ebb. 
The low price of lead has had a depressing effect generally. 
The concentrating plant of the New York-Montana Testing 
& Engineering Co. has closed until metal prices shall be 
better, and the East Helena plant of the American Smelting 
& Refining Co. has laid-off many men, and reduced wages for 
the same reason. Many of the mining men of Helena are 
now turning their attention to the new oil-fields in Fergus 
county. The Cat Creek field looks particularly promising, 
there being now ten producing wells in this field, with a 
combined flow of about 12,000 bbl. per day. The oil had a 
high gasoline content. Many wells are being drilled, and a 
great deal of activity is looked for in the spring. The oil- 
sands are penetrated at about 1600 ft. depth. The Liver- 
pool mine in Lump gulch is maintaining regular shipments 
of silver ore to the East Helena smelter. About 30 men are 
employed. The mine has a 750-ft. shaft. The rich silver 
ore in the upper levels was worked out years ago, and the 
ore at present is being taken from stopes from the bottom 
level. The present operators have re-timbered the shaft, 
and installed electrical equipment, power being furnished 
by the Montana Power Co. The company plans to sink in 
the near future. Carl J. Trauerman is manager. Other 
Lump Gulch mines which are operating are the Little Nell, 
Free Coinage, and Mammoth. These properties are de- 
veloping. There is some activity in the Nigger Mountain 
region, south of Elliston. The Charter Oak has a shipment 
nearly ready and the Big Dick and the Julia are developing. 
The Monarch mine on Bison mountain is closed for lack of 
funds to complete the development work. The property is 
well equipped with steam-driven compressor, drills, saw- 
mill, bunk-houses, and boarding-house. 

Neihart. — The old Barker or Wright & Reynolds mine is 
producing some rich silver-lead ore, according to reports. 
The ore is being shipped to the railway by motor-trucks. 
T. C. Power, of Helena, owner of the property, is reported 
to have recently refused an offer of $1,000,000 for the mine. 


Cerro de Pasco. — The net income for the Cerro de Pasco 
Copper Co. for 1920 will be approximately $4,000,000. This 
does not include undistributed profits of subsidiary com- 
panies, which have averaged approximately $1,000,000 an- 
nually for four years ended December 31, 1919. Notwith- 
standing increased production during the war period, ore- 
reserves are considerably larger than when the company 
was organized. In addition to copper ore-reserves, engi- 
neers estimate a large deposit of oxidized silver and pyritic 
silver ore, assaying from 8 to 18 oz. per ton. Preliminary 
reports estimate the available quantity of this ore in excess 
of 100,000,000 tons. Of this, about 18,800,000 tons are 
definitely reported and contents calculated at over 200,000,- 
000 oz. of silver. 

In 13 years ending December 31, with 1920 partly esti- 
mated, the company has produced 660,799,611 lb. of copper, 
45,904,700 oz. of silver, and 292,825 oz. of gold. Silver 
production in ounces for the last five years, with 1920 esti- 
mated, has been as follows: 1916, 4,209,659; 1917, 5,556,- 
735; 1918, 5,051,900; 1919, 5,325,320; 1920, 5,595,084. 



January 1, 1921 


The Editor invites members of the profession to send particulars of their 
•work and appointments. ,- The information ia interesting to our readers. 

F. W. Draper is here. 

J. M. Campbell has gone to Rangoon, Rurma. 
J. R. Finlay is now residing at Redlands, California. 
Millard K. Shaler is returning from the Congo to Brussels. 
J. F. Gragan is on his way from New York to the Trans- 
vaal, in South Africa. 

Albert Roberts has returned to San Francisco from a 
visit to the South-West. 

V. Harper Carter, a mining engineer from Platteville, 
Wisconsin, is at Oakland. 

Walter Fitch Jr., of Eureka, Utah, is spending the holi- 
days in southern California. 

C. E. Mills, head of the Apache Powder Co., has been 
visiting the Bisbee district, Arizona. 

W. E. Thome has returned to Santa Cruz, California, 
from Nigeria. He expects to return thither in April. 

Julien Raick, a graduate of the university of Liege, is tak- 
ing a post-graduate course in mining at Stanford university. 
S. M. Parker was in San Francisco last week on his way 
from Corinto, Nicaragua, to Morgan Hill, California, where 
he will reside. 

Frank E. Grant, superintendent of steam-shovel mines 
for the Nevada Consolidated Copper Co., is here from 
Ruth, Nevada. 

Victor C. Alderson, president of the Colorado School of 
Mines, passed through San Francisco last week on his way 
•to Los Angeles. 

Hervey Gulick left India in the middle of November, and 
will reach San Francisco in February, after having visited 
Manila and Honolulu. 

H. H. Claudet has taken over the Ottawa branch o£ the 
General Engineering Company and will conduct that office 
and laboratory on his own account. 

Gelasio Caetani was elected a Councilman at the head of 
the poll of Rome, but he did not see his way to accept the 
mayoralty, for which he had been nominated. 

Clinton W. Bagwill, for the past 10 years chief clerk at 
the mill and smelter of the Nevada Consolidated Copper Co., 
at McGill, Nevada, has resigned. On January 1 he became 
associated with the Granby Consolidated company in British 

John M. Hayes, whose resignation as treasurer of the 
Utah Copper Co. became effective on January 1, was tender- 
ed a farewell dinner party at the Alta Club at Salt Lake 
City on December 22. C. T. S. Parsons, assistant cashier of 
the company, has been promoted to the position of cashier. 
Thomas M. Skinner Jr., consulting metallurgical and 
chemical engineer of Douglas, Wyoming, is covering ex- 
tensive research and examination work upon some of the 
natural deposits of California, including Owens Lake, at 
which place he installed a caustic soda and potash plant dur- 
ing the War. 


Benjamin Holt, president of the Holt Manufacturing Co., 
died at Stockton, on December 5. He had always been a 
man of great vigor, fond of hard work, and up to his last 
illness, had been constantly engaged in inventive and cre- 
ative work connected with 'Caterpillar' tractors, Holt com- 
bined harvesters, and other machines originally invented by 
him. He was born in Merrimac county, New Hampshire, on 
January 1, 1849. His early education was in the public 
schools, later attending an academy at Tilton, New Hamp- 

shire, and a Baptist institution at New London. The Holt 
Manufacturing", Co.' was" incorporated at Stockton in' T892i 
Benjamin Holt was the inventive genius of the organization, 
and his name has become known throughout the world as a 
pioneer and leader in the design, invention, and building of 
new, important, and vital types of agricultural and road ma- 
chinery. He invented the self-propelled combined harvester, 
a combination of tractor and harvester, the most effective 
grain-handling machine ever built. From the necessity of 
providing a surer traction for soft soils, Benjamin Holt gave 
the world "his master invention, the track-laying type of 
tractor bearing his name, and now known the world over by 
the Holt trade-mark 'Caterpillar'. The world-wide promi- 
nence into which 'Caterpillar' tractors came over a decade 
ago, brought about the establishment of the Peoria factory 
in 1909, and Benjamin Holt was intensely interested in 
everything pertaining to the development of this big insti- 

Benjumln Holt 

tution as well as the parent plant at Stockton, California. 
Due to his pioneering work, the 'Caterpillar' was established 
as a commercial success and was available for military needs 
with the outbreak of the War in 1914, when it was adopted 
by the allied governments from among all the world's trac- 
tors for artillery and supply transportation. Those tractors 
brought about the creation of 'tanks', and Benjamin Holt 
has been given official credit by governments, and by the 
public everywhere, as the inventor of the 'Caterpillar' tractor 
which made the tanks possible. As time passes, and the 
great forces of the War are seen in their true perspective, 
the world will feel it owes a particular debt of gratitude to 
Benjamin Holt, whose inventive skill and genius brought 
the 'Caterpillar' and the 'tanks' into existence. Benjamin 
Holt, however, never conceived the building of a military 
machine as such, but invented the 'Caterpillar' tractor, and 
strived constantly to improve it, for everyday farming and 
road use. He was a respected citizen, an honored Cali- 
fornian, and an inventor whose ingenuity proved of value 
to the entire world. 

January l. 192] 




S;m Francisco, December 28 

Aluminum-dust, cents per pound . . . 

Antimony, cents per pound 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound. 

Lead. pig. cents per pound 

Platinum pure, per oancG 

Platinum. 10^ iridium, per ounce.. 

Quicksilver, per flask of 75 lb 

Spelter, aenla per pound. 








Zinc-dust, cents per pound 12.50 — 15.00 


(By wire from New York) 

Lead is stagnant and lower. 

December 27. — Copper is inactive but easy, 
/.lin- is dull and declining. 


Below are given official or ticker quotations for silver in the open market 
as distinguished from the fixed price obtainable for metal produced, smelted, 
and refined exclusively within the United States. Under the terms of the 
Pittman Act such silver will be purchased by the United States Mint at 81 
per ounce, subject to certain small charges which vary slightly but amount 
to approximately three-eights of one cent. The equivalent of dollar silver 
(1000 fine) in British currency is 46.65 pence per ounce (925 fine), calcu- 
lated at the normal rate of exchange. 



New York London 



•:.i . . . 

24 . . . 

25 Holiday 

26 Sunday 

27 64.25 

■ ma 



40 .uo 
4 1 .60 
4" o-j 




Average week ending 

15 80.02 

22 76.41 

29 73.72 

U 69.08 

13 62.54 

20 li.'i.TT 

27 63.77 



July 99.62 

Aug 100.31 

Sept 101,12 

Oct 101.12 

Nov 101.12 

Dec 101.12 





Prices ef electrolytic in New York, 

Dec. 21 13.50 

22 13,25 

23 13.00 

24 13.00 

" 25 Holiday 
" 26 Sunday 

27 13.00 


in cents per pound. 

Average week ending 



Jan 23.50 

Feb 23.50 

Mch 23.50 

Apr 23.50 

May 23.50 

June 23.50 









. .26.00 







Nov. . . . 


20 45 




Lead iB quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. 

Average week ending 





. . 4.45 


. 6.44 



. 5.24 


. 5.00 











. . 7.26 


. . 6.99 




PriceB in New York, in cents per pound. 

Monthly averages 









July . . 












. . . 88.53 



Oct. . . 






Nov. .. 




... 91.00 





Zinc is quoted as spelter, 
in cents per pound. 
Dec. 21 


standard Western brands. New York delivery 



25 Holiday 
20 Sunday 


.". 511 




June 7.92 


. . 5.45 
Monthly averages 

Average week endini* 









i Nil 






Nov. i 

Dec 8.49 





7 M 
7 5(1 


The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco. California being 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according to 
quantity. Prices, in dollars per flask of 75 pounds. 

5 at0 „„ I Dec. 14 65.00 

Nov. 30 55.00 '• 21 50 00 

Deo- 1 65.00 1 " 28 5111111 

Monthly averages 




Feb. . . 

. . .118.00 



.. .115.00 







July 120.00- 

Aug 120.00 

Sept 120.00 

Oct 120.00 

Nov 120.00 

Dec 115.00 









s;, no 

75 (10 


Objections to the formation of the S100. 000.000 bank under the Edge 
Act. are largely due to misunderstanding of its objects, powers ami modus 
operandi. Many exporters and business nun are under the impression that 
the Edge Bank will lend up to SI. 000. 000. 000 to exporters, farmers manu- 
facturers, etc. — in fact, anybody or any corporation that mav want a long- 
time credit. This, of course, is not the purpose. Although it ha- broad 
powers, bankers say its principal business will be confined to i«enanee of 
debentures, bonds, and promissory notes .designed primarily to promote in- 
ternational business. 

Fear that securities might be offered that are not adequately protected 
appears unfounded. The law provides that each issue of debentures etc. 
must be submitted to the Federal Reserve Board for approval before it 
may be offered. Bankers beliere no better guarantee could be offered the 
investor. They point out that the Federal Reserve Board has been 
severely criticized for its conservative regulations, but never for taking 
improper risks. Therefore, when the Reserve Board approves an issue 
the public need have no hesitancy in investing, with entire confidence in 
the soundness of the security. 

A banker who thinks the new bank will be one of the most constructive 
forces in the business world says : "The new bank will be the most 
powerful factor in the export business. It will be big enough to com- 
mand the best brains in the country. It will have stockholders all over 
the country. Every State will be represented. Every stockholder will be 
a "booster' for the loans, and probably most of the subscribing banks will 
be selling ngeneies. It will, therefore, represent the most efficient selling 
force for investments ever organized in peace times. 

"*The new institution is not being organized to benefit any one business 
or section. Its favorable influence will be felt in every community in the 
United States. It will be felt, in a limited way, the world over. Not a 
country but needs some assistance. Germany needs low-grade cotton, cop- 
per, etc.. in large quantities. The objection that the allies have a prior 
lien on all Germany's productive powers is not sound. If we supply the 
raw material, there is no good reason why we should not be absolutely pro- 
tected, because there is no other way Germany can produce a surplus to 
pay her debts. If the Allies prevent Germany from getting raw material 
they will themselves make it absolutely impossible for Germany to pay 
any indemnity, and they know it very well. Their only hope lies in the 
renewal of prosperity in the one-time EtnpirG. 

"The export situation, with regard to South America, shows no im- 
provement. South Americans want our goods and have ample security 
to give us, but under present conditions we have no adequate facilities for 
financing' long-term credits. Practically all efforts of the Edge bank will 
be directed toward correcting this deplorable export situation, because the 
law provides that 'it cannot conduet -business within the United States 
except as incidental to international "business'. This is a time for co- 
operation. Every bank in the country should do its share toward bringing 
export business back to 'normalcy'. They can do that by promptly sub- 
scribing- to the stock and then by 'putting their shoulders to the wheel' 
setting business moving ag-ain." 


Foreign quotations on December 28 are as follows: 

Sterling, dollars : Cable , . 3.50 % 

Demand 3-51 Y 2 

Francs, cents: Cable 5.85^ 

Demand ;> ............ * 5.S7K. 

Jjire. cents: Demand 3:36 Vj 

Marks.' cents 1.41 



January 1, 1921 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York, December 23. 

The markets are all without feature or activity and the 
price tendency is downward. 

Odd lots of copper are going at concessions but real active 
demand is absent. 

The tin market is nominal in the absence of any business, 
real or speculative. 

Lead has again declined to new low levels for the year. 

Zinc has receded to nearly the level of three or four weeks 

Antimony is quiet and unchanged. 


The relation between the Steel Corporation's scale of oper- 
ations and the average of leading independent companies 
has not changed from 85 to 90% for the former and 40 to 
70% for the latter. There is wide variation in the activities 
of independent producers, the smaller companies faring 
worse. Some of the latter have a complete shut-down, but 
would start up on the accumulation of a few days' orders. 
The estimate of a 50% average at independent mills in the 
first quarter of the new year is not uncommon. 

Definite announcements of wage reductions have been 
made at Johnstown and Coatesville, Pennsylvania; Wheel- 
ing, West Virginia; and Buffalo; generally about 20%, with 
elimination of overtime. No reductions have been made at 
Chicago or at Youngstown thus far, but January will bring 
many announcements. 

The amount of new business coming to the books of the 
mills is under-estimated in some current reports. Naturally, 
it is for early delivery, but so many consumers and dealers 
are running on small stocks that producers continue to hear 
from them. Such week-to-week buying is to be expected for 
some months. 

The blowing-out of blast-furnaces continues, seven or 
eight stacks being reported this week that have just stopped 
or will be out by the end of the year. 

Welch makers of tin-plate are negotiating for a large 
Canadian order, according to our cable advices. British 
prices for ship-plates, boiler-plates, and steel hoops have 
been reduced. Business is at a low ebb throughout the 
British industry. 


The market continues very dull. There are frequent sales 
of small quantities to Europe and foreign countries, but 
domestic demand is exceedingly light and is being satisfied 
by a few producers or dealers who need the cash. One sale 
of 500 tons of electrolytic is noted at 13.50c, New York, for 
early delivery. It is stated that as low as 13c. can be done 
easily for December. Large producers are quoting 14c, 
New York, but will sell under this if a desirable order is 
presented for early delivery and for the entire first quarter, 
but not for March' only. Lake copper is nominal at 13.75c, 
New York, for early delivery, but there is no demand. Con- 
sumers are not buying as the year closes and no purchasing 
on any scale is looked for until some time in January. It 
is the conviction of some in the trade that prices higher 
than 14c will not be realized for some months at least. 

The authorities in the Federated Malay States have again 
and for the third time in less than three weeks fixed a mini- 
mum price for tin, this time at an equivalent of £236 c.l.f., 
New York, as against £243 a week ago and £226 in the first 
instance. These changes have unsettled the market here 
and made a bad situation worse. Consumers and dealers as 
well as importers are in the dark as to what the Far Eastern 
gyrations mean. Consumers and dealers remain out of the 

market and outside of the transactions noted a week ago on 
the New York Metal Exchange, there has been no business 
and prices are nominal. Yesterday spot Straits was quoted 
at 34c, New York, around which level it has hovered the 
whole week. The London market is lower with yesterday's 
quotations at £205 5s. for spot standard, £210 for both 
future standard and spot Straits, all of which are £6 to £7 
lower than a week ago. Arrivals thus far this month have 
been 23 85 tons with 1925 tons reported afloat. 

The American Smelting & Refining Co., late on Monday 
again reduced its price to more nearly conform to the out- 
side market; the price is now 4.75c both New York and 
St. Louis, against 5c. last week. The outside market has 
generally receded until yesterday lead for early delivery 
was obtainable and had sold at 4.60c, New York and St. 
Louis. The parity of the two districts is due to the possi- 
bility of competition of imported lead because of the weak- 
ness in the London market. There has been some buying 
since this market reached the 5c level, but the volume has 
not been heavy. It is admitted that so far as stocks are con- 
cerned lead is in a better position than copper or zinc. 

The London market has measurably weakened in the last 
week or 10 days and this has had its effect here. Prices 
have declined until the New York and St. Louis quotations 
are again on a parity, due to the fact that foreign zinc has 
been offered as low as 5.70c, seaboard, duty paid. The 
imported zinc is not so much of a factor in this market as 
in the case of imported lead because some buyers prefer not 
to use it. Consumers are not buying nor are producers sell- 
ing at present below-cost prices except where and when 
necessary. An upturn in the London market is looked for 
soon, in responsible quarters here, as stocks are not large 
and are in strong hands. We quote the market for prime 
Western for early delivery at 5.75c, New York and St. 
Louis, with domestic metal bringing 6.25c, eastern delivery. 

This market is dull and unchanged with wholesale lots 
for early delivery quoted at 5.50c, New York, duty paid. 

The leading maker's quotation for wholesale lots of virgin 
metal, 98 to 99% pure, is unchanged at 32.90c. f.o.b. pro- 
ducer's plant, while the same grade, largely of foreign origin, 
is quoted at 23 to 25c, New York. 

Tungsten: The market is devoid of interest or activity, 
inquiries being limited to small proportions and resulting in 
no business. Quotations are nominal at $4 per unit for 
Chinese ore and at $4.50 per unit for Bolivian. The ferro- 
tungsten market is inactive and unchanged. 

Molybdenum: There is no business and no prices are 

Manganese: In the absence of any demand to test the 
market, high-grade ore is quoted nominal at 40c per unit, 
seaboard, but it is believed that 35c per unit could be done. 

Manganese-Iron Alloys: There has been no real test of 
the ferro-manganese market where quotations are nominal 
at $150, delivered, for the American product and $170, sea- 
board, for the British, but it is confidently felt that a basis 
of $125, seaboard, could be done. The British market is 
now at £33 per ton for export. Spiegeleisen, 19 to 22%, is 
quoted at $60, furnace, but it is probable $55 could be done 
at least on re-sale material. There are a few inquiries for 
both alloys before the market. ' • ' '■'■') Y- ■ , 

.January 1, L92] 



Book Reviews 

I . .i.l. Including Load Pigments and the Desllrcrlzation 
of Lead. By J. A. Smythe. 115 pp., 111., index. Sir Isaac 
Pitman & Sons, Ltd., New York and London. For sale by 
'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, $1. 

This is one of a series of small volumes on technical sub- 
jects, non-technically treated, that is being published by 
Pitman & Sons. The history of lead mining and smelting; 
the modern methods of treating the ores of lead; the uses of 
lead. Its alloys, and its compounds are discussed in an en- 
tertaining and instructive way. It gives an excellent idea of 
the operations necessary in the production of lead without 
going deeply into chemistry and physics. 

The Theory of Machines. By Robert F. McKay. Second 
edition. 431 pp., ill., index. Edward Arnold, London. For 
sale by 'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, $6. 

This book is perhaps best described to the American en- 
gineer and mechanic by stating that it covers practically the 
same field as Smith and Marx's 'Machine Design', and in 
about the same way. It is well-written and well-illustrated. 
However, a foreign technical book, even one published in 
Great Britain like the present volume, must, at least in 
minor details, exhibit differences in nomenclature and prac- 
tice from that current in America. Under such conditions, 
the American engineer, unless the foreign book is notably 
superior in other features, will usually prefer one 'made in 
America'. In considering the present volume, this is the 
only important drawback that we can see. 

Pumping by Compressed Air. By Edmund M. Ivens. 
Second edition. 254 pp., ill., index. John Wiley & Sons, 
Inc., New York. For sale by 'Mining and Scientific Press'. 
Price, $4. 

The second edition of this book differs from the first, 
which appeared six years ago, in the addition of several 
Illustrations and pages of text at various points. The book 
opens with a brief discussion of the general subject of pump- 
ing by compressed air, touching particularly upon various 
relatively uncommon methods. Then the air-lift and its 
application to pumping are considered, as well as the various 
commercial systems based upon it. Several chapters are also 
devoted to the hydraulic and thermo-dynamic theory upon 
which pumping by compressed air is based, and there are 
chapters discussing the compressor itself, and the design of 
an entire plant. The book will be useful to anyone engaged 
in pumping with compressed air. 

Topographic Maps and Sketch Mapping. By J. K. Finch. 
Pp. 170, ill., index. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.. 
For sale by 'Mining and Scientific Press". Price, $2.50. 

Interest in maps, and particularly topographic maps, has 
been stimulated, like interest in so many other subjects, by 
the War. The treatment in the present volume is non-tech- 
nical and can be followed readily by the layman who has 
only the most elementary knowledge of mathematics. The 
book will be useful principally to two general classes of 
readers; first, men and women that use topographic maps 
but who do not know how to get the maximum benefit from 
them, and second, students engaged in learning to make 
a, map that will be of maximum benefit to the user. The 
book is therefore appropriately divided into two main parts, 
Map Reading, and Sketch Mapping, besides a short additional 
chapter on Landscape Sketching. The discussion of map 
reading covers three chapters entitled, respectively, What a 
Topographic Map Shows, How to Get Certain Information 
from a Map, and Use of Topographic Maps in the Field. 
Part II, on Sketch Mapping, is similarly divided into Topo- 

graphic Drafting, Flat Mapping, and Contour Mapplnj. 
The appendix contains a descriptive list of the principal 
topographic maps of the world, suggestions for a course in 
map reading and sketch mapping, and a bibliography, the 
first of the three divisions being particularly valuable. 

Modern Welding Methods. By Victor W. Page. 278 pp., 
ill., index. Norman W. Henley Publishing Co., New York, 
for sale by 'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, $3. 

The art of welding in its various branches has made such 
remarkable progress in the past few years that it has Deen 
difficult for the published matter to keep pace with it. The 
present volume may be said to be a very creditable attempt 
to catch up. After an introduction discussing the general 
features of the various methods of joining metals, the prop- 
erties of the common metals are considered. The next three 
chapters are devoted to gas welding, considering in turn the 
gases used, the apparatus, and the general methods and 
technique. The next chapter considers electric welding, both 
resistance and arc, and the next thermit welding. Then 
comes a chapter on soldering and brazing processes, and the 
final chapter deals with forge-welding and with the heat 
treatment of steel. The book will be useful to anyone en- 
gaged in welding, directly or indirectly. 

Practical Trade Mathematics. By James A. Moyer and 
Charles H. Sampson. 169 pp., ill., index. John Wiley & 
Sons, Inc., New York. For sale by 'Mining and Scientific 
Press'. Price, $1.50. 

If all our mechanics had a common-school education and 
our system of common-school education was really practical, 
there would be relatively little need for a book of this kind. 
Things being as they are, however, the book should be use- 
ful to many mechanics, who have come to realize their need 
of additional knowledge of mathematics. The book covers 
arithmetic and some plane geometry, but does not discuss 
either algebra or trigonometry. This latter appears to us 
to be a mistake. An explanation of the sine-bar, for in- 
stance, would have been welcome. Problems drawn from 
the practice of the various trades are used freely through- 
out the book to illustrate the discussion, and theoretical 
considerations are kept in the background as much as is 

Powdered Coal as a Fuel. By C. F. Herington. Second 
edition. Pp. 324, ill., index. D. Van Nostrand Co., New 
York. For sale by 'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, 

Both the theory and the practice of the use of powdered 
coal have progressed so rapidly during the two years since 
the appearance of the first edition of this book as to justify 
a second edition, in which considerable new material has 
been added as well as the old material revised. After a gen- 
eral discussion of the burning of powdered coal, the various 
special applications are considered in detail, chapters being 
devoted to cement and lime kilns, annealing, air, and other 
furnaces, and core-ovens, as well as the use .of powdered 
coal as a fuel under' boilers for stationary, marine, and loco- 
motive engines. The prevention of explosions, which, the 
author states, is entirely feasible, is also considered. A 
complete bibliography, both of books and of magazine 
articles, is included. The book will be useful to anyone who 
uses, or who is considering the use of, powdered coal. 

Engineering Electricity. By Ralph G. Hudson. , 186 pp., 
ill., index. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. For sale 
by 'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, $2.50. 

This book, as the preface states, "was written primarily 
for technical students not specializing in electrical engineer- 
ing", but it would also be useful to many engineers, prac- 
tising other branches of the profession, but feeling the need 



January 1, 1921 

of greater knowledge of electricity and Its applications than 
they possess. The chapter headings, which give a general 
idea of the scope of the work, are as follows: Direct-Current 
Circuits; Electro-Magnetism; Electro-Magnetic Induction; 
The Direct-Current' Dynamo; Direct-Current Measurements; 
Alternating-Current Circuits and Measurements; Three- 
Phase Currents; The Alternating-Current Transmission- 
Line; The Synchronous Generator; The Synchronous Motor; 
The Synchronous Converter; The Mercury-Arc Rectifier; 
The Transformer; The Three-Phase Induction Motor; and 
The Alternating-Current Series Commutator Motor. A use- 
ful feature of the book is a 40-page appendix of various 
kinds of electrical apparatus. Like so many technical trea- 
tises, its usefulness would he materially increased by the 
addition of a few pages giving definitions of every symbol 
used in the book and a collection of all the formulas derived 
in various parts of the text. 

The Practice of Lubrication. By T. C. Thomsen. Pp. 
602, ill., index. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York. 
For sale by 'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, $6. 

Few owners or operators of machinery realize the amount 
of loss possible through faulty lubrication and wrong selec- 
tion of lubricating-oil. Those, however, who wish to have 
a basis for the study of their lubricating problems will find 
this book of great value. It begins with several chapters 
devoted to the various kinds of lubricants, including min- 
eral, animal, and vegetable oils and greases, as well as 
graphite and other special lubricating mediums. Lubricat- 
ing appliances and the various types of bearings are then 
considered. Then come several chapters on the lubrication 
of the principal kinds of machinery, a valuable feature of 
this part of the discussion being a set of lubrication-charts, 
one for each type of machine. Chapters are also devoted to 
oil recovery and purification, to oil storage and distribution, 
and to cutting-lubricants. In fact, the book is one of the 
most complete treatises on the subject that has appeared. 

The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie. 372 pp., ill., 
index. Houghton Mifflin Co. For sale by 'Mining and Scien- 
tific Press'. Price, $5. 

This is the life story of a remarkable man, written by him- 
self in an easy conversational style, without 'either affecta- 
tion or false modesty.' He tells of his birth and childhood in 
his beloved Scotland and of the business disasters that im- 
pelled the family to start anew in America. His work as a 
telegraph messenger boy and then as an operator was the 
means of bringing him into contact with, and later into the 
service of, Thomas A. Scott, division superintendent for the 
Pennsylvania railroad. The well-Rnown story of his assump- 
tion of authority during an emergency in Scott's absence, 
and without technical justification, is told, although he does 
not appear to attach so much importance to the incident as 
do some of his biographers, who appear to regard it as the 
turning point of his career. The years of his service with 
the Pennsylvania, broken for a brief period by his work for 
the Government as associate director of. railroad operations 
during the Civil War, were marked by several promotions, 
and the way was open for further advancement. However, 
his railroad experience had convinced him of the possibilities 
of the iron industry, and a few ventures, started as a side- 
line, soon demanded his entire attention. At first his activi- 
ties were confined to the rolling of rails and bridge-members, 
the former, in particular, being mainly imported from Eng- 
land at that time, the late 'sixties. Soon, however, the busi- 
ness expanded to the rolling of other products, and to the 
operation of blast-furnaces, iron-mines, and coke-ovens. It 
will be a surprise to most readers to learn that the Carnegie 
concern was the first in America to employ a chemist in 
connection with its blast-furnace operations. Amusing inci- 
dents are told of the mistakes of his competitors, who were 

preparing their furnace-charges by rule-of-thumb, and who 
were paying high prices for ore shown by analysis to be of 
poor quality. Here we have one of the most important 
reasons for his success, namely, his determination to have 
the best machinery and the best methods, not only in the 
manufacturing but also in the accounting end of the busi- 
ness. What this latter meant in those days is indicated 
when lie tells us that many of his competitors had no system 
of cost-accounting whatsoever. More important, however, 
in the success of the Carnegie companies was the faculty of 
their leader, which he so frequently mentioned, to gather 
about him more able men than himself, a statement that we 
cannot accept as strictly true if we believe that this very 
faculty shows the highest form of ability. A necessary com- 
plement of this faculty was the willingness to reward gen- 
erously the men who worked with him. His attitude toward 
labor was unquestionably dominated by a desire to be fair, 
and he points with pride to the years of industrial peace at 
his plants, broken only by the Homestead strike. This strike 
was one of the great griefs of his life, and he devotes a 
chapter to a straightforward discussion of it, affirming his 
belief that on the main point at issue the men were wrong, 
while admitting that mistakes of judgment were made by 
the company. His retirement from the steel business, and 
his successful efforts to give away nearly, although not quite, 
all his money are described, together with a little discussion 
of some of his activities in the distribution of his wealth. As 
in most autobiographies, perhaps the most interesting fea- 
ture is the glimpses of the writer's intimate friends, who 
included, in this case, such widely different men as Glad- 
stone, Bryce, Matthew Arnold, John Morley, Herbert Spen- 
cer, Blaine, Harrison, and Mark Twain, as well as many 
others. These reminiscences are enriched and enlivened by 
niany anecdotes, of which we have space for only one. It 
concerns the German superintendent of the rolling-mills, 
William Borntraeger by name, who took a vacation for the 
purpose of going to Germany and bringing home a bride. 
When he started, Carnegie said, "I suppose your sweetheart 
is a beautiful tall young lady". Borntraeger replied, "Veil. 
Mr. Carnegie, she is a leetle stout. If I had the rolling of 
her, I give her yust one more pass". 

,. Handbook of Building Construction. By George A. Hool 
and Nathan C. Johnson. In two volumes. Pp. 1444, ill., 
index. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York. For sale 
by 'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, $10. 
'"""This is a book for the architect, the structural engineer, 
arid the building contractor. It covers the design and con- 
struction of the pTiricipal kinds of buildings, from the small- 
est to the largest, of whatever material, and including the 
mechanical and electrical equipment. In the preparation of 
the material, the principal authors have been assisted by 46 
engineers and architects, specialists in particular lines. The 
text is illustrated by a large number of line-drawings and 
many mathematical tables are included. The book is di- 
vided into three parts. Part I, on Design and Construction, 
is further subdivided as follows: Elements of Structural 
Theory, Designing and Detailing of Structural Members and 
Connections, Structural Data, General Designing Data, Con- 
struction Methods, Construction Equipment, and Building 
Materials. In Part II, on Estimating and Contracting, the 
chapter-headings are Estimating Steel Buildings, Estimat- 
ing Concrete Buildings, Architectural Practice, Contracts, 
and Specifications. Part III, on Mechanical and Electrical 
Equipment, is divided as follows: Heating, Ventilating and 
Power, Water-Supply Data and Equipment, Sewage-Dis- 
posal, Waterless Toilet-Conveniences, Plumbing and Drain- 
age, Electrical Equipment, Electric Lighting, Gas Lighting. 
Gas Fitting, Elevators, Mechanical Refrigeration, Communi- 
cating Systems, Lighting Protection, and Vacuum-Cleaning 

January 1, 1 ;rj i 







'""THE DX-61 is Rugged, Simple in Design, has 
*■ few Wearing Parts, Drills as Fast or Faster 
than its Nearest Competitor, and Does Not Grind 
the Drill Bits." 

IN these words a Butte mine official 
summed up his findings on a test for 
drilling speed, air consumption, and 
wear on drill bits, conducted on seven 
different drifting drills. 

Here are the figures : 


Ft. drilled per min 823 

Average air used per ft. 
^i.nio/1 f/»n ff 1 1045 

Average wear 

on bits 

Nearest ' 





In the Joplin district 3 3 drills of 5 types 
were run for 20 days. The DX-61 drilled 
1074 feet, nearest competitor 6S6 fee*. 

The DX-61 cost $00.00 for repairs, near- 
est competitor $16.13 per machine. 

These are samples of reports from min- 
ing districts all over the country. 

If you need a big, fast, economical drift- 
ing drill, the DX-61 water jet hammer drill 
will do equally good work in your mine. 

Bulletin 1370-1 on request 


123 So. Michigan Ave., Chicago,, #g?^ 580 Market St., San Francisco. 

Birmingham, Boston, Butte, Claremont, N. H., Cleveland, Dalli 
Denver, Duluth, El Paso, Huntington, W. Va., Joplin. Juneau, Knonvil 
New York, PitUburgh, St. Louis. Salt Lake, San Francisco, Spokane. 

Algiers. Brussels, Calcutta, Christiania, Durban, Natal, Hai 

-London, Madrid. Mexico City. Paris 
Sydney, N. S. W., Tokyo, Toronto, Tu 

Santiago, Shanghai, 


Air Compressors; Air Lift Pumps; Diamond Drills; 
All-Hammer Drill Sharpeners; Drill Steel Fur- 
naces; Forge Hammers; Ironclad Coal Cutters; 
Rock and Hammer Drills; Quarrying Machinery; 
Contractors for Diamond Core Drilling. 



January 1, 1921 

Fairbanks Scales 

Type "S" 

Track Scale for Accurate 
Carload Weights 

Center suspension of load elimi- 
nates torsion. No projecting piv- 
ots — vertical adjustment on all 
bearings and connections — full 
clearances afford ample room for 
convenient examination and ad- 
justment — weigh beam construct- 
ed with center suspension princi- 
ple and continuous bearing piv- 
ots — positive self locking protected 
balancing device. 

Fairbanks, Morse fcr® 



Oil Engines- Pumps -Electric Motors and Qenerators- Fairbanks Scales -Railway Applia nces - Fann Power Machinery 

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FC Laboratory ■ Crasfeiaif 



t 1 









January 1, 1921 



From 15 to 27 years is the "Lifetime" of 

Candy Belts. 

They stand up because they have the stand- 
up stuff in their makeup — strong, firmly woven cotton 
duck in one piece construction — and impregnated with 
a secret oil compound. 

The Gandy Engineering Department stands 

ready to fit Gandy Belling to any of your equipment. 
Send in your specifications — both power and.conveyor 
■ — and your needs will have prompt attention. 


Main Office and Factory: 755 W. Pratt Street, 

36 Warren Strert. 

\ \ 

— taking and trusting 

Confidence is mutually sustained 
among men engaged in the world's 
industrial work by the good per- 
formance of industrial tools. 

Inventors and manufacturers 
meriting confidence produce what 
the user can take and trust. In the 
realm of mining, for example, la- 
bor-saving devices and laboratory 
specialties are important hostages 
of the house that sponsors them. 

For more than half a century, our 
products have gone resolutely 
a-field. They are the hostages of 
that entire confidence which our 
institution has established through- 
out the mining realm. 

Our broad experience — our exten- 
sive facilities for filling your urgent 
needs — are gladly placed at your 
entire command. 

Send for descriptive 
matter in file No. 50 

'We Know How to Pack for Export" 


Inventors and Manufacturers 

576-584 Mission Street, San Francisco, U. S. A. 

All Codes Used Los Angeles House: 

Cable Address: "Braondrtig" THE BRAUN CORPORATION 



January -1, 192J 


Tender this heading announcements may be made of new and 
second-hand machinery or supplies, for sale or wanted. The cost 
is 5 cents per word, including address. Minimum charge one dollar 
per insertion. .Remittances must accompany order. Copy must be 
received by Saturday for the following week's issue. 

ALLIS-CHALMERS ball-mill, capacity 40 tons, unused. $3300; aerial 
■ tram, Broderick-Bascom, continuous type, capacity 10 tons. 3000 ft., com- 
plete with track cable, unused, $4000. Gibson's Limited, No. 1 Alexander 
St., Vancouver, B. C. 1-29 

FOR SALE — One 150 H.P.. Type "R-E". Fairbanks-Morse vertical oil en- 
gine and generator. Same has just been overhauled by the manufacturer. 
Can make immediate delivery. For information and price, address Wis- 
consin Zinc Company, PlatteviHe, Wisconsin. tf 

OPPORTUNITY— Diamond drilling on a new basis of cost, saving you 
one-half to one-quarter over present methods. Guaranteed work with best 
up .to the minute equipment, efficient and experienced help. Long ex- 
perienced and enthusiastic customers. Write for information. H. D. Staley, 
229 Lick Bdg., San Francisco. tf 

LEARN HOW to properly sharpen and temper mine and quarry tools; 
booklet by mail $1." E. W. Liljegran. Medford, Oregon. 12-25 



One Layne & Bowler Deep Well Type Vertical Centrifugal Pump. 
Capacity 3000 G.P.M. at 760 foot setting. Pump has patented oil 
thrust bearing head and high efficiency impellers. Direct connected 
to 900 H.P. 1200 R.P.M. 60 cycle. 3 phase. 2300 volt General 
Electric vertical motor, complete with all starting appliances. The 
unit was specially built for mine work and can be installed in a 
6x5 shaft or compartment, is brand new and has never been in- 

One Layne & Bowler Deep Well Type Vertical Centrifugal Pump. 
Capacity 2000 G.P.M. at 190 foot setting, patented oil thrust bear- 
ing head, high efficiency impellers. Direct connected to 150 H.P. 
1200 R.P.M. 60 cycle, 3 phase, 2300 volt General Electric motor. 
All equipment adapted lor mine work. The shafting, tubing, dis- 
charge column and oil bearing head was in service about thirty 
days at a different location. The pump proper and motor have 
never been turned over. 



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I j iilntii m i n Dninf ii fti 1 1 1 uj 1 1 hi iUiiiii Kim ii ml inmltii ill in u 1 1 1 ii m i n in ii i n m tn ii i n m iftifi iiiijini mn 1 1 1 in hi m if m it I (■ I infiuui > 


Proven Ancient Channel, in 
one of the richest districts in 
the state. Equipped with 
Hydraulic Elevator, Engine 
and Hoist, Restraining Dam, 
Flume, etc. Two lines of 
pipe with 400 feet pressure. 
Development work all done, 
and ready to work profitably, 
but stalled for the want of 

This property, consisting of 
40 acres, just acquired on 
debt, and can be bought 
right. Present owner not a 
miner. It will pay you to 

Address C. T. BIDWELL, Woodland, Cal. 


iiiimmmmiiMimiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiii riiiiiimmiiihiiiiiiiimiii 

mmmmiimii mimmiiiiiu miiililbiui niiiiiiiiiiimmmiiitiiiiimimiiiii iiimimitiiiiiimmiiimmmiiiiiiiii ; 




Machine Shop Equipment 
Blacksmith Equipment 
Concentrating Tables 
Transmission Equipment 
Steel Tanks 

Gas Engines Air Compressors 

Boilers Pumpa 

Hoists Air Receivers Engineering 

Rolls Ore Cars Department 

Mills Crashers at Your Service 



| 205-207 M. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles* Cal. 

"iiiiimiiiiimiimmiiiiiiiiiiiMiiii i lllllllill lltHMII nil llltu liiliiu uniflf II liuillil til » I » ilin iiimiiitiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii mi 

Hoist and Bate 

furnished for any 
Engine or Motor = 










January 1. 1 C| 'J1 



The cont of advertising- for positions wanted is 2 cents per word. 
including address. Minimum chanre 50 cents per insertion. Replies 
forwarded without extra charge. Remittances must accompany 
order. Copy must be received Saturday momine for the following 
week's issue. 

ELECTRIC POWER SUPERVISOR, west roast of Mexico, desires posi- 
tion about Jnmmry IB": twelve years maintenance and construction exneri- 
em-e mills, mines and smelters: desires position in charge of steam, lipht- 
inir and power equipment of mininp concern, Mexico preferred: references; 
minimum salary $*0. r )00 per year and expenses. Addres- PW 548. Minintr 
and Scientific Ptobb, i 1 

METALLURGIST, aee :i.». married: as superintendent or assistant in 
smelter or refinery: experiem-e eovcrs 11 years in smelters, operation of 
lead blast furnaces, refining" of copper and lead bullion: capable, agpressive 
executive; correspondence invited and personal interview if desired; will co 
anywhere; immediate acceptance; salary open. Address PW o.'Jfl. Minintr 
and Scientific Press. 1-1 

technical training'. 8 years experience in lead and copper mine, mill and 
smelter work: high-class references. Address PW 540. Mining" and Scientific 
Press. 1-8 

MINE SUPERINTENDENT, formerly in charge of eopper mine, desires 
position: years of experience; single: Spanish spoken. Address PW 54*3. 
Mining and Scientific Press. 31 Nassau St., New York City. 1-15 

MINE CHIEF CLERK wants position; years of experience with repre- 
sentative companies: single, age 45; can handle entire office work of mine 
employing 100 to 150 men. including cost sheets: speaks Spanish; minimum 
salary S^-50; references given. Address PW 541, Mining and Scientific 
Press. 31 Nassau St,, New York City. 1-15 

METALLURGICAL ACCOUNTANT wants position; long experien^-: 
single, age 45: speaks Spanish: references given. Address PW 544. Mining 
and Scientific Press, 31 Nassau St., New York City. 1-15 

MINE AND SMELTER ACCOUNTANT desires position with company 
where large opportunity exists; speaks Spanish. Address PW 543. Mining 
and Scientific Press. 31 Nassau St.. New York City. 1-15 

POSITION WANTED by research chemist competent to develop new 
methods and chemical processes for metal extraction. Address PW 545. 
Mining and Scientflc Press. 1-22 

FLOTATION PLANT and mill foreman. 20 years general experience in 
milling; 6 years in flotation work; specialty silver ores; up-to-date practice 
and high extraction. I can increase your tonnage and general efficiency: 
minimum salary S300. Address PW 547. Mining and Scientific Press. 1-1 

MINE ACCOUNTANT, extensive experience, 20 years in gold and quirk- 
dllver work, executive experience, wants position Mexico, West or South- 
west; age 41. married, no children; speaks Spanish: 5 years practical ex- 
perience underground. 1 year mill work; health excellent; best of references; 
employed at present. Address PW 536. Mining and Scientific Press. 1-15 

MINING ENGINEER, technically educated, desires position as manager; 
20 years broad experience in management of mining and milling precious 
and commercial metals; thoroughly qualified for exploration, surface and 
underground development: speaks Spanish. Address PW 511. Mining and 
Scientific Press.. 1-8 

MILL SUPERINTENDENT, many years experience in milling and cya 
nidation in different parts of the world, desires position in charge of plant; 
graduate. Spanish: will go anywhere; foreign preferred. Address PW 529. 
Mining and Scientific Press. 1-1 

RESEARCH CHEMIST, experienced in non-ferrous metallurgy, leaching, 
electrolytic copper and zinc; at present employed, open for engagement, re- 
search or as chief chemist. Address PW 531. Mining and Scientific Press. 


STORE-ROOM MAN or timekeeper, experienced bookkeeper, age 38. de- 
Bires position: no objection to Mexico or Canada. Wife good cook. Ad- 
dress PW 528. Mining and Scientific Press. 1-1 

ACCOUNTING-AUDITING SYSTEMS installed, income tax reports, books 
opened, closed, balanced; small sets kept efficiently. We specialize in mine 
accounting and systems. J. W. Reno & Co., 584 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 
Phone Sutter"7046. 1-29 

MINE SUPERINTENDENT or assistant superintendent now open for 
engagement: technical man; ten years experience mining and construction 
work: single; speaks Spanish; go anywhere: minimum, $250 and expenses. 
Address PW 521. Mining and Scientific Press. 1-1-21 

GRADUATE MINING ENGINEER, age 37. as superintendent or assistant: 
15 years experience in mining, underground exploration, construction, and 
development of orebodies; low costs and efficient engineering: speak 
Spanish; at present employed. Address PW 513, Mining and Scientific 



Guaranteed Rebuilt Equipment 

1 1 — Double-Drum Contractor's Type Hoist. 

I 1 — Richards Pulsating Jig. 

| 2 — Allis-Clialmers Concentrators. 

| 1 — Allis-Chaliners Slimer. 

| 3 — Universal Overstrom Concentrators. 

| 2 — Deister Overstrom Slimers. 

1 1 — 2" Krogh Steel Lined Sand rump. 

1 2 — Bunker Hill Screens. 

| 1 — Belt Conveyor, 24"xl40'. 

| 1 — Belt Conveyor, 18"x60'. 

| 1 — Belt Conveyor, 18"x40'. 

| 2700' of 4" Redwood Pipe (new). 

1 800' of 8" Redwood Pipe (new). 

1 1 — 25 H.P. Western Distillate Hoist. 

| 1 — 8 H.P. Corliss Gasoline Hoist. 

| 1 — 25 H.P., Type Y, Fairbanks-Morse Semi-Diesel 

I Engine. 

I 1 — 25 H.P. Western Full Diesel Engine. 

MINING ENGINEER, ten years manager and superintendent in Mexico: 
open for position January 1; at present on Pacific Coast. Address PW 
524, Mining and Scientific Press. 1-3 

MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS wants a permanent circulation rep- 
resentative in every mining community in the world. Replies will be held 
confidential if desired. Address The Manager. Mining and Scientific Press. 





3.000 ft. 

2.000 ft. 

6.000 ft. 

700 ft. 

400 tt. 

50 000 ft. 

6" Riveted Pipe. No. 16 Gauge 



No. 16 

No. 12 

" No. 14 

" No. 14 

Black Standard Pipe 

60.000 ft. 1" 

30.000 ft. 1%" 

40.000 ft. lV 

5.000 ft. 6" 

6.000 ft. 8" 

80.000 ft. 2" Casing i 

40.000 ft. 2%" " 1 

30.000 ft. 3%" •' £ 

20.000 ft. 4" " i 

8.000 ft. 8" Light Wrought Iron with C. I. Collars = 

3 Carloads NEW Standard Black and Galvanized Pipe — iYi". 3". s 

3%". 4". i%". 5". 6" i 

1 Carload new Standard Black Extra Heavy Pipe, plain ends — = 

Yt" to 6", inclusive 

Fittings and Valves. Standard and Extra Heavy carried 

In stock for both Pipe and Casing — all sizes. = 

All above pipe thoroughly overhauled and inspected and ready for | 
immediate use. = 




Electric Mining Locomotive! 

Switches, Frogi, and Equipment. 



San Francisco Office: 


^imiiiiiiiiiifiiimuimimiiuiimniimiiiimiiNiiiiiiiiiiiiiuit miiiiiuiiiiimimiimiiiii iiuiuiiiiiiiiiimmmiMiimiiiiiimr 



January 1, 192] 


Announcements in this column are secured through the co-opera- 
tion of many of the largest mining' companies in the United States. 
Advertisements under this heading will be inserted two times with- 
out charge. Additional insertions charged at the rate of 2c. per 
word, including address. 

MANUFACTURER of milling machinery and ball mills desires several 
Bales engineers with milling experience; sales experience not essential but 
desirable; give in first letter details, education, experience, references; state 
salary required to start. Address PA 546. Mining and Scientific Press. 1-15 

WANTED — Experienced amalgamator for ten-stamp mill. California loca- 
tion; wages $5; references required. Address PA 534, Mining and Scientific 
PresB. 1-1 





I Completely Indexed Under the following Subjects: | 


16x8x12 Knowles Single, capacity, 261 GPM. 
14x10^x12 Knowles Duplex, capacity. 409-313 GPM. 
14x10x10 Deane Duplex, capacity, 425-708 GPM. 
12x7x12 Snow Duplex, capacity, 269-461 GPM. 
10x6x10 Snow Duplex, capacity. 188-305 GPM. 

8x8x12 Fairbanks-Morse Duplex, capacity, 417 GPM. 

6x4x 6 Fairbanks-Morse Duplex, capacity, 54-81 GPM. 


26x15x8x24 Knowles Compound Duplex Condensing Mine Pump with 
independent Air Pump and Condenser, pot valve type, capacity, 
500-700 GPM. 

12x 5x12 Snow, pot valve type, capacity, 137-196 GPM. 

10x14x16 Knowles Air Pump and Jet Condenser, condenses approxi- 
mately 14 54 GPM. 

9x14x10x12 Smith Vaile Duplex, capacity, 816 GPM. 

Civil Engineering 
Concrete Construction 
Electrical Engineering 
Electro Chemistry 
Iron and Steel 

Machine Shop and Foundry 
Mechanical Engineering 
Mechanical Drawing 
Mining Practice 
Miscellaneous Engineering 
Ore Deposits 
Ore Dressing 
Placer Mining 
Scientific Management 

Structural Engineering 
-Water Power — — — ^— — 


= Reidler pump for motor drive, diameter plunger 6^4", diameter 

I differential plunger 4 1/16", stroke 24", capacity 350 gal. at 

= 700' head. 

= 10x10 Deane Triplex, single acting. 150 lb. pressure, capacity, 928 


5 9x10 Deane Triplex, single acting, 150 lb. pressure, capacity, 346 

1 GPM. 

= 8x13 Gould Triplex, double acting, 150 lb. pressure, capacity, 600 

= GPM. 

I 8x10 Deming Triplex, single acting, capacity, 326 GPM. 

| 5x 8 Deane Triplex, double acting, capacity, 182 GPM. 


10x7x5x10 Knowles. capacity, 100 GPM, 

No. 11 Cameron, capacity, 261 GPM. 

No. 9 Cameron, capacity, 206 GPM. 
| No. 6 Cameron, capacity, 65 GPM. 

| No. 5 Cameron, capacity. 50 GPM. 

Morse Bros. Machinery & Supply Co. 

Denver, Colorado 


I YOU WANT 6XP£RTS m can findthcm 



JV " 


<r sERvma employers 



Mine and Mill Supts., Foremen 

Mine Surveyors 

Assayers, Chemists 

Master Mechanics 

Smelter Supts. 
Metal lurgis's 


420 Market Street, San Francisco | 

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January l. li'iM 





3 — 24'xl2' Dorr agitators: with or without tanks. 
6 — 15x30' Pachuca agitators. 
6— 7'il8' Pachuca agitators. 
X — 42"x 9'. 
1 — 30' *x 8'. 
1 — 60 **x24*. 
1 — 48"xl4' 8". 

l — 4S"xeo\ 

5 — 15"x4'. 

1 — Thompson Button balance. 

Several sample crushers and pulverizers. 

2" to 5" semi-steel. 

1 — No. 6 Roots blower. 3800 cu. ft., displacement 5 lb. pressure 

with 100 HP. Weslinghouse motor. 
2 — 10" blowers. 

1 — 28"x8' portable. 
1 — 42"x9' mounted. 
1 — 25 H.P. locomotive type. 

1 — radial cableway 1790 foot span, complete with motor and 
all equipment. 

2 reels each 1900', 1" diameter, Roebling-'s Hercules Blue Center 
steel cable. Good condition. 

Good condition. 

1 reel 450' steel cable. 

6 — 13 cu. ft. — 18" g-augre. NEW. 

2 — 20 cu. ft. — 18" gauge. 
24 — 50 cu. ft. — 24" gauge. 

5 — 1 ton Truax end dump ears. 

2 — 2 ton side dump cars. 

2 — 3% ton Y & T triplex. 

1 — 14'x24" Dorr Simplex. 

1 — 45" Akins. 

1 — 10"xl2" Sullivan "WG-3" straight line. 

1 — 8"xl2"xl5" Rix two-stage C.C. belt driven. 

1 — 13"xl0" Ingersoll-Rand double cylinder, low pressure. 

1 — 12"xl2" Ingersoll-Rand. belt driven. 

1 — 16"xl0" Clayton single cylinder, low pressure. 

1 — 32"xl8 V4 "x24" Ingersoll-Rand compound. Class "PE-2". 
3175 cu. ft. displacement at 150 R.P.M., direct connected to 
450 H.P. General Electric synchronous. 3-60-440 motor. 

1 — 15"x24"x36" Nordberg two stage, belted to 200 H.P. 
WeBtinghouse motor. 

1 double deck Deister Simplex slime. 

3 single deck Deister Simplex sand. 

1 — 48'xl6" belt conveyor with new belt take ups, troughing 
rollers, return idlers and 4"x6" wooden frame. 

1 — No. 3 AUBtin gyratory. 

1 — No. 7%-K Allis-Chalmers Gates gyratory- 

1 — Laboratory crusher. 

1 — 10x16 Joshua Hendy Blake type. 

1 — 24* center belt and continuous bucket elevator. 

7 — 18"x36" high, complete with guides, hand wheel, rack 
and pinion. 




1 — 12'xlO' Oliver filter, complete with pumps, vacuum receiver 
and moiBture trap. 

1 — Monarch tilting furnace and crucible. 

1 — 7x10x43 Hendrie & Bolthoff steam hoist. 

1 each 12 H.P., 20 H.P.. 26 HP., Western gas hoists. 


1 — Baldwin Standard 6 wheel switch engine, about 35 tons. 

1 — 8'x22" Hardinge conical ball mill, complete with Titanite 

liners and chrome steel balls. 
1 — 4'xlO' Power & Mining Machinery Co. 'a wet grinding tube 

3 — 4%' ten ton Kinkead mills, top driven. 
5 — 6'xl6' Allis-Chalmers Standard wet grinding tube mills. 

1 — 680 H.P. synchronous motor generator set. complete with 
booster, exciter, switchboard, switches, etc. 

We have a large stock constantly on hand of all sizes and 
makes and for all purposes. At present from 150 HP. 
down to 3 H.P. 

1 — SVj' clean-up pan. 
1 — l^" wheel. 
1 — 2" wheel. 


1 — 4%"x8" Gould triplex. 

1 — 4" x6" 

1 — 7" x8" 

1 — 3" x4" 

1 — 3%"x7" Aldrich single acting. 

1 — 6"x9" Aldrich triplex. 

1 — 8"xl0" Dean triplex single acting with motor. 

1 — 4" Prenier sand pump. 

1 — 5U"x3^"x5" Fairbanks-Morse double acting pump. 

1 — 2" Jackson centrifugal. 3-stage. 


2 — Advance boiler feed pumps, size No. 323. 
1 each, Cameron sinker. No. 5. No. 7. No. 9-B. 


8 lb.. 12 lb„ 10 lb., new supply. Just received. 

8 — 5 stamp batteries, complete. 

— 15'x30' Redwood. NEW. 

3 — lG'x 6" " NEW. 

8— 7'xl8' " USED. 

Large stock of wooden tanks, all sizes, in good condition. 


2 — 24'x8' Dorr thickener mechanisms and Redwood tanks. 


1 each 25. 10, 10 K.W.. 0000/440. 

2 each 10. 1'A K.W., 6«0ii, 140".'U0/110. 
1 each 5. 5. 2 K.W., 2200/440/220. 
1 each 10. 5 K.W.. 440/27. 
3 — 16 K.W., 4800/18000. 
3 — 10 K.W.. 1200/2400-240/280. 
3 — 500 K.V.A.. 54500-48000/400, water cooled. 


3 — 5 compartment wooden zinc boxes. 24"x24"x24". 


Pipe and fittings, pulleys, shafting, rails, boiler tubes, plates, 
bars, power transmission cable, roofing, carbide, belting, 
grinding balls a specialty. Mining and electrical muchlnery 
and equipment and mechanical supplies of all kinds. 


Nevada Engineering & Supply Company 




Concentrating Tables. Flotation Apparatus. Classifiers. 
Screens, etc 

W. A. BUTCHART, 1326-1330 Eleventh St., Denver. Colo. 
A. P. WATT, Eastern Representative, Room" 1903, 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York | 
iiiiimniitjiimummimiiiimiimiiiiiiiiilillllimtiiiiimiimiiiiiii mniiiitm miimiiilHiuluumiliumilliminiiiujmaic 

-Jiiimiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii j ti i n ii i ii.'iiitiiimiiiMiiimiiiJiiiiiiiimiiiiiiimiiiimiiiiiiimijMiiimiii iiiimiiiminiimiu 





Birmbaham, Ala— Boi 908. Chicago, 111— 512 1st Nat. Bt. Bids E 

5 Columbia, Obio— 607 New Hayden Bids. Dallas. Tel— 1217 Praetorian Bids. I 

i Mmaeapolli. Minn.— 712 Plymotb Bids. Kansas City. Mo— 716 Scarritt Bldj. E 

§ New Yorlt City— No. 261 Broadway San Francisco. CaL— 71 1 Balboa Bldg. 1 

3 Los Angeles, Cal.— 439. East Third St. = 

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January 1, 1921 

Nothing Needed 
But a Hammer 




Consider carefully the 100 per cent efficiency of Alligator 
Steel Belt Lacing in satisfying your requirements. You will 
find it best on every kind of leather, cotton, rubber or 
balata belt 

Best for Every Service 

Everywhere in Industry, where belting is required, Alli- 
gator Steel Belt Lacing is known and preferred. 

Short, flexible joint insures smoothness of operation. Sec- 
tional Steel Rocker Hinge Pins (patented) form frictionless 
"rocker" for the flexible joint. In damp or heavy work, where 
other lacing pulls out, Alligator Steel Belt Lacing holds. 

Simple, Strong, Economical 

—Preferred by All Who Know It 

Makes a Perfect Joint 

In a working time of less than three minutes, the average belt can 
be laced with Alligator Steel Belt Lacing. No special skill or training 
needed. No tool but a hammer to insure a perfect joint. Consider 
this saving in help, time and money over other methods of lacing. 

Alligator Steel Belt Lacing saves the belting because the pull 
comes against the edge of the teeth and not the flat. It becomes a 
permanent part of belt— does not 
pull out — and replacements even 
in hardest use are practically 



Produced in 
connect ionwith 
our Alligator 
Steel Belt Lac- 
ing, and sold at 
a decided sav- 
ing as a me- 
chanically per- 
fect guard. 

In all sizes — 
standard brass 
or weather-proof 
Bockets, with or 
. .. . tationary tyr>BB, with 
f -retaining lock screw or plain 

round bond 

tatockcd Id London 

A Large Surplus 
of Strength 

Note the double stag- 
gered teeth (shown in il- 
lustration) — they give the extra 
strength to Alligator Lacing. 

Ask Your Jobber — 

or Write Now for 

Prices, Samples and 

Full Details 

Write today— or use the cou- 
pon. Let us quote you prices 
and send samples and full de- 
tails regarding Alligator Steel 
Belt Lacing. Made for belts of 
all sizes from tape to five-eighths 
inch thickness. 

Hundreds of thousands of men the world over are now recommend- 
ing and using no other lacing than Alligator —The World's Greatest 
Belt Lacing. It will be a big saving and a wonderful convenience for 
you. Use the coupon. Tear it off now. Write us at once. 


4635 Lexington Street Chicago, III., U. S. A. 

135 Finsbury Pavement, London, E. C England 

Send This Coupon! 


52G South Clinton Street, Chicago 

Gentlemen: Kindly send price lists, sample and complete details of Alligator 
Steel Lacing. Also send prices and description of Flexco-Lok Lamp Guards. 

Check if Desired 

Firm Name.., 

Name of Inquirer 

{Tear This Coupon Out — Send it Today) 

uiiiimmrmimiimmmmiimmii t iiimiiiiimmmmiiiiiNimmiiiniiiiiiirimmiJiiiiiiiiimii iiiiiiiiiiiiiimiimmim 

F» O W E LLl 




Steam bronze | 

composition | 

body and trim- J 

mi ngs; vul- | 

canized compo- J 

sitiondiscforor- | 

dinary pressure; { 

white metal or j 

bronze disc for | 

heavier service, j 

Notice the Union I 
Bonnet Connection 


I A,k TJ^ e u. The Wm. Powell Co. 



Perforated Steel Screens 

Of Every Description 


Made for Service 

1 The Harrington & King Perforating Co. 

I 637 N. Union Ave., Chicago, 111. 

NEW YORK OFFICE: 114 Liberty 

nlillllllllillillitlllllllltllliliiiiiililllllillltHllllliilliiiiiiiiliirlitillliillliilililliiitiiriiiliiilillllllllillllitiiiiiiiiiiirilrlllillllliiiiiiin ," 

January 1. 1921 



Hundreds of Letters 
Like These — 

have been coming in for 24 years. They come 
from big engineers and business men, who are glad 
to let us know their appreciation of 


Many of these letters are instructive to any man 
interested in plant operation, since they tell in de- 
tail how to save time and money on repair work. 

The best of them have been collected into a big 
free instruction book which will be sent to you 
on request. 

Write for your copy now. 


570-574 Communipaw Ave., Jersey City, N. J., U. S. A. 

Chicago Office: 
221 N. Jefferson St. 

San Francisco Office: 
56 Sacramento St. 


lliilllll illi!llllll II iiiiuimiiMiniiiimr^ 

A Smith Hydraulic Turbine 


I Built by dredge engineers to yield maximum yardage \ 

| capacity at minimum yardage cost; embodying prac- | 

| tical dredging experience in all placer mining fields ot § 

= the world. § 


Placer Alining Equipment and Machinery | 

1 Write tor the Catalogs 






Most extensive and successful manufacturer!. § 
Old plates replated — made equal to new. = 


1349-51 Minon St., Su E. G. DENNISTON, Prop. | 

Get our prices. Catalog Bent = 

Telephone: Market 2915 | 





= For twenty years metallurgists and assayers 

E have looked upon Thompson Balances and 

= Weights as the acme of precision. Made in 

s a style and size for every purpose. 
= Write for catalog 

1 Denver* Colo. 

nimiiiiiiiimiimimiimiiiimmim mm 1 1 limn Illlll I mm mill Illllllllli 

installed in a con- 
crete scroll case, 
fulfills the re- 
quirements of 


in the power and pump- 
ing equipment 
furnished the 


as shown in accompany- 
ing illustration 


214 H. P.,225R. P. M. 


All parts easilu accessible for inspection and renewal, 
due to action ot tilt at certain seasons. 

| Similar anil now being bnllt tor Grand Valley Prolccl In Colorado | 




| 76 W. Hoaioe St. 176 Federal St MS Power Bide. 461 Market Si. jj 




January 1, 1921 




so aeG#E£ 



A turn or two with the fingers is all 
that is needed to open the 

MERCO Nordstrom 

Why put up with valves that stick 
and have to be jarred loose ? 

Descriptive literature and prices gladly furnished 
on request. 

In ordering, please state temperature, pressure 
and character of fluid to be handled, also whether 
acid, alkaline or neutral. 


121 2nd St., San Francisco 

Chicago Office: Monadnock Bids., Chicago, III. 


Please send orders to our nearest office. 

I1IIIIMIIM1II1II IIIM III IIIMtlllMIMIIIIIllllll III II III III 11111(11 III Mill III lltll III III Mill 111 II I II III III II ill III II III III lllll 111 Mill III IMM 111 III II llllllll^ Utllll HI PIN 


Are Not Affected by 

Muddy, Gritty Water 

The cylinder has large clearance and 
the plunger is outside packed at tin 
top. The suction and discharge valve* 
are fitted with bronze taper seats and 
are easily exchanged by removing bon 
nets. The Jack Head works altogethei 
on the down stroke; the pump rod Is 
made to weigh just half the amount of 
pressure exerted on the plunger so that 
the load is equal and uniform at all 
times whether on down or up stroke 
In this way 

Balance Bob is Eliminated 

thereby increasing the efficiency and 
materially reducing cost of installation 
These pumps are made with capacities 
of from 30 to 500 gallons per minute 
and for elevationB up to 600 feet. 


Established 1830 
290 Fremont St. San Francisco, Cal. 

Leschen Tramways 

We design and manufacture Aerial 
Wire Rope Tramways not only for the 
economical conveying of ore and like 
material, but also for the disposal of 
ashes (rom boilers, waste from coal mines, tailings 
from concentrating plants, or refuse from various 
manufacturing processes. 

The first cost is often very small: the saving 
in labor and annoyance often very great. 
EilntliiheJ 1817 

St. Louia, U. S. A. 

New York,, Denrer, Salt Like CiU, Sin Frincuc. 







1009 17th Street 101 Park Avenue 16 Sooth Street | 







imiiiiiini immmmmmmiiiii iminmiu i i i i jmmmiimmmmmiim milium r :i mum iimnmmi mi imiiimm immiiiiimmmn iu mi iiiimimmmmin 

January I. 1921 





As a Mill Manager or a Superintendent 
Means Something to YOU. 

It vitally depends on securing maximum 
tonnage and extraction at the lowest pos- 
sible cost pur ton treated. 

Let the American Continuous Filter help 
you to obtain these results. Get the 
economy, ease of operation and increased 
output that are obtained through the use 
of American Filters. 

Ask for Bulletin P-104 and learn 
all aboat its close filtering ad- 
vantages and ease of renewing 
the filter medium. 

mm iiMMmiiiitiuinimmiiii : uninnii i i," 




r !WMMBB' 

Hickok & Hickok. 507 Hobart Bldg., San Francisco 

Henry Bldg.. Portland, Ore. American P. 0. Shanghai, China 


| " Mech anize Underground" with the 

1 Ckuveloder 

| k^^ a practical mucking machine 
| JLake Superior Loader Co. Duiuth, Minn 

i ; ■ i hi 


Backed by a record of 25 years 

of dependable service 



Tapes and 


I THEJUmmftULECo. N^k 

.Ti 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 f 1 1 m r 1 1 1 ri ■ M 1 1 1 1 1 r iiiiiniiiimm miiiiiimiiiitiii.iiiiiiiiiiiiii.iiiiiiiiiiiimilil.iliiiiii iiiHiiwiiiiiiHimiiiiiii.. 

Fop Bad IVIine Roofs 

use the . 


V^__^ (TRADE MARKl V^ J7** 



Jan. .'HI, 

Aould be-e w " supervision ol *« ^ 

LchiBB ^ ene ^ 3 a success and great I 

L work proved a b succes stu P t 

Leers in the Mr . Cox w 

n« ny mto !?L*«*««* e inade oTtfi* 

W0 ^eff^deTv extended us ^ ^ 

The almost universal adoption of the "Cement-Gun" 
in coal mines since the time this article was written 
has vindicated the editor's contention — and metal 
mines are rapidly following in line. 

There is no reason why the "widely extended use 
where trouble is experienced with had roofs" which 
the "Cement-Gun" enjoys among coal mines should 
not be duplicated among metal mines. 

Among the many reasons for the Cement-Gun's popularity 

is the fact that 
it repairs bad 
roofs PER- 

( We Sell Traytor Mine Type Compressors. ) 



30 Church St.. New York City 

904 Ch.m. of Com. Bldg., Chicago, III. 

211 Fulton Bldg., Pittsburgh,. Pa. 

Citizens Nat. Bank Bldg., Loa Angeles 

612 Mohawk Block, Spokane, Waab. 

S12 Va. Railway & Power Bldg., Rich- 
mond, Va. 

204 R. A. Long Bldg., Kaaaaa City, Mo. 

Canada : Eaat of Alberta, The General 
Snpply Co., Ltd., 360 Sparka St., 
Ottawa and 85 Water St., Winnipeg. 

Canada: West of Alberta and British 
Colombia . bandied from Spokane office 

Agencies in all Principal Foreign Countries 



January 1, 1921 

c BATES: Onc-haU inch, $tt per year, subscription included. Combination rate with The Mining Magazine (London) one-half inch in each, tkO per year, subscription included 
mmiimiimmiimiiiiiiiimiini iiiiiiiiiitiiiitiitiiiitiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiHiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiu iiiiiiiiimnmii tiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiimDiiiiriiniit 


421 Denham Bdg\. Denver, Colo. 
No professional work undertaken 











Rangoon. Burma 


% Scott. 


BROWN, B. Gilman 


Pinners Hall. London. E.C. 2 

Cable : Argeby Usual Codes 

ADDICKS, Lawrence 

51 Maiden Lane, New York City 
Cable : Galie, New York 

BEAM, A. Mills 



807 Central Savings Bank Bdg., 

Denver, Colorado 

BROWNE, Spencer C. 

2 Rector Street. New York 
Cable: Spenbrowne. New York 



Examination, valuation and development of 

mines in Bolivia 

Casilla 176. Oruro, Bolivia 

BEATTT, A. Chester 

25 Broad St.. New York 
No professional work entertained 
Cable: Granitic 

Burch. Hershey & White 
BURCH, Albert 


Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 

Cable: Burch Usual Codes 

ALDRIDGE, Walter H. 

50 East 42nd St.. New York 

Hamilton, Beauchamp. Woodworth, Inc. 


Specialty: Flotation 

419 Embarcadero. San Francisco 

BURCH, H. Kenvon 


Phelps Dodge Corporation. 

Copper Queen Branch 

Bisbee. Arizona 

ARGALL & SONS, Philip 



First National Bank Bdg.. Denver 

Cable : ArgaU Code : Bedford McNeill 

BEDFORD, Robert H. 

Grass Valley. California 


71 Broadway, New York 

ARNOLD, Ralph 


Union Oil Bdg., Los Angeles, Cal. 

120 Broadway. New York 

Cable: Ralfarnoil Cable: Bedford McNeill 


% Chile Exploration Co. 
120 Broadway. New York 


648 Mills Bdg., San Francisco, Cal. 

B. C. Austin G. E. Gamble W. V. Wilson 


Chronicle Bdg., San Francisco 

Cable: Austin Usual Codes 

BENEDICT, William de L. 
19 Cedar St.. New York 

CAMPBELL, J. Morrow 


Messrs. Steel Bros. & Co.. Ltd.. 

Rangoon. Burma 








St.. N. 






Specialty: Smoke and Other Industrial Injury 
to Vegetation. 14 yearB experience in America 
and Europe. 252o Hilgard Ave., Berkeley, Cal. 


Citizens National Bank Bdg.. Loa Angeles 

BALL, Sydney H. 


42 Broadway, New York 

Cable: AlhaBters Rogers. Mayer & Ball 









1507. 14 Wall Street, New 


Cable: Mukeba 

CHANCE & CO., H. M. 



839 Drexel Bdg.. Philadelphia 

BANCROFT, Holland 


408 Crocker Bdg., San Fransisco 

Casilla No. 216, Oruro, Bolivia 

Cable: Howban Code: Bedford McNeill 












1 and 9 Hanover 


Marquette. Mich. 

New York 




Francis L. 



90 West St., 

54 New Broad St., 

New York 





Room 2083, No. 50 Church St., 

New York City, U. S. A. 

BRAYTON, Corey C. 

2937 Magnolia Ave.. Berkeley, Cal. 


61 Broadway. New York 

CHASE, Charles 




825-826 Cooper Bdg., Denver 

Liberty Bell G. M 

. Co.. Telluride, Colo. 

CHASE, E. E. and R. L. 


207 Colorado Nat. Bk. Bdg., 

Denver, Colo. 





615 Pender 

St. w 

, Vancouver, 



BBODIE, Walter M. 

... 47 Cedar St.. New York 

COHEN, Samuel W. 

. Dominion Express Bdg.. Montreal. Canada 

January 1. 1921 



COLLBRA.N. Arthur H. 


Seoul. Korea 

COLLINS, Edwin Jamn 

Mine Examinations and Management 
1008-1009 Torrey Bd«-.. Duluth. Minn. 

OOLLLXS, George E. 

Mine Examinations and Management 
414 Boston Bds . Denver 
Cable: Colomae 

COLLIN'S, Henry F. 

66 Finsbury Pavement. London. E.C. 



Cable: Collin*. Peking Peking:. China 

COOK, Paul R. 


Balkan States 

% American Consul 

Sofia. Bulgaria Belgrade. Serbia 

CRANSTON, Robert E. 


1213 Hobart Bdg.. 582 Market St. 

flan Francisco 2 Rector St.. New Tork 

Cable : Recrans Code : McNeill 1908 



The Insurance Exchange. San 

Cabte: Deerhodor Code: 

McNeill 1908 

DOLBEAR, Samuel H. 


1415 Merchants National Bank Bug . 

San Francisco 


John V. N. Dorr. President 

Denver New York London. E.C. 


704 Lonsdale Bdg., Duluth. Minn. 

Lindsay Duncan Curtis Lindley, Jr. 




649 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco 

DWIGHT, Arthur S. 


29 Broadway. New York 
Cable: Sinterer 

Code: McNeill; Miners & Smelters 

EASXON, Stanly A. 


Manager Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining & 

Concentrating Co.. Kellogg. Idaho 


Eureka, t'tnh 

FOWLER, Samuel S. 


Nelson. British Columbia 
Cable: Fowler Usual Codes 



Mine and Metallurgical Plant Design and 


1209 Hobart Bdg,. San Francisco 

GAUL, Rudolf 

804 Equitable Bdg.. Denver. Colo. 

GARI.ICK. William A. 

Attorney at Law 

Certified Public Accountant 

(N. C.) 



As Applied to Oil, Mines and 


One year experience in Income 

Tax Unit. 

U. S. Treasury. Washington 

D. C. 

1022 Crocker Bdg-., San Francisco, Cal. 

DARLING, Harry W. 


Box 489 

Timmins. Out.. Canada 

24 N. Chanel St., 
Alhambra. Cal, U.BA. 

EDE, J. A. 

La Salle. Illinois 

GARREY, George H. 



Bullitt Bdg.. Philadelphia. Pa. 

DAVIS, Leverett 


Examination, Development, Management 

911 Foster Bdg.. Denver. Colo. 


1209 Hobart Bdg. 406 State Bank Bdg. 

San Francisco, Cal. Tonopah, Nevada 

GEPPERT, Richard M. 


2200 27th Ave.. South. 

Minneapolis. Minn. 


616 Underwood Bdg., San Francisco, Cal. 

EYE, Clyde Al. 


% Wells Fargo Nevada Nat. Bank, 

San Francisco. Cal. 

Cable : Eyecon Code : Western Union 

GIBSON, Arthur 

Placer Mining and Magnetometric Determina- 
tions of Mineral Concentrations in the field. 
300 Haight St.. San Francisco. Cal. 



618 North Third Avenue 

Phoenix. Arizona 

DE KALB, Courtenay 

Temporarily engaged on investigation of 
Spanish Mineral Resources for U. S. Dep't. of 
Commerce. Washington. D. C. 

DEL MAR, Algernon 


Specialty. Mill Operation and Construction 

1424 Alpha St.. Los Angeles 

DENNIS, Clifford 

'..rocker Bdg. 
Cable* 'rnned 


San Francisco 





909-917 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 


Etzatlan, Jalisco, Mexico, 
% Amparo Mining. Co. 

FARISH, George E. 


First National Bank Bdg.. San Francisco 

25 Broad St.. New York 

FARISH, John B. 

Office. 58 Sutter St.. San Francisco 
Residence, San Mateo, Cal. 
Cable : Farien 

Rowland King Chas. Mailhot 




209 Wall St.. Spokane. Wash. 






Room 1410 






1st Nat. Bk. Bdg.. Denver 423 Broad St.. New 
York. 826 Great Southern Bdg.. Dallas. Tex. 
Cable : Calflshoil Usual Codes 



Iron and Steel. Electric Furnaces. 

Whitcomb Hotel. San Francisco 


Wilbur H. 



Hobart Bdg.. 

582 Market St.. 

San FrandBCO 

Code: Bedford McNeill 

David X. Greenberg Frank A. Humphrey 


Kingman, Arizona 

Mine Reports and Examination? 


Old National Bank Bdg., Spokane. Wash. 







Fifth Ave. 






Specialty: Cyaniding Gold and Stiver Ores 

419 The Embarcadero. San Francisco 



January 1, 1921 

HANSON, Henry 

Specialty. Gold and Silver Ores 
Plant Design and Construction 
Hobart Bdg.. San Francisco. Cai. 

Dudley J. Inskipp John A. Bevan 



1. Broad St. Place. London, E.C. 

Cable: Monazite Usual Codes 

LORING, Frank C, 

Sun Life Bdg., Toronto. Ontario. Canada 

HAWXHURST, Robert, Jr. 

234 Holbrook Building. 
58 Sutter St.. San Francisco. Cal. 
Cable: Hawxhurst 

JANES, Charles 



716 Kohl B<ig 

. San 







614 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. Cal. 

London Address: % Bewick, Moreing & Co., 

62, London Wall, London 

Cable Address : Wantoness Usual Codes 

Bureh. Hershey & White 
HERSHEY, Oscar H. 


Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 

Cable: Hershey Code: McNeill 

JENKS, Arthur W. 

2601 Hillegass Ave.. Berkeley, Cal. 


Avenida Isabela La Catolica. Num. 25, 
Mexico City 
Cable: Lucke. Mexico City 

HILLS, Victor G. 

312 McPhee Bdg., Denver. Colo. 

HODGE, Edwin T. 

Consulting Geological and Mining Engineer 
Standard Bank Building. Vancouver, B. C. 
Department of Geology, University of Oregon, 
Eugene. Oregon 


1. London Wall Buildings. London. E.C 




Karl F. 





2 Rector St. 

New York 


228 Perry St.. Oakland. Cal. 
Cable : Siberhof 




1025 Peoples Gas Bdg., Chicago 

HOOVER, Herbert 

120 Broadway, New York 

HOOVER, Theodore J. 

1. London Wall Bdg.. London. E.C 
Balfour Bdg.. San Francisco 
Cable: Miidaloo 



Goldfleld Consolidated Mines Exploration Co. 

Crocker Bdg., San FranciBco, Cal. 

KEENE, Amor F. 

233 Broadway, New York 
Cable AddresB : Kamor, New York 

E. H. Eennard E. C. Bierce 



Mill Design and Construction. Filtration. 

Hollingsworth Bdg.. Los Angeles. Cal. 

KINZIE, Robert A. 

First National Bank Bdg.. San Francisco 

KIR BY, Edmund B. 


918 Security Bdg.. St. Louis 

Specialty: The expert examination of mines 

and metallurgical enterprises 





Felt Bdg., Salt Lake City, Utah 


Ely. Nevada 

LEHMAJVN, Charles 


Examination and Management of Properties 

Casilla 1364, Santiago. Chili, S. A. 



Diamond Drilling and Shaft Sinking 


Manufacturers of Diamond Drills and Supplier 

General Office: 710-722 Security Bdg., 

Minneapolis. Minn. 

Cable: Longco Code: McNeill 

LUNT. Horace F. 

Commissioner of Mines for Colorado 

... Denver, Colo. 
■ No pro'essional work undertaken 



% Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. 


MAJOR, Chas. Edward 

l P.O. Box 474, Prescott. Arizona 



Andagoya, via Buenaventura, Colombia, 

South America 


Non-Ferrous Metallurgy 
42 Broadway. New York 

McCarthy, e. t. 

10 Austin Friars, London 

HOSKIN, Arthur J. 


Mining. Metallurgy, Geology, Oil Shale 


401 Kittredge Bdg.. Denver. Colo. 


Hoge, Bdg.. Seattle, Wash. 






Mines P. O 

District. Singhbhum, 

Chota Nagpur. India 


Casilla No. 1507, Lima, Peru 
Telegrams & Cables: Howie. Lima 

Bentley's Code 


, H. Allman 





The Berenguela Tin Mines 

Ltd.. . 


Ingenio. Potosi 

Code: McNeill 1908 

McGregor, a. g. 


Design of Metallurgical Plants 

Warren. Arizona 

HOYLE, Charles 

Apartado 8. El Oro. Mexico 


207 Alaska Commercial Bdg.. San Francisco 
Cable: Harii*ton 

HUTCHIXS. John Power. 

■ Room ^3700, l>2u Broadway. 
New- York 


Specialty: Pyro-Metallurgy of Copper and As- 
sociated Metals. 29 Broadway. New York 
Cable: Ricloy Code: McNeill 

LOCKE, Augustus 

788 Mills Bdg.; San Francisco, Cal. 

Bewick. Moreing & Co. 
LORING, E. A. " .:'.; 


62 London iWall.: London, E.C.. 2 

Cable: Ringlo Usual Codes 

MEEV, William Wallace 

43 Exchange Place. New York 
Cable: Mein, New York 

MERCER, John W. 


General, .Manager South American MineB Co., 

Mills Bdg.. Broad St.. New York 

MERRILL, Charles W." 

r,y 'iZ\ Second St.. ^Sair'Francr^co 
Cable: Lurco Code: Bedford Mcl§etll 


January 1, 1923 




The examination of mtnlnr properties for 

investors a specialty 

781 S Hope St.. Los Annies. Cal. 

MILLS, Edwin W. 


24 East T«unr Pu Hutung. Peking. Chins 

Telegrams: Edmllle Usual Codes 

.MIXARD, Frederick H. 


21 Eaat 40th St.. New York 

Cable : Frednard Code : McNeill 

MITKE, Chius. A. 


Mine Ventilation — Mining Methods 

Blsbee. Arizona 



1057 Monadnock Bdg\, San Francisco 

Cable : Fredmor Code : McNeill 

PLATE, H. Robinson 


Examination. Development and Management 

Hobart Bdg.. San Francisco. Cal. 

Howard Poillon C. E 

POILLON & I't il i; 1 1 :ii 

63 Wall St.. New York 



Casilla 489. Santiago de Chile 

Cable: Kivapo. Santiago. Chile Code: McNeill 



Colombian Corporation. Limited, 

Apartado 172, Medellin, Colombia 

PROBER!', Frank H. 

University of California. Berkeley, Cal. 


1108 Hobart Bdg . San Francisco 

Code: McNeill 


Edwin M. 




Broadway, New 


Cable: Emrog 



ROGERS, John C. 

Examination and Exploration of Mining Prop* 

erties with a view to Purchase 
Copper Cliff. Ontario. Code : Bedford McNeill 

Allen H. Rogers Lucius W. Mayer 

Sydney H. Ball 



42 Broadway, New York 
201 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 

Cable: Alhastere 

MUDD. Seeley W. 

1208 Hollingsworth Bdg.. Los Angeles. Cal 

MULR, N, M. 


1024 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco 

425 Flynn Ames Bdg.. Muskogee, Oklahoma 


5 Sodonsky Pereulok. Vladivostok 
6. Copthall Ave., London. E.C., 2 



Examination and Development of Properties 

736 Granville St.. Vancouver. B. C. 

ROYER, Frank W. 


1212 Hillingsworth Bdg.. Los Angeles. Cal. 

Cable: Royo Code: McNeill 


Consulting Metallurgist. Ore Smelting Con- 
tracts Investigated. Smelting and Milling uf 
Copper and Lead Ores. Design and Construc- 
tion. 120 Broadway. New York 


Cable: Orn 

C. H. 

Perak, Federated Malay States 
am . Code: McNeil] 

RAY, James C. 


865 Hamilton Ave., 

Palo Alto. Oal. 


Reports. Consultation and Management. Spe- 
cialty, Manganese. Stow Bedon. Norfolk. Eng. 
Codes: A. B.C.. 5th Ed : Bedford McNeill 

NEILL, James W. 


150 Pierpont St.. Salt Lake City. Utah 
Pasadena. Cal. Snelling, Cal. 

RICE, John A. 

525 Market St.. San Francisco 


Chem. and Met. Eng.. 217 Broadway, New 
York. Designing and Building Furnaces and 
Kilns: Lime, Magnesite. CO. PlantB and Gas 
Producers. Exp. Lab. for Mineral Products 

NEWBERRY, Andrew W. 

Room 330, No. 2 Rector St., New York City 
Cable Awnbry, New York 

Code : Bedford McNeill 

Robert H. Richards Charles B. Locke 



Testa for design of Flow Sheets 

69 Massachusetts Ave.. Cambridge. Mass. 

SCOTT, Archibald B. 



First National Bank Bdg.. Denver. Colo. 


Union League Club, San Francisco. Cal. 


120 Broadway. New Tork 

SEARS, Stanley C. 

Reports, Consultation and Management 
705 Walker Bank Bdg., Salt Lake City. Utah 
Usual Codes 

NOWLAND, Ralph C. 

Hobart Bdg., San Francisco 
In charge Exploration Dept. of D. C. Jackling 

RICHARD, Forbes 

Equitable Building. Denver 

SHALER, Millard K. 

66 Rue de Colonies, - 
Brussels. Belgium 

PAYNE, Henry M. 


Machinery Club. 60 Church St., New York 

Caule: Macepayne Usual Cuuep 


PEARSE it CO M Arthur L. 


Coal and Shale Treatment 

Worcester HdtiSe. Walbrodk! DorittSh; E.C 

43 Exchange, Place.: New York 

. . / iy»- 


PERKIKS/ WaftenGv raoS .Hi 

587 Mills Bdg., San Francisco 

■ iiciafc'a 

pickerix^;;*. ::te. 


i' ii 


' "Averiida"Juarez""83. "Mexico" CityT'MexTco" 
Cable: Keringpic 


Editor, Mining and Scientific Press 
No professional work undertaken 


42 Broadway, New York 

RITTER, A.,EUenue 

Colorado Springs. Colo. 


ROBERTS, Milnor . !"?f** 

,„.,"' .MINING ENGINEER .,. 

'The Paoinr North-west — 

tcitish Columbia and Alaska 
' -v.ersitv Station. Seattle. Wash 


.Mine Examinations and Management 
Saratoga, Cal. 


,Amos, Quebec Canada 
Fundicion de Los Arcos, Toluca. Mex. 
P. O. Box 160. Cobalt, Ontario 

SIZER, F.-'L. 

1006 Hobart Bdg., San Francisco - 


Frankltn W. Smith r Ralph A. jZiesemer 


Bisbee. Ariz. Code : McNeill 



January 1, 1921 

SMITH, Howard D. 


60 Broadway. New York 

Cable: Diorite Code ; Western UdIod 

SKINNER, Thomas M., Jr. 

Specialties: Natural Mineral Deposits and their 
processes perfected, efficiency of evaporation, 
filtration and combustion equipment. Report!, 
estimates and supervision of WeBtern Interests 
solicited. I 

Douglas, Wyoming 


214 O'Neill Bdg\, Phoenix. Ariz. 
















814 Mills Bag.. San Francisco 


STEVENS,. Arthur W, 

Atlanta. Idaho 

STEVENS, Blarney 

Triunfo, Baia Cal., Mexico, 
% S. A. de Minas y Monies 


Vancouver Block, Vancouver,-B.-C: 

STIXES, Norman O. 

4. Moorgate Street, London, E.C., 2 
Codes: McNeill (both Editions) and Bentley's~ 
Cable: Nurmstinen. London 

STRAUSS, Lester W. 


Casilla 514, Valparaiso, Chile. S. A. 

Cable: Lestra-Valparaiso Code: McNeill 


Mgr. Bluestone Mining & Smelting Co., 
Mason,- Nevada - - 

Arthur P. Taggart B. B. Yerxa 


Operation and design of ore treatment plants 
Laboratory. 165 Division St., New Haven. Conn. 

TALMAGE, Sterling B. 

Geologic Maps. Examinations, Reports 
315 Judge Bdg.. Salt Lake City. Utah 

TAYLOR, G. Cleveland 


U. S. Mineral Surveyor 

Prop. Redding Assay Office 

321 Butte St.. Redding. Cal. 

TAYS, Eugene A. H. 


San Bias. Sinaloa, Mexico 

Specialties: Professional Work in Mexico: 

Mexican Mining Law 


131 Locust St.. Santa Cruz. Cal. 

Codes: McNeill, both Edition? 


% A. Chester Beatty. 25 Broad St.. New York 
Code: Bedford McNeill 


H. W. 


Balfour Bdg*. 

San Francisco 



Code: Bedford McNeil) 


Goldfleld. Nevada 

TURNER, Scott 

1511 Bank of Hamilton Bdg., 
Toronto. Ontario. Canada 


534 Confederation Life Bdg'., Toronto, Canada 
208 Salisbury House. London. E:C 2. England 

■TYTliER,- Maynard Pitzroy ■- 

% Holte Mining Co., Burgdorf. Idaho 
Cable Address: McGall, Idaho Code: Bed. McN. 

WALLACE, H._ Vincent 


329 Central Building 

Los Angeles. California 


42 Exchange Place, New York 


14 Copthall Ave., LondonrB.C, 2 
And Peking, China 
Cable: Natchekoo. London . 

WEBBER, Morton 


165 Broadwayr New York" 

O'Rourke Estate Bdg„ Butte, Montana 

WEEKES, Frederic R. . 

233 Broadway, New "York 

WEIGALL, Arthur R. 


General Manager The Seoul Mining Co. 

Tul Mi Chung (NanteO 

Whang Hal Province. Chosen (Korea) 

WESTERVELT, William Young 


622 Fifth Ave.. New York 

Cable: Casewest Code: Broomhall'a 

WHITE, Charles H. 

788 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco 


Bothin Bdg., Santa Barbara. California 

Burch. Hershey & White 
WHITE, Uoyd C. 

Crocker Bdg.. San Francisco 

WHITMAN, Alfred R. 


Underground Programmes. Orebody Problems 

43 Exchange Place. New York 

Haileybury. Ontario 'Cobalt District) 

WHITMORE, Claude C. 



3216 Bayard St.. Butte. Montana 

WICKS, Prank R. 


Ore Treatment, Test Work. Plant Supervision 

Office and Laboratory: 1006 South Hill St., 

Los Angeles 








Glendnra. Cal 

J. H. Deveneux W. B. Devereux. Jr.. - 


120 Broadway, N, Y. ' 7. Victoria Ave., LondoD 
Cable: Kenreux Code: Bedford McNeill 

WLNCHELL, Horace V. 

1212 First National^Soo Line Bdg.. 

Minneapolis. Minn 
Cable: Race^yin 


Continental Bank Bdg., Salt Lake City. Utah 

WISEMAN, Philip . 


1210 Hollingsworth Bdg-., Lob Angeles 

Cable: Fijwiaeman w i .Codes: W. U.; McNeill 

WOLtf. Harry J. 

42 Broadway, New York City 
Cable: Minewolf Code: Bedford McNeill 

WRIGHT, Charles Will 

28, Via Parlamento. Rome, Italy 

Code: Bentleya 

WRIGHT, Louis A. 

370 Langegasse, Obercnais. Merano. Italy 
Cable: LawrighT: Rome "Codes: Redford"McNeill 
. and Bentley's. Complete Phrase 

WROTH, James S. 

42 Broadway. New - York 

Pope Yeatman Edwin S. Berry 



Examination, Development and Management 

of Properties 

Room 706. Ill Broadway. New York 

Cable : Code : 

Dxona Bedford McNeill 



Offices and Laboratory 
Story Bdg.. Los Angeles, California, U. S. A. 

laminations and Reports on all Mineral 

Deposits, Formations and Processes 

of Extraction 

20 years experience in the Western States, 

Pacific Coast States. U. S. A., Mexico 

and Central America 

ZEIGLER, Victor 


Examinatian of oil land? and mineral deposits 

Geologic and structural maps 

415 Empire Bdg.. Denver. Colo. 

January L 1921 




is a self-contained unit, consisting of a twin six-stage, Centrifugal, Direct Connected Pump 

It is fitted with flexible couplings and water-cooled, marine type thrust bearings. 
~\\e have shipped several pumps of this type during the past few months. Examples of capacities 
and heads are as follows : 

225 G.P.M 840' head 1750 R.P.M. 

250 " 1020' " "..... 1750 " 

550 " 840' " 1750 " . 

450 " 1560'" ..2300 " 

We build these pumps for heads up to 2000 

Suht.nir your pumping problems to us. No obligation. Write today for Catalogue No. 7 1 

Byron Jackson Iron Works 

Sharon Building 
San Francisco 


120 to 3300 B.H.K 

600 To-3ooaSHAFT H.E 



SINCE 1690 




1*9 60 BROADWAY. 




1 Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged 

Powdered Coal as a Fuel 

338 Pages 

By C. F. Herington 

Price $4.50 

124 Illustrations § 


420 Market St., San Francisco 


^iiiiuiiiniiiuiiiniiiniiitiuiiimiiiiniMniiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiitinniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii'ti | 




I Examination and Exploration of Mineral | 

Shah Sinking and Development 






January 1, 1921 


<F. W. Libbey) 
Assayers, Chemists and Metallurgist! 

305-307 N. First St., Phoenix. Arizona 


Aesayers. Chemists and Metallurgists 


Flotation and Cyanide Tests 

1008 South Hill St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 

J. M. CALLOW. President 



159 Pierpont Avenue. Salt Lake City. Utah 

Design and Erection of all Classes of Reduction Plants 



Tke 4th edition of our Ore Testing: Bulletin is now ready for mailing. We eh all be pleaded to 

send it to you upon request 

New York Office, 120 Broadway, Room 3022. C. E. Chaffin. Local Manager 

Canadian Office. 363 Sparks St., Ottawa, Canada 

Australian Agent: F. H. Jackson, 22 Carrington St.. Wynward Square, Sydney, N. S. W„ Australia 

BARDWELL, Alonzo F. 


(Successor to Bettles & Bardwell) 

158 S. W. Temple St., Salt Lake City. Utah 

Ore Shippers' Agent 



Technical and Chemical Analysis of Ores 

Minerals, and All Organic Materials 

223 W. First St., Los Angeles. Cal. 





Flotation of Copper, Lead, Zinc, and Other Minerals 

Tests made on Lots of 1 lb. up to 6 Tons 


Laboratory and Office. 419 The Embarcadero. San Francisco 
Telephone: Sutter 5266 Cable address: Hambeau Codes: West. Union; Bed. McNeill 


Chemical electro-chemical, metallurgical and 

electro-metallurgical investigations and 

reports. Processes developed 

804 Atlas Bdg.. San Francisco 

LEDOUX & CO., Inc. 


Independent samplers at the port of New York 

Representatives at all Refineries and Smelters on Atlantic Seaboard 

Office and Laboratory: 99 John Street. New York 


Shippers' Representatives 
Box BB. Douglas. Arizona 

C. A. LUCKHARDT CO. Telephone, Kearny 5951 



Sampling- of Ores at Smelters 

53 Stevenson St., San Francisco 



El Paso, Texas 

Umpire and Controls a Specialty 

SMITH, EMERY & CO. (Ore Testing Plant, Los Angeles) 


Represent Shippers at Smelters, Test Ores, and Design Mills 

661 Howard Street. San Francisco 245 South Los Angeles Street. Lob Angeles 


Special problems in ore treatment 
29 Broadway, New York City 
Cable Address: Sinterer 


An Institution of Technology and Engineering. Full degrees, low cost, fine climate, new 
equipment, accessible to mines and smelters. Write for catalogue. 


ERMLICH & CO., Geo. J. 


Control and Umpire Work 

Ore Snippers Agent 

1725 Champa St.. Denver. Colo. 

LAUCKS, I. F. f Inc. 

Chemists, Asaayere. Metallurgists 

Shippers' Representatives at Smelters 

99 Marion St.. Seattle. Wash. 



Oils, Hydrocarbons and Oil Shale Analysis 

169 South West Temple Street. 

Salt Lake Gity. Utah 

FROST, Oscar J. 

420 Eighteenth St., Denver, Colo. 

GIBSON, Walter L. 

Successor to 
824 Washington St.. Oakland 
Phone 8929 
Umpire assays and supervision of sampling. 
Working tests of cree. analysis. Investiga- 
tions of metallurgical and technical. processes. 
Professor L. Falkenau. General Manager and 
Consulting Specialist. 

IRVING & CO., James 


Mines Examined 

702 South Spring St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 

HANKS, Abbott A. 


Established 1866 

624 Sacramento St., San Francisco 

Control and Umpire Assays, Supervision of 
Sampling at Smelters 

Bureau of Inspection and Testing 





Mines Examined and Reported On 

Processes Investigated. Mills Designed 

Laboratory, 28 Belden Place, San Francisco 




(Established 1895) 

120 N. Main St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 



1118 Nineteenth St., Denver 

Ore Shippers' Agent. Write for terms 

Representatives at all Colorado smelters 

PITKIN, Inc., Lucius 

Weighers, Samplers and Assayers of Ores of 
all Descriptions 
47 Fulton St., New York 
Cable: Niktip 



Fresno. Cal. 

.I.irmnry 1, l:>lM 



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1 ^-.rrF^^^^-^^^*^^' 




SanFRAMCCWO Calif. U.S.A. 


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can be sectionalized for ^ 
mule packing 1 . It is par- r 
ticularly suited for use in = 
isolated places on account | 
of the long- life of the = 
wearing' parts and its = 
freedom from breakdowns. | 
Send for Catalog No. 9. = 
106 W. Third St., = 
iReles, Calif. - 
nun tiiMiiiiitniiii '■ 


Not a drop of Leakage in this 12.000-foot installation of 

| Lap Welded and Spiral Riveted Steel Pipe | 

5 When 286-lb. working pressure turned on at the Homestake Mining = 

= Co., Lead, South Dakota. E 

| Catalog Lap Welded Pipe (Large Diameters) and Spiral Riveted = 

= Pipe mailed on request. § 


| 50 Church St., New York Chicago, III. § 



*J U S T 


| Vol. XXVUI —1919 Edition 

I The Mineral Industry | 

I Edited by G. A. Roush 

1 941 Pages 6^4x9% Illustrated | 
Price $10.00 

| This is an exhaustive review, not only of a | 

| statistical but a general nature. Every article | 

| is the work of a specialist. Every com mer- | 

I daily valuable metal from aluminum to zinc | 

I is covered in alphabetical order fully and | 

1 authoritatively. 


| 420 Market St., San Francisco 

I Gentlemen: Enclosed find J10.00 for which send me a | 

I copy of Roush's "The Mineral Industry", Vol. XXVIII, | 

| 1919 Edition. | 

| Name § 

| Address . . . . i j 

I McG-l-l-21 | 

fiillliliiiilllimiimlimilltiiiiimilltimiiitllllll iiimiiiiiimiimlimilllllimim iimmiimmiliiilimnltill mmmmiLULu-i 



January 1, 1921 


Acetylene Generator! 
Bullard, E. D. 
Oxweld Acetylene Co. 

Aftercoolers, Air 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Oo. 


Chalmers & Williams 
Dorr Co., The 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Trent. Goodwin M. 

Air Receivers 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co.. 

Rix Compressed Air « Drill 1*0. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Amalgamating plates 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
San Francisco Plating Works 
, Simpson Co., A. H. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Angles, Boiled Steel 
Pollak Steel Co. 

Assayers* and Chemists' Supplies 

Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan 
Braun Corporation, The 
Caire Co., Justinian 
Calkins Co. _ _ 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., JoBeph 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
(See Index to Advertisers) 

Axles, Car and Locomotive 

Pollak Steel Co. 

Axles, Mine Car 
Pollak Steel Co. 

Braun Corporation, The 

Balances and Weights 

Ainsworth, Wm. & Sons 
Braun Corporation, The 
Caire Co., Justinian 
Calkins Co. * 

Denver Fire Clay L-o. 
Fairbanks. Morse & Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy & Sup. Co. 
Thompson Balance Co. 

Balls for Ball-Mills 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp.. Ltd- 

Chalmers & Williams ' 

Denver Engineering Works CO. 

Hardinge Co. 

Hickok & Hickok 

Los Angeles Foundry Co. 

Pollak Steel Co. 

Ball-Mills (see 'Mills') 

.Bars, Concrete 

Pollak Steel Co. 

Bars,' Rolled" Steel 
Pollak Steel Co. 


Garratt & Co.. W. T. 

Belting and Lacing 

Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 
Dodge Sales & Engineering Co. 
Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 
Flexible Steel Lacing Co. 
Gandy Belting Co. 
Goodrich Rubber Co., B. F. 
Main Belting Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
New York Belting & Packing Co. 
Pioneer Rubber Mills 

Belt Fasteners 
.,, .descent Belt Fastener Co. 

- m YIU'S - GUIDE 

Machinery and Supplies of Dependable Manufacturers are here Listed; 
Addresses will be found on the Sixth following Page ••• ' 

If you do not find what you wdntcommunicatewith Mining andSciEtmnc Press Smrn 


Allis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 

General Electric Co. _ „ _ 

Hendrie & Bolthofl Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Blowing Engines 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Ltd. 
Hendrie & Bclthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Books, Technical 

Mining and Scientific Press 

Brick, Fire 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Brlquettlng Machinery 

General Bricuietting Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 

Dodge SaleB & Engineering Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthofl Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 
Burners, Oil 

Brauz. Corporation, The 

Braun -Knecht-Hei m ann-Co 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Lunkenheimer Co., The 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Powell Co., Wm. 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
i Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Calculating Machines 

Marchant Calculating Machine Co. 
Monroe Calculating Machine Co. 

Cam Shafts 

Pollak Steel Co. 

Carbide Flare Lights 
Bullard, E. D. 

Carbons, Borts, and Diamonds 

AtkinB, Kroll & Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Box Iron Works Co.. Wm. A. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthofl Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Ottumwa Iron Works 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Western Wheeled Scraper Co. 

Dodge Sales & Engineering Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Channels, Rolled Steel 

Pollak Steel Co. 

Barrett Co., The 

Braun Corporation, The 


Caire Co., Justinian 

Calkins Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. ' 

Du Pont de Nemours & Co. 

Giant Powder Co. 

Hercules Powder Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chem. Co. 
Chilean Mills (see 'Mills') 
Chisel Blanks 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Allis Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Box Irpn Works pq., Wm. A, 

Chalmers & WilUams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Deister Machine, Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Dorr Co., The 
, . Meese & Gottfried, Co-. .... 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Classifiers, Dry 

National Milling & Refining Co. 

Clutches, Friction (see 'Transmis- 
sion Machinery') 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Cement-Gun Co. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Jackson Compressor Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Nordberg. Mfg. Co. 

Norwalk Iron Works 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Rosenberg & Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Compressors, Milne Car 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Butch art, W. A. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works 
Deister Concentrator Co. 
Deister Machine Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 
Elsol Concentrating Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthofl Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
James Ore Concentrator Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse "Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Simpson Co., A. ,H. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Concentrators, Dry 

Elsol Concentrating Co. 

Concrete Reinforcements 

Pollak Steel Co. 

Condensers, Low Level Jet 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Condensers, Surface 

tngersoll-Rand Co. 
Connecting Rods 

Pollak Steel Co. 
Contractors, Core Drilling 

Sullivan Machinery" - Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co., 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Conveyors, Belt or Screw 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. ' 
Dodge Sales & Engineering Co. 
Gandy Belting Co: 
Goodrich Rubber Co., B. F. 
Main Belting Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
New York Belting & Packing Co. 
Pioneer Rubber Mills. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Couplings, Air Hose 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 

■Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Crank Pins 

Pollak Steel Co. 
Crank Shafts 

Pollak Steel Co. 
Crank Webs 

Pollak Steel Co. 
Cross Heads 

Pollak Steel Co. 


Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan 
Braun Corporation, The 
Caire Co., Justinian 

Calkins Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Bacon. Inc.. Earle C. 
Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 
Braun Corporation, The 
Buttress & McClellan 
Caire Co.. Justinian 
Calkins Co. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Elsol Concentrating Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthofl Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. ■ 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Braun Corporation, The 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 


American Cyanamid Co. 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chem. Co. 

Cyanide Plants and Machinery 

Aldrich Pump Co. 

Allis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 

Buttress & McClellan 

'Colorado Iron Works 

Dorr Co., The 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. .& Sup. Oo. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. ,& Sup. Co. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Redwood Mfrs. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. 1C0. 

Trent, Goodwin M. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works 
Dorr Co., The 
General Engineering Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Oo. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Ruggles-Coles Eng. Co.' 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Drafting- Material 

Ainsworth, Wm. & Son 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Lietz Co., A. 

Dragline Excavators 
"*- Xeschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Dredges and Accessories 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp.. Ltd 
Hendrie & Bolthofl Mfg. & Sud Oo 
Hickok & Hickok ■"w-w- 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
t.,.,.1 New York Engineering Co. 
Pollak Steel Co. 
Union Construction Co. 
Yuba Mfg. Co. 

Drill Makers and Sharpeners 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. ' 
General Electric Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan Machinery 'Co., 

Drills, Air and- Steam 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Cleveland Rock Drill Co. 
Cochise Machine Co. 
Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthofl Mfg. & Sup. Go 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. • 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Drills, Core 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Dobbins Core Drill Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Longyear Co., E. J. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

(Continued on page 60) 

Januurv 1, L921 



N6urOpportuhity " 

YOU have often felt the need for a small, compact, light, and efficient 
air compressor, something of say 180 cu. ft. free air per minute to 
100 lb. gauge pressure that could be lowered down your shaft at a 
pinch, or could be snaked around the surface and hooked up to a gas 
engine, motor, or belted to a countershaft. 

Here it is, the Jackson Rotary. It fills the bill, and more- 
Send for Bulletin 1 80-A. ■<* 

.■71 ' ' " - ■ ■' 

■ THE JACKSON COMPRESSOR COMPANY, 233 South Cherokee Street, Denver, Colprado 




Screens while it grinds | 

S.mplest Cheapest f 

Best § 



nlerohaogeable Peripheral § 

or end discharge | 

Wot or dry § 

Pal, March 23 1916 | 

10 lorn lo OI...IB50 I 

20 8011 ,§ 

40 1100 | 

70 1000 | 

110 2100 1 

3 ton aboraton Iron | 

mill S300 § 

Repeat orders show merit | 




MILL ilS^^ijLfiSS!! SPUR ^' 



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Allis-Chalmers Co. Steams-Ro^er Mfff. Co. | 

Milwaukee. Wis. Denver, Colo t | 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. San Francisco = 

Frank R. Perrot. Sydney and Perth. Australia ^ 


rfn iiiiiimrHiiiiiuiimiiMimiiimiimmiiiiiiiimiin Ilimiimill IIIIU(mui|llllllll]Hllllllll|IVill.lllllllIllliiiHi[iililll! ,- 

Haul Without a Hitch 

By hauling overhead, you control your out- 
put — the weather does not, neither do road 
conditions nor the moods of draft animals. 

B & B Aerial Tramways 

provide steady transportation at lowest cost 
per ton of material. No elaborate equipment 
— nothing to get out of whack. 

Send for Catalog No. 45. 


ST. LOUIS Seattle 




January 1, 1921 


mi MMiiiiiiiii^nii iiiiiiniiiiuii uiiiiimnnnl miidiiii iiuiiimi mil unit r i ill iitimi iiMiiiniLiitiriiiiiilitii iiLiiMiiiiiiilliiiiiiiiuiiiliMtiLiiiiMiliii I ntiitnt ilinu 

Drills, Diamond 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Longyear Co-.E. J. 
Sullivan Machinery CO. 


AlliB-Chalmers Mfg. CO. 
Colorado Iron Works 
Buggies-Coles Eng; Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. CO. 
Worthington Pump & Ma.-n Cm |. 

Dryers, Rotary 

Burrles-Coles Eng. 00 

Electrical Supplies 

AlliB-Chalmers. Mfg. L.0 
General Electric CO. _^ 

Westinghouse Eleo. 4 J '» CO. 

Electric Tools, Portable 

Chicaeo PneumaUo - 1 Co. 

Employment Bureau 

Business Men'a Clearing House 

Engineers (Designing and Contract- 
Box "iron Works i Co.. Wm. A. 
Steams-Borers Mfg. Co. 

Engines, Internal Combustion 


MiSe £ smelter Supply Co. 
Sorse B?os. Machy. * Sup. Co. 
Nordberg. Mfg. Co. 
Wo^fon" P^P * Mach. Corp. 

Engines, OH 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
^gr e tbSirt R on n P-SnpftMacb.Corp. 

Engines, Steam 

^^«umS f ilT C o°olCo. 

g„ e S B U r-rSa%. * SUP. Co. 

licrdberg. Mfg. Co. 

BoBenberr « Co . 

wSS&n' pW& Mach. Corp. 


California Cap Co. 
Du Pont Powder Co. 
Giant Powder Co. 
HerculeB Powder Co. 

Fans, Ventilating 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 


Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works 

MmMs.. Machy & Jur, Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
«SMff pSm"?& Mach. Corp. 

filter Cloth, Metallic 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Tyler Co.. W. S. 
United Filters Corp. 

Filter Presses 

Morsels. Machy. * Sup. Co. 

United Filters Corp. 
Fire Extinguishers 

Bullard, E. D. 

Justrite Mfg. Co. 

First Aid Equipment 

Braun Corporation, The 
Bullard, E. D. 

Flotation Apparatus 

Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knech t -Heimann-Co . 
Butchart, W. A. __-_«„« 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Southwestern Eng. Co. 
Stimpson Equipment Co. 

Flow Meters 

General Electric Co. 


Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Frogs and Switches (see 'Railway 


Cambria Steel Co. 
Pollak Steel Co. 

a urgings. Drop 
Pollak Steel Co. 

forglngs, Heavy 

Pollak Steel Co. 

Forglngs, Mine and Dredge 
Pollak Steel Co. 
Furnaces, Assay <See 'Assayers and 
Chemists Supplies') 

Furnaces, Oil 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

FurnaceB, Boasting and Smelting 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Colorado Iron Works 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. CO. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Wortbington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Dodge Sales & Engineering Co. 
F aw cub Machine Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Gears.! Herringbone 

Fawcus Machine Co. 
Generators, Electric 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Buttress & McClellau 
^n^I'lSfofMfr.^Sup Co. 

Giants, Hydraulic (see 'Hydraullo 
Mining Machinery') 

Graphite Products 

Bartley Crucible Co. J?°ethan 
Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph 

Grinders, laboratory 

Braun Corporation. The 
Caire Co.. Justinian 

Den^e? Engineering Works Co. 
Ingersoll-Band Co. 

Grinders. Portable. Air and Electric 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Grinding Wheels 

New York Belting & Packinr Co. 
Hammers, Pneumatlo 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Heaters, Feed Water 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
WorSfon'ptmp* Mach. Corp. 

Hoists, Electric 

AlliB-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 
Buttress & McClellan 
Chicago Pneumatic TooHo. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Lesehen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. CO. 
Nordberg. Mfg. Co. 
Ottumwa Iron Works 
Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 
Rosenberg & Co. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. CO. 

Hoists, Oil and Distillate 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Lesehen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
- Simpson --Co.. A, H. 
Hoists, Steam or Air 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Box Iron Works Co.. Wm. A. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Lesehen & Sons Rope Co., A. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Nordberg. Mfg. Co. 

Ottumwa Iron Works 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 


Buttress & McClellan 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Cochise Machine Co. ■ 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 

Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

New York Belting & Packing Co. 

Pioneer Rubber MillB 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Hydraullo Mining Machinery 

Aldrich Pump Co. 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
American Spiral Pipe Works 
Garratt & Co., W. T. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Sacramento Pipe Works 

Hydrocyanic Acid, Liquid 

American Cyanamid Co. 

Ice Machines 

Norwalk Iron Works 


Lunkenheimer Co., The 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Powell Co.. Wm. 

Iron Cements 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A, 
Buttress & McClellan 
Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works 
Denver Engineering WorkB Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Union Construction Co. 
Wortbington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Laboratory Supplies {see 'ABSayers' 
and Chemists' Supplies) 

Lamp Guards 

Flexible Steel Lacing Co. 

Lamps, Arc and Incondescent 
General Electric Co. 
WeBtinghouse Elec. « Mfff. Co. 

Lamps, Miners' 
Bullard, E. D. 
Wolf Safety Lamp Co. 

Lining for Ball-Mills 

Chalmers & Williams 
Hardinge Co. 
Hickok & Hickok 
Los Angeles Foundry Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Loading Machines, Pneumatic 

Lake Superior Loader Co. 

Locomotives, Electric 
Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Locomotives, Gasoline 
Fate-Root-Heath Co. 

Locomotives, >teaxn 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 


Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 


Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Lunkenheimer Co., The 
Powell Co.. Wm. 

Machinery, Used 

Buttress & McClellan 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Nevada Engineering & Supply Co. 

Pacific Pipe Co. 

Rosenberg & Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Magnets, Lifting 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 

Magnetic Separators and Pnileys 
Dings Magnetic Separator Cc% 

Metal Buyers and Dealers 

American Smelters Securities Co. 

American Zinc. Lead & Smelt. Co. 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 

Empire Zinc Co. - 

International Smelting Co. 

TJ. S. Smelting. Ref. & Min. Co. 

Wildberg BroB. 

Mills — Ball. Pebble and Tube 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp.. Ltd. 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Hardinge Co. 

Herman, John 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Rosenberg & Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. " 

Wortbington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Mills, Chilean 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works 
Lane Mill & Machinery Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Wortbington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Mills, Grinding 

Marathon Mill & Machine Works 

Mills, Stamps 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Ltd. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Traylor Ei.g. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Motor Trucks 

Garford Motor Truck Co. 
White Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Rosenberg & Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Weetinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Mucking Machines, Mechanical 
Lake Superior Loader Co. 

Nodullzers, Ore 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Office Supplies 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Monroe Calculating Machine Co. 

Oil and Grease Cups (see 'Lubri- 

Oil, Flotation 
Barrett Co., The 
Florida Wood Products Co. 
General Naval Stores 
Jordan Coal Tar Products Co. 
Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Co. 
United Naval Stores. 

Ore-Buyers (see 'Metal Buyers and 

Ore Testing Equipment 
General Engineering Co. 

Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Cutting 
Bullard, E. D. 
Oxweld Acetylene Co. 

Oxygen Apparatus 

Bullard. E. D. t _ 

Siebe, Gorman Co., Ltd. 


Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 
Goodrich Rubber Co., B. F. 
New York Belting & Packing Co. 
Pioneer Rubber Mills 
Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 

(Continued oh page 5&) 

January 1, 1921 




Before putting out an accessory it has been our policy to com- 
pletely establish the fact that it was a real improvement. 

"Veribest" Air Hose is made of selected 
material that will stand up longer and 
stand more abuse than is found in or- 
dinary manufacture. 

"Neverleak" Couplings are 
connected and disconnected 
quicker than is possible with 
other types. They cannot 
become accidentally discon- 
nected and can be connected 
in the dark without the use 
of a wrench. 

A trial 
order of 
Cleco Fit- 
tings will 

"Cleco" Hose Menders and 
Mender Clamps never wear 
out, can be quickly attached, 
insure a tight joint, and pre- 
vent hose from blowing off. 


"Cleco" Air Seated Valves 
have but three parts — body, 
valve-plug and handle. There 
is no packing, as valve plug 
is air sealed. Has no angle 
turns in air channel and 
leakage is impossible. 

The Cleveland Rock Drill Company 

3T43 East TSIh Street. Cleveland, Ohio 


Guy Gregory. Met. 

Room 536. 39 Church St.. New York City. 


A. C. Most, MeT. 

B70 Gas & Electric Bldg:.. Denver. Colo. 


C. J. Albert. Mtrr. 
515 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Canadian Trade supplied by 

Cleveland Pneumatic Tool Co. of Canada, Ltd., 

Toronto, Ont. 


Is what you want and what you get in National Quality 
Tanks, because they are honestly and expertly made 
from either Douglas Fir or California Redwood. 
We manufacture all kinds, sizes and shapes of tank*, for 
every conceivable purpose. Careful attention given to 
special installations. 

U**d by the United State* GovernmeDl and big mine*, everywhere 
We manufacture complete cyanide plants 
either standard or oi. special sped u alions 






118 Pages 6x9 46 Illustrations 



Yuba Ball Tread Tractors Yuba Centrifugal Pumps 

PRI CE $2 .00 

THIS book outlines a comprehensive system of 
* records and accounts for mining operations of 
moderate dimensions. This system can be main- 
tained at a minimum of office expense, and provides 
a practical method of cost-keeping. More than forty 
model forms are included as suggestions in keeping 
records and accounts. 

Sent Postpage Prepaid. Order Now. 

WORKS: Hnrnille. Cil. 

SALES OFFICE: 43) Cilifomii St., Sin Friodieo. Cil. 
mil iiiniii .iiiiiiii.ii i i nm mi mm 

Elsol Dry Concentrator 

Handles All Dry Ores Successfully 

2 sizes— 2 to 4 tons per hour. 

We can make test run on your ore. Write for Bulletin 


423 Wesley Roberts Bldg., Los Angeles, Cat 

liMiiimiiN.i.lilii.i. I..... I. II. I in 1. 1. mi iMimi.miiii 

420 Market Street, San Francisco 

Gentlemen: Enclosed find $2.00 for which send me 
one copy of MINE BOOKKEEPING by Robert Mc- 

Name . 

McG-l-l°l I 



January 1, 1921 


iiiinmiiiiiiimiiiiimiiiiiiiNiMimilNiiiimiimm miiiliiliiiiliilliiililiiilllllllllllllllillllillllllilliliiililllllllllll|illiiii lililllllllllimiilinilllllllllllllllllllllliliilillliililllllllllllllllllllllillllllllllllllllllliliilllliiiiliill Jiiiiiiiiiiiimmiiiiiimimimm llnillllllliiliM 

1'fiints. Metal Protective 
Detroit Graphite Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 

Paint, Preservative 
Detroit Graphite Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co. 


■ Alkins, KroU & Co. 
Hardinge Co. 

Perforated Metals 

Allis-Cb a liners Mfg. Co. 
Harrington & King Perforating Co. 
Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Pipe Fittings 

Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 

Garratt & Co., W. T. 

Goodrich Rubber Co., B. F. 
< Lunkenheimer Co., The 

Merrill Co. 

Norwalk Iron WorkB 

Pacific Pipe Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe -Co. 
t Powell Co., Wm. < , 

• Sacramento Pipe Works 

[>0 ,i 
-Pipe. Cast Ir,on 

American Cast Iron Pipe Co. 
Pacific Pipe Co. - " ' '• 

i i i'(U tl 

Pipe, Riveted 

I American Spiral ' Pipe Works 
■j Sacramento Pipe Works 

ripe. Standard Wrought 
National Tube Co. 
Pacific Pipe Co. 

ipe. Wood 

National Tank & Pipe' -Co. ' ' 
i Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Redwood Mfrs. Cpf , - ,., ;,, i , . ' '. 

Placer Mining Machinery 

' Aldrich Pump Co. 

American Spiral Pipe Works 

Harrington & King 1 Perforating Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Union Construction Co. 
, Yuba Mfg. Co. 

Pneumatic Tools 

Chicago Pneumatic Togl .Co. 1 ' ■ 
y Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
*' Sullivan Machinery .Co. 

Prospecting Supplies . . | 

Braun Corporation, The 
Denver Fire iClay Co. 
Dobbins Core Drill Cu. 
Longyear Co., E. J. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. . , 
New York Engineering Co. 
Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 
Union Construction Co. 

Pulleys, Magnetic < 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. i'l 

Pulleys, Shafting and Hangers (see 
'Transmission Machinery') 

Pumps, Air Lift l( ! 

Aldrich PumbCo. 
Buttress & McClellan 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Prescott Co. - 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Pumps, Reciprocating 

Aldrich Pump Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co 

Prescott Co. 

Rosenberg & Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp 

Pumps, Vacuum 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 


Atkins, Kroll & Cp. 

Braun Corporation, The 


Bullard, E. D. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Railway Supplies and Equipment 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Diamond Rubber Co.. Inc. 
General Electric Co. 
Hickok & Hickok 
Pollak Steel Co. 

, Refractories 

Harbison-Walker -Refractories Co. 

Rock Drills 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
General Electric Co. 

Rods for Rod Mills 
Pollak Steel Co. 

Roller Bearings . 

Hyatt Roller Bearing Co. 

Rolls, .Crushing 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
. ' Bacon, Ihc.. Earle C. 

Box Iron Works Co.. Wm. A. 
.Chalmers .& Williams 
Colorado Iron Works 

gepyer. Engineering Works Co. 
endrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co 
- Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Roll Shells 

Cambria Steel Co. 


American Sheet & Tip Plate Co. 

Rope, Manila 
Waterbury Cp. 

Rope, Wire 

American Steel & Wire, Co. 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 
Denver Engineering WorkB Co. 
Dodge Sales & Engineering Co. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
RPebling's Sons Co., John A. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Waterbury Co. 

Rubber Boots and Shoes 

Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 

' Rubber Goods, Mechanical 

1 New York Belting & Packing Co. 

Safety Appliances 
Bullard. E. D. 
Siebe. Gorman Co., Ltd. 

Pumps, Centrifugal 

Aldrich Pump Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

American Well Works 

Buttress & McClellan 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 

Frenier & Sons' 

Garratt & Co., W. T. 
■ Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Jackson Iron Works, Byron 

Krogh Pump At' Machinery Co. ' 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

MorBO Bros. Machy. & Supply .Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
. Pacific Pipe Co. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
" PreBcott Co. ......,-■■ 

Rosenberg & Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Worthington Pump A Mach. Corp. 

Yuba Mfg. Co. 


Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 
Braun Corporation, The 
Colorado Iron Works 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Saw Mill Machinery 

Box Iron Works Cp., iWm. A.: 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Prescott Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 

Braun Corporation. The 


Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works 
- ■ Denver -Engineering Works Co. 

Harrington & King Perforating Cd. 

James Ore Concentrator Co. 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Rosenberg & Co. 
Stimpson Equipment Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Tyler Co.. W. S. 

Screens, Mining, Etc. 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Tyler Co., W. S. 

Screens, Rolled Slot 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Tyler Co., W. S. 

Screens, Wire 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Tyler Co.. W. S. 


Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 

Separators, Inclined Vibrating Screen 
Tyler Co., W. S. 

Shafting (see 'Transmission 

Shafts, Forged Steel 

Pollak .Steel Co. 

Sheet Steel 

American Sheet & Tin Plate Co. 

Shoes and Dies 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp, Ltd. 
Denver Engineering Works 
Hickok & Hickok 

Shovels, Electric and Steam 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. . 

Shoveling Machines 

Lake Superior-Loader Co. 



Atkina, Kroll. & Co. 
Hardinge Co. ' 

Smelters and Refiners 
American Zinc. Lead & Smelt. Co. 
Empire Zinc Co. 
International Smelting Co. 
U." S. Smeiting, Be*. & Min. Co. 
Wildberg Bros. . 

Smelting Machinery 1 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. ' 

Colorado Iron Works 
Greenawalt Sintering Apparatus 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Springs ■ 

American Spiral Pipe Works 
American Steel & Wire Co. 
Cary Spring Works 

Steel, Drill 

Buttress & McClellan 
i Cambria Steel Co. 

Denver Rock Drill Mlg. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
- Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Steel, Structural 
, Pollak Steel Co. 

Steel, Tool 

Cambria Steel Co. 

International High Speed Steel Co. 


Williams Dnproved Stretcher Co. 

Surveying Instruments 
Ainsworth, Wm. & Sons 
Braun Corporation, The 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 
Lietz Co., A. 

-Tanks, Steel 

Box Iron Works Co., Wm. A. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Rosenberg & Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Tanks, Wood 

Denver Engineering WorkB Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfrs. Co. 

Tapes* Measuring 
Lufkin Rule Co. 

Testing Sieves and Testing Sieve 
Tyler Co., W, S. 

Thickeners, Pulp 

Buttress & McClellan 
Colorado Iron Works 
Dorr Co., The 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Tires, Auto and Truck 

.Goodrich Rubber Co.; B. F. 

Tools, Blacksmith 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 


Yuba Mfg. Co. 

Tramways, Aerial 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Broderick .& Bascom Rope Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co.',' John A. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Transmission Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Dodge Sales & Engineering Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Prescott Co. ' ' 
Rosenberg & Co. 

Trucks, Motor Bee 'Motor Trucks') 

Tube-MUbj (see 'Mills') 

Tumbler Shafts, Heavy Forged 

Pollak Steel Co. 

Turbines, Hydraulic 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
. , Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Smith Co., S. Morgan 

Turbines, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. ( 

General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. j 


Crane Co. 

Lunkenheimer Co., The ? 
Merrill Co., The 
Norwalk D:on Works 
Powell Co., .Wm. 

Water Wheels, Impulse 

Box D*on Works Co., Wm. A. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Smith Co.. S. Morgan 

Well Drilling Machy. and Supplies 

American Well Works 
Union Construction Co. 

Wheels, Car 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Hickok & Hickok 


Lunkenheimer Co., The 
Powell Co., Wm, 

Wire J> 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Anaconda Copper Mining Co. 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Wire Cloth 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Tyler Co., W. S. 

Wire, Insulated 

Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 
General Electric Co. 
Goodrich Rubber Co., B. F. 
Roebling's Sons Co.. John A. 

Zinc Boxes 

Colorado Iron Works 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfrs. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Jtfig. Co. 

Zinc Dust and Shavings 

American Zinc. Lead & Smelt. Co. 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Braun Corporation, The 


Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Merrill Co. 

Mine .& Smelter Supply. Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

U. S. Smelting. Ref. & Min. Co. 

.lanuiiry 1. 1921 



Jiiii.miui mun 

-J mi miuiiuiimiinit in minium inn imiiiiiiiiiiiiHiliiiHMi 

l fill riii i mi 

Barrett Flotation Oils 

Uniformly high in quality 


17 Battery Plan 
New York City 



Sill Lake City 



In Tank Cars 


Up to 40 i 

Tar /Velds § 






iiiiiiiiniiiNMii itiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiitiiiuuiiuiiiiiifiiiiiuiiitillllliiniiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliilliiuilllllliltlllllltlllillilllllltiir 






= Cat Oar Prlcet 



Sample* Gratis 







Write for ntw Booklet § 

| General Naval Stares Co, 90 West Street, New York | 


E 'nniiiiiiiin(iiiiiiiiiii[iiiijiniii!iiiiiinniiiiiuniiiiiii!iiiiiiiiiiiii];iiiiHiiiiiiiMinii!iiitHi!niii!itiiiiiiniiii!iiiiit!(iiiiit!ii:iniiiiiiiiii 



Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Company 

F. E. MARINER, Pres. Gull Point, Fla. 


^iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiimitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiitiiiiiK! u 

| Harbison - Walker Refractories Company j 

High Grade Silica, Chrome, 
1 Magnesia, and Fire Clay Brick, 

| Dead Burned IVfagneslte and Furnace Chrome, 
I Chrome Ore. 






| I 324 Pa^es 

l.i:( i ; ' . 


I Flotation Oils [ 

Six Standard Pure Oils From Pine 

| FLORIDA WOOD PRODUCTS CO., Jacksonville, Florida ( 

?T m 1 1 1 1 ii t 1 1 1 1 n 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■ i ii 1 1 1 1 1 1 • 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 in 1 1 1 1 t 1 1 1 r i : 1 1 ■ in m 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 [ it 1 1 1 1 f i ■ f m ■ ■ t ■ r : ■ e n ■ i ■ ■ i ■ i ■ j ■ ■ ■ ■ t ■ 1 1 ■ 1 1 m l ■ 1 1 ■ u i m m ■ ■ ■ 1 1 j i n 1 1 ^ = 

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Price $6.00 

■ ■' u i ; ! :,.;■!■ 

u '*> A book dealing with the various 
phases of oil geology, written 1 iii 
language free frorri' needless tech- 
nicalities. Of particular use to 
engineers, geologists, sharehold- 
ers and investors. 


Treats the following subjects: 
The Qrigin of Petroleum i Pro- 
cesses of Formation ; The Migra- 
tion, Filtration and Subterranean 
Storage of Petroleum; Lateral' 
Variation; Geological Structure; f 

II . ., Indications of Petroleurij; Natural 1 

| | Gas or Gaseous Petroleum; 1 

1 1 Qil-Shales and Torbanites; 1 

Stratigraphy; Location of Wells; § 

1 Petroleum Prospects in Britain; | 

1 Field Work (for Beginners) ; In- 

door Work (for Beginners). 



420 Market St., San Francisco § 

I Gentlemen: Enclosed find $6.00 for whioh send me a 1 
1 copy of Craig's "Oil Finding", latest edition. 


= Address 

[ilmuiiiiumniiiiiiiimmiiiimiiiimimiiiimimiiii Hi mmmnnmimitinnimNlttaaiM 

§ LG-1-1-21 i 

^niiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiit[iiitiiiiiii[i[iiiiiMiiiiii[iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiniitmHiiniuifitiniiiiiiitminniiiiiiMiiiitiiHmtttiliiiiiiuiililtiiiiii:iiiiiii - 



January 1, 1921 

=.'iiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitimmmui immimimi imiiiiimirittliiiiimiim-Tlii •iiimmiimiiiiiilrmmnitmnliliminnB ai 

United States Smelting, 
Refining & Mining Company 



Gold, Silver, Lead and Copper Ores. Lead and Zinc 
Concentrating Ores, Matte and Furnace Products. 


Lead Bullion. 


Gold, Silver, Lead, Copper, Zinc, Zinc Dust, Arsenic, 
Insecticides, Fungicides, and Cadmium. 


912 Newhouse Building, Salt Lake City, Utah; Ken- 

nett, Cal.; Goldroad, Ariz.; Baxter Springs, Kansas; 

120 Broadway, New York; Pachuca (Real del Monte 

Co.), Mexico. 


United States Smelting R. & M. Exploration Co. 

§ For examination and purchase of Metal Mines, So* Congress St., 
; Boston, Mass. District Offices. 120 Broad war, N. T.i 1504 Hobart 
i Bids., San Francisco, Cal.; Newhouse Bide, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Ill 1111111111111 1 II II! IMII III II I II lllllllllll Mill] Mill IIMI III III MINI II 11111111111111111111111111111111 III 11111111111111111111111111111111111111 



New York Office: 42 Broadway 

Purchaser^ of 

Gold, Silver, Copper, and 
Lead Ores 



International Lead Refining* Company. East Chicago. Indiana 
Rariton Copper Works. Perth Amboy, N. J. 


018 Eearns Building*. Salt Lake City. Utah 


The Empire Zinc Company 
Buys Zinc Ores 

Address oar Offices: 

160 Front St, New York, N. T. 
703 Srmei Bldg., Denver, Colo. 

Or write to 




American Zinc, Lead & "melting Company I 

Purchasers of 1 


Address: 1012 Pierce Building, St Louis, Mo. | 

Exploration Department for the purchase of § 


55 Congress St, Boston, Mass. 



-hiiii miimiimufinmiiiiiiiMtiHiii iitiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiniiaiiiiii)iiliiiiiiiliimi)iiHiiiiiiii(miiiiimii..iiiitiiiiiiitimiiimiiii>: 


Sqielters, Refiners and Purchasers of 

Gold and Silver Ores, Gold Dust, Bullion and 
Native Platihiiin 

Production of Proof Gold and Sliver for Assayers 


| American Smelters Securities Co. \ 

| Buyers of 


| Consign all shipments to - 

1 American Smelters Securities Co. I 


- Address correspondence to 




Cicu Comprodora de Metales de Sonora S. A. 
| Accredited Burveyors for denouncements. Taxes paid, de- 
| nouncements made, engineering and examination reports 
| on mining properties. 


P. O. Box 151, Douglas, Arizona 
nwniuy iiinuiinuiioiiuiuii iiiih n m mif uim ti m m i utiriuiimuiuiMiiuii n i ti in n iimiin nniun inmii ummmtninnmi uuiunib. 


I The Greenawalt Sintering 
Apparatus and Process 

I John E. Greenawalt, W. E. Greenawalt, 

| 50 East 42nd Street 85 South Sherman Street 

| New York, N. Y. Denver, Colorado 


ATKINS KROLL & CO., San Francisco j 








.mm mull ihlltltfll 



Correspondence solicited from mining cpmpgnjes 
| ' . ' using the flotatipn. process. 







January l. i''-i 




Roessler 6 Hasslacher 

Chemical Company 

707-717 6th Ave., cor. 41st St., NEW YORK, N.Y. 


Cyanide of 
Sodium 96-98^ 






1 Ton of Ote Ground and 
Only %Pound o£l)uroloid 
Giindin % Balls Consumed 

^his" is wha£ a big 
use* qf s DuroloicC 
GrmdingBalls writes. 

^he long life of 
Dizroloid Ball? 
makes i hem cheap, 
est fov ijotur use... 


Sodium Cyanide 96-98% in egg form, 

each egg weighing 1 ounce. 

Cyanogen 51-52% 


2444 So. Alameda St- 
Los Angeles 



Duroloid G itd& 


A higher extraction of values ^ — ^^^ 1 

Minimum percentage of middlings ~~~' | 

Greater capacity A higher grade concentrate | 


The Deister CONCENTRATOR Company I 

Office, Factory and Test Plant: FORT WAYNE, IND. 

r >llll!llllll[lfllllll[|llllllllll!III[llllJlll[|lll!llllll!lillllllli:ilMIMIIIIIIinilllll[lllll!ll!llll!l[|[IIMIIIIIMIIIIIIIII!IIIIIUIU[lllll!llllllllllllll 





to '^-V^'g J [[THE PRECISION FAaORYJlP^ V^ i ' ii i ' J 

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Jigs, Screens, Sand and Slime 1 
Tables, Classifiers, Automatic : 
Ore Feeders, Etc. 

Manufactured by ■ ; : | 


35 Runyon Street Newarlc, N. J. | 





| 900 First Ave. South, Seattle 624-646 Folsom St., San Framisco = 
| 487 Lovejoy St., Portland, Ore. 2 1 6 South Alameda St., Lob Angeles | 







niuiiiiiiiliitiiiitiiiiniiitiniriiiiiiliiiiiiitiiimniiiiiiiimiliiitiiiitiiiniiiiLiiiii iiipiiiininiiiiiiiiiinfiitiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiriiiiiiiimiiiie 






,t,j IOJ > -'■-. ' i V.OA ',■'■■ <ij. , I 


|. Sharon Bids. . San Francisco, Calif. | 

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January 1, 1921 

' Dash ■ Indicates - Every ■ Other-WeeK ■ or Monthly • Advertisement ■ 



Ainsworth & Sodb, Wm„ Denver 55 

Aldrich Pump Co., Allentown, Pa 1? 

Allis-Ch aimers Mfe. Co.. Milwaukee. Wis 6 

American Cast Iron Pipe Co.. Birmingham, Ala. 35 

American Cyanamid Co.. New York 12 

American Sheet & Tin Plate Co., Pittsburgh ... 56 
American Smelters Securities Co.. San Francisco. 54 

American Spiral Pipe Works, Chicago 47 

American Steel & Wire Co.. Chicago 47 

American Steel Foundries, Chicago — 

American Well Works, Aurora, 111 — 

American Zinc. Lead & Smelting Co., St. Louis. 54 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co., Chicago — 

Assayera, ChemistB and Ore Testing Works 46 

Atkins. Kroll & Co.. San Francisco 54 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co., Cleveland, Ohio 33 

Bacon, Inc., Earle C, New York 55 

Barber-Greene Co., Aurora, 111 . — 

Barrett Co., The, New York 53 

Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan, Trenton. N. J.. 15 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., San Francisco. .47 

Blake. Moffltt & Towne. San FranciBco.- .38 

Books, Technical 24-47-51-53 

Box Iron Works, Wm„ Denver, Colo 

Braun Corporation, The, Los Angeles. Cal . . . .31 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann-Co., San Francisco 31 

Broderiek & Bascom Rope Co.. St. Louis 49 

Bullard; E. D., San Francisco 

Busch-Sulzer Bros., St. Louis, Mo ....45 

Business Men's Clearing Hpuse, Denver 34 

Butchart, W. A.. Denver. Colo 35 

Buttress & McClellan, Los Angeles, Cal 32 

Buyers' Guide 48-50-52 

Oaire Co., Justinian, San Francisco 57 

California Cap Co.. Oakland, Cal 

Calkins Co., Los Angeles. Cal 

Cambria Steel Co., Philadelphia 

Cary Spring Works, New York 

Cement-Gun Co., Allentown 1 , Pa 39 

Chalmers & Williams, Chicago Heights, 111 

Chemical Processes, Inc., New Orleans, La 54 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co.. New York 

Cleveland Rock Drill Co., Cleveland. Ohio 51 

Cochise Machine Co., Los Angeles, Cal. — 

Colorado Iron Works, Denver 57 

Crane Co., Chicago, 111 8 

Crescent Belt Fastener Co., New York 

Deister Concentrator Co., Fort Wayne, Ind 55 

Deister Machine Co., Fort Wayne, Ind. . 5*8 

Denver Engineering Works Co., Denver — 

Benver Fire Clay Co.. Denver 30 

ISenver Rbek Drill Mfg. "Co.. Denver' 3 

Detroit Granhite Co.. Detroit. Mich,.... — - 

Slamond Rubber Co., Akron. Ohio ....... „.-- 
ings Magnetic Separator' Co., Milwaukee Wis — 
Dixon Crueible'Co.. Joseph. Jersey City, N. J. . .13 

Dobbins Core Drill Co.. New York — 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co.. Miehawaka, Ind.: — 

Dorr Company. The, Denver 38 

Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Del. . . — 

Elmer, H. N„ Chicago 

Electric Storage Battery Co.. Philadelphia '.20 

Elsol Concentrating Co.. Los Angeles, Cal 51 

Empire Zinc Co.. Denver, Colo 54 


Fairbanks, Morse & Co., Chicago <^....30 

Fate-Root-Heath Co., Plymouth. Ohio — 

Fawcus Machine Co., Pittsburgh. Pa 49 

Filter Fabrics Co.. Salt Lake City, Utah — 

Flexible Steel Lacing Co., Chicago 36 

Florida Wood Products Co.. Jacksonville. Fla..53 
Frenier 8c Son. Rutland, Vt .49 

Gandy Belting Co., Baltimore, Md 31 

Gardner Governor Co.. Quincy. HI — 

Garford Motor Truck Co., Lima, Ohio — 

Garratt & Co., W. T., San Francisco 38 

General Electric Co.. Schenectady, N. Y 16 

General Naval Stores, New York 53 

Goodrich Rubber Co., B. F„ Akron, Ohio — 

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron. Ohio. . . . — 
Greenawalt Sintering Apparatus & Process. New 
York 54 

Harbison-Walker Refractories Co.,- Pittsburgh . . 53 

Hardinge Co., New York * — 

Harrington & King Perforating Co., Chicago. >, 36 
•Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Supply Co., Denver. . 4 

■Hercules Powder Co., Wilmington, Del — 

Herman, John, Los Angeles^ Cal '. . . .49 

Hickok & Hickok, San Francisco 39- 

Holt Mfg. Co.. Peoria, 111 — 

Hyatt Roller Bearing Co.. New York — 

Lngersoll-Rand Co.. New York 10-11-21 

International Smelting Co.. New York 54 

Jackson Compressor Co., Denver 49 

Jackson Iron Works. Byron, San Francisco. .. .45 
James Ore Concentrator Co., Newark: N." J..-':, 55 

Jordan Coal Tar Produces Co., New York 53 

Justrite Mfg. Co., Chicago * * • ■ 

Krogh Pump & Mach. Co., San Francisco — '■ 

Lake Superior Loader Co., Duluth. Minn 39 

Lane Mill & Mach. Co., Los' Angeles, Cal 47 

Latham. Marc L., Angels Camp. Cal 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., St. Louis, Mo 38 

Lietz Co., A.. San Francisco 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co.. New York 

Linde Air Products Co., New York 

Longyear Co., E. J., Minneapolis, Minn 45 

Los Angeles Foundry Co.. Los Angeles, Cal. . . , 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co.. St. LouiB, Mo .- o 

Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw, Mich 39 

Lunkenheimer Co., The, Cincinnati. Ohio 22 

Main Belting Co., Philadelphia, Pa — 

Marathon Mill & MacK. Works, Chicago — 

Meese & Gottfried Co., San Francisco 58 

Merrill Co 1 ., San Francisco 38 

Midvale Steel & Ordnance Co.. Philadelphia. . . . — 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co., New York 

Front Cover 
Monroe Calculating Machine Co., New York... — 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co., Denver 34 

National Tank & Pipe Co., Portland, Ore 51 

National Tube Co., Pittsburgh. Pa 19 

Nevada Eng. & Supply Co., Reno, Nev 35 

New York Belting & Packing Co., New. York. . . 7 

' New York Engineering Co.. New York 37 

Nordberg Mfg. Co., Milwaukee, Wis ,-^- 

Norwalk Iron Works Co., So. Norwalk. Conn. . . — 

Novo Engine Co., Lansing, Mich — 

Nuttall Co.. R. D„ Pittsburgh, Pa — 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co., San Francisco. . . .23 

Opportunity Pages 32-35 

Ottumwa Iron Works, Ottumwa, Iowa — 

Oxweld Acetylene^ Co., New York — 

Pacific Pipe Co., San Francisco 33 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co., San Francisco 26 

Pelton Water Wheel Co., San Francisco. 57 

Peneacola Tar & Turpentine Co.. Gull Point, Fla.53 

Pioneer Rubber Mills, San Francisco — - 

Pollak Steel Co.. Cincinnati, Ohio — I 

Positions Available • 34 

Positions Wanted 33 

Powell Co., Wm„ Cincinnati. Ohio ...36; 

Prescott Co., The, Menominee, Mich .. — 

Prest-O-Lite. Co., New York 28 

Professional Directory 40-44 

Redwood Mfrs. Co., San Francisco — j 

Six Cpmpressed Air & Drill Co., San Francisco. — 
Roebling's Sons Co., John A., Trenton. N. J. . . .55* 
Ro&ssler & Hasslacher Chem. Co.. New York. . .55 

Rosenburg & Co., Los Angeles, Cal — 

Ruggles-Cole Engineering Co., New York 18 

Sacramento Pipe Works, Sacramento. Cal 56" 

San Francisco Plating. Works. San Francisco. . .37 

Siebe. Gorman & Co., Ltd., Chicago 36 

Sill & Sill. Loa Angeles, Cal — 

Simpson Co.,- A. H., San Francisco *. .33' 

Sm^th Co.. S. Morgan, York, Pa 37 

1 Smooth-On Mfg. Co.. Jersey City, N. J 37 

Sonora Metals Buying Co., Douglas, Ariz 54 

Southwestern Eng. Co.. Los Angeles, Cal — ^ 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co., Denver, Colo 32, 

Stimpson Equipment Co.. Salt Lake City 39 

Sullivan Machinery Co., Chicago 29-45 

Thompson Balance Co., Denver. . . . 37 

Thew Shovel Co.. Lorain, Ohio — 

Trayloi* Eng. & Mfg. Co., Allentown, Pa 9 

Trent. Goodwin M., San Francisco...,-... . . . .653 

Tyler, W. S., Cleveland, Ohio — I 

Union Construction Co., San Francisco. ._ 14_ 

United Filters Corp.. Salt Lake City, Utah. ,~ .39 

United Naval Stores, New York. 53 

U. S. Iron Works. Seattle, Wash — 

U. S. Smelting, Refining & Mining Co.. Boston.~.54 

Wahl & Co.. H. R., Chicago, m,. . — I 

Waterbury Co., New York — 

Western Wheeled Scraper Co., Aurora, in\ — 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., East .Pittsburgh. 

Pa. ' .• -. ■ , . . 2a 

White" Co., The, Cleveland, Ohio. ....... . . . . . — 

Whitney & Lass. Juneau, Alaska — ' 

Wildberg Bros., San Francisco 1 54 

Williams Imp. Stretcher Co.. Wheeling. W. Va, .47 

Wolf Safety Lamp Co.. Brooklyn, N. Y. — I 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp., New York. .45; 

Yuba Manufacturing Co., San Francisco 51 

^liiiitiiiitiitliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiililiiiiitlitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiitlllil'^ 'jniminiiiii 






Standard Pipe — Screw Joint Casing, Pipe 
and Casing Fittings, 


Valves and Brass Goods 


Copper Steel 



Highest in quality and rust 
resistance. Unequaledfor 
Culverts, Flumes, Tanks, 

Roofing, Siding, Spouting, and 
all exposed sheet metal work. 

We manufacture Bheei -ad Tin Mill Product, of every deioripOpn-Blackand 
Galvanized BheeU, drragato d and Formed Product!. Boonng Tin Plate.. Btc 


fiollli Colli mm: II. I. ItHI Prodntl Co, lu Fruolno, Lol iogtln, rortlmd, Siiltli 

Januan 1. 192] 






Through foresight in the purchase of material, and in the manufac- 
ture of completed ball mills and parts, we are able to still make 
practically immediate delivery of many of the most used sizes, and 
very prompt delivery of other sizes. 

The Colorado Convertible Discharge Ball Mill has become 
generally recognized as unsurpassed in design, material and 



Colorado Iron Works Company 

New York Office: 30 Church St. DENVER, COLORADO 


Standard PELTON wheels are flexible 
in their adaptation to various purposes as 
indicated by the illustrations herein shown. 

PELTON TURBINES of both impulse 
and reaction types are used to drive all 
classes of stationary machinery — in mines, 
mills, industrial plants and hydroelectric 

Bulletins showing the various installa- 
tions may be had on appl cation. 

PELTON Turbine Direct Connected to Alternator. 


We offer our services in consideration 
of any contemplated hydraulic installation 
regardless of size or location. 

Correspondence is invited. 

The Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

PELTON Water Motor Belted to Ore Crusher. 

1986 Harrison Street, 

San Francisco 

86 West St'eet, 

New York 



January 1, 1921 



Deck Bearings are self-oiling 

>Headmotion is entirely 
enclosed and self- 
~f oiling. 

The main channel 
frame is no longer 

Write for Full Particulars of the 




East Wayne Street manufacturers of the well known Port Wayne, Ind., U. S. A. 


E. DEISTER. Pn. .nd Gen. Mgt. W. F. DEISTER. Vice-Pro. Ei G. HOFFMAN. Secy, and Tieu. 

Hoisting Sheaves 

Bicycle Type 

A hoisting sheave of strength and durability. 
Grooves either machined-turned, wood or 
rubber lined. Furnished split or solid. 

Let Us Know Your Requirements. 

jfese i-(iottfrirt. dompanlf 



660 Mission St. 

67 Front St. 

558 First Ave. So. 

400 E. 3rd St. 

mi i>i i i iiiimiiimmjiiiiiiiiimiiiiiMimi<i!mmm>Mimiiiiiiii<riiiilimiiiiiMiiit< 


t. a. rickaro. editor 
. Parsons, associate editor 

mnmimf msm 
mttfifffis m 

Member Audit Bureau of Circulations 
Member Associated Business Papers, Inc. 


PublMed at ito Market St., San Francisco, 
by the Demv Pubtithino Company 





inn linn i in i iiiiiiiiimimiiiiiimimiiiiii mum imiiiimniE 


Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, January 8, 1921 

$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 






Causes of the depression. Estimate of the cost of 
producing silver in various regions. Demand for 
silver during the War. China as a market for the 
metal. The Pittman Act and the purchase of 
American silver. Coinage of silver in Mexico. 


Apropos of an editorial in the New York paper. 
The Eureka-Richmond suit and the idea then ad- 
vanced on the subject of a limestone lode. The 
Bingham case. A proposed definition, and its de- 
fects. The geologist's idea of a 'lode' and the 


The new Director of the U. S. Bureau of Mines. 
Services of Dr. Cottrell. Mr. Bain's career and his 
eminent fitness for the appointment. 



By Hugo W. Miller 

Money as a medium of exchange must have intrin- 
sic value. An international monetary conference 
advocated; and a bi-metallic standard. 


By M. W. von Bernewitz 

The use of producer-gas. 


By R. S. Everit 



By Amigo 41 

Opportunity for engineers in foreign countries to 
augment their incomes by acting as go-between for 
American merchants and foreign purchasers. The 
engineer's wife might make herself useful. 



By T. A. Rickard 43 

General arrangement of the smelting plant and 
buildings. The sampling-mill. Roasting with 
Dwight & Lloyd sintering machines. Details of 
the connection between the pallets and grates. 
Double roasting. The treatment of fume in the 
Cottrell plant. Blast-furnace operations. Typical 
charge for the furnaces. Bag-house. Equipment 
of the lead refinery. Details of the Parkes process. 
The lead-casting machine. Retorting in Fabre du 
Faur furnaces. Silver refining on cement tests. 
Coal-pulverizing plant. Sundry miscellaneous fea- 
tures. Market for the lead produced. 


Special Correspondence 61 

The effect of the decline in the copper market. A 
decrease in production of gold and silver is indi- 
cated. The output of lead and zinc. 


Answer of the application of Karl Eilers for writ 
of mandamus permitting him to inspect the stock 
records of the A. S. & R. Co. Reply to the charges 
of mismanagement on the part of the Guggenheims. 



A young engineer would like to get in touch with 
an old-time prospector. 









Established May 24. 1800. as The Scientific Press: name changed October 
L'O of the same vear to Mininir and Scientific Press. 

San Francisco post-office as seeond-claHi mailer. Cable 
addreM: Pertmaola. 

Branch Offices — Chicntro. COO Fisher Bdg\: New York. SI Nassau St.: 
^London. ~'!4 Salisbury Houqc. E C. 

Entered at the Sao Francisco post-office ac second-class matter. Cable 
address: Pertusola. ' 



January 8, 1921 

Wilfleys are used as Pilot Tables in 


*By this method high recovery in the flotation 
celts is constantly maintained 

Wilfley Tables perform an important part in the treatment of complex 
ores by flotation. They act as indicators or pilot tables, taking pro- 
ducts from various stages of the process and checking the work of 
the flotation machines. 

At the plant of the Sunnyside Mining and Milling Company at Eureka, 
Colorado, Wilfley Tables are used for this purpose. A gold-silver-lead- 
copper-zinc ore is treated by selective flotation and results are con- 
tinually tested on Wilfleys. 

Several types of Wilfleys are made to meet every need; single deck, 
double deck, arranged for concrete or steel channel foundation, 
laboratory size or half size. 

Write our nearest office concerning your 
concentrating problems. 

&he Mine and Smelter Supply Co. 


NEW YOKK OFFICE: 42 -Broadway 


January 8, 1921 




niimiiiimiimmiir iiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiimii iiiimiiintitmhiiiiiiimmiiiiimtiiimiiiiiwiiiiiiiiiiiiiii tuiniiiiiiiiiiti: 

T T appears that on December 22 the American Smelting 
■*■ & Refining Company, by Mr. Edgar L. Newhouse, 
made return to the petition of Mr. Eilers for a writ of 
mandamus. "We find Mr. Newhouse 'a statement in the 
current issue of the 'Engineering and Mining Journal'. 
We reproduce it on pages 63 and 64 of this issue. 

A T a time when a native of New York, of Spanish 
-'"*- name and parentage, is described as the president of 
the Irish republic, it is amusing to note that the President 
of Mexico is stated to be the great-grandson of Michael 
O'Brien, an Irishman who became Miguel Obrion and 
then Obregon as soon as he had distinguished himself in 
the revolutionary war identified with the insurgency of 
Iturbide. Thus Alvaro Obregon is alleged to be the 
direct descendant of Mike O'Brien. Whether Mr. De 
Valera's pedigree leans on the Spanish or the Mexican 
side, we do not know, but General Obregon certainly 
looks Spanish enough to escape the suggestion of fitness 
to lead the Sinn Fein. 


ESTABLISHMENT of a new metal-selling agency is 
announced by the firm of Guggenheim Bros. Hence- 
forth the selling of the copper produced by the Utah, 
Chino, Ray, Nevada, Chile, Braden, and Kennecott com- 
panies will be in the hands of Guggenheim Bros, instead 
of being done by the American Smelting & Refining Com- 
pany. The reason given is " a natural, if not inevitable, 
incident to the growth of industry". It is acknowledged 
that the Smelting company, in selling the copper of other 
companies, "had come to bear a responsibility greater. 
than it was willing to assume". In any case, it was a 
responsibility that it had discharged with questionable 
success, if Mr. Karl Eilers is to be believed. Indeed, the 
announcement comes so soon after the disclosures made 
by him that the public is likely to make an inference not 
altogether complimentary to the gentlemen in control at 
120 Broadway, New York. 

IT was a pity that the President delayed his approval of 
the bill extending the time for assessment work; he 
signed it on the last day of the year. We received nu- 
merous telegrams from miners anxious to know what had 
:been done. The text of the bill is as follows: "That the 
period within which work may be performed or improve- 
ments made for the year 1920 upon mining claims, as re- 
quired under section 2324 of the Revised Statutes of the 
United States, is hereby extended to and including the 


1st day of July, 1921, so that work done or improvements 
made upon any mining claim in the United States or 
Alaska on or before July 1, 1921, shall have the same 
effect as if the same had been performed within the cal- 
endar year 1920 ; Provided, That this act shall not in any 
way change or modify the requirements of existing law 
as to work to be done or improvements made upon mining 
claims for the year 1921." 

/^ OLD MINING is discussed in several annual reports 
^-^ issued by officials of the Government. The Secretary 
of the Treasury says that the high cost of production has 
affected this industry unfavorably, but he thinks that as 
the purchasing power of the dollar increases, the produc- 
tion of gold will become remunerative. A Solomon 
verily! The Secretary of the Interior recommends an 
increased appropriation for geological investigations in 
Alaska to encourage the mining industry in that Terri- 
tory. Alaska has had plenty of geological investigations 
and they have been among the best of their kind. The 
Governor of Alaska favors a premium on gold to be paid 
to the producer and remission of royalties on coal-lands 
for the first five years. The Chief of Engineers of the 
Araiy recommends an appropriation of a million dollars 
to begin a ten-year program of road construction for the 
purpose of developing the mineral resources of Alaska. 
The building of roads is a first-aid to mining development 
and if done sagaciously is well worthy of endorsement. 
The same official expresses the belief that the prosperity 
of Alaska rests on "the vigorous virile miner and pros- 
pector". As the wife of the Mayor of New York said to 
the King of the Belgians: "Sir, you said a mouthful". 

"TkEPRESSING statements concerning mining are the 
*-* fashion at present, just because some of our friends 
are long in timidity and short in memory. Times of 
depression alternate with periods of elation, contraction 
follows expansion, the economic pendulum seems to have 
its swing in obedience to a law as insistent as that of 
gravity. For a change, and to hearten our friends, we 
may mention that Ontario, a Canadian mining region of 
no small interest and consequence, yielded $35,920,418 
in metallic products during the first nine months of 
1920 as against $27,875,713 in the corresponding period 
of 1919. These statistics have been issued recently by 
the Department of Mines at Toronto. Gold mining 
seems to be alive, for the production was $8,735,768 in 



January 8, 1921 

1920 as against $7,574,586 in 1919— that is, for the re- 
spective nine months. The mining- of silver likewise 
shows some liveliness, for the production increased from 
$7,898,220 in 1919 to $8,435,088 in 1920. Evidently 
mining in Ontario is not dead, nor even dying. 

"fc/TANUFACTURERS of mining machinery and equip- 
-*-'- 1 - ment in the United States are more than holding 
. their own in competition with manufacturers in Great 
Britain so far as their sales to the mines of the Wit- 
watersrand in South Africa are concerned. In 1913 we 
supplied only 9.52% of the manufactured goods im- 
ported into South Africa as compared with 56% by the 
United Kingdom. During the War our proportion in- 
creased as a result of Britain's inability to spare many 
commodities, but it was expected that the return of peace- 
time conditions would restore approximately the former 
ratio. Such has not been the case. Whereas America 
furnished 13.87% of South Africa's imports in 1918, the 
corresponding figure for 1919 is 24.14% as compared 
with only 45.46% from the British Isles. These data are 
in respect of all manufactured products, including those 
used in the mining industry, but the ratio is doubtless 
approximately the same, since the machinery and equip- 
ment required to supply 45 productive mines, with a 
monthly output of 2,000,000 tons, forms a considerable 
proportion of the total imports. In the current issue of 
the 'South African Mining and Engineering Journal', 
Mr. Francis Harrison, in discussing the matter from the 
standpoint of the mining industry, points out three fac- 
tors that he says have militated against more extensive 
business with Great Britain. These are "the difficulty 
of getting supplies from manufacturers, high prices, and 
aggressive American competition". We presume that 
each of these factors must apply to separate groups of 
commodities ; they certainly could not apply consistently 
to the same articles, unless perhaps the prices were only 
relatively high as compared with those quoted by Ameri- 
cans. In that event the last two would merge into one. 
The British manufacturer prides himself on "accurate 
and reliable British quality" as opposed to the "Ameri- 
can style of cheap mass product". Statistics show that 
$935,000 worth of rubber belts, principally for use in the 
gold mills, were exported from the United States to South 
Africa during 1919. This is only one item, but it indi- 
cates the importance of the South African market to the 
manufacturer in the United States, and particularly to 
the manufacturer of equipment for the mining industry. 
It also indicates that 'cheap mass production' may not be 
so bad after all. The engineer who is operating the mines 
on the Rand selects the belt that will give him the largest 
return for the money spent; he takes everything into 
consideration, the capital invested, the cost of current 
maintenance, and the length of life. Apparently a great 
many managers have discovered that the American-made 
belt is the best, their yardstick is net profit, the raw ma- 
terial from which dividends are made; for their ultimate 
object is dividends. Belting is one of a hundred things 
that are purchased ; the Rand is one of a score of mining 

districts that afford a market. As a matter of fact, the 
field is open and in the long run the country and the com- 
pany with the best product gets the business. The Ameri- 
can manufacturer owes it to himself to make his goods 
known abroad. Fortuitous circumstances frequently did 
this for him during the War ; now he must do it through 
his own effort. 

/"kUR curiosity is aroused by a small pamphlet that is 
^-' being distributed by the United States Steel Cor- 
poration apropos of the recent report of the Interchurch 
World Movement on the steel strike of September 1919. 
If two short introductory letters, one to, and the other 
from, Mr. E. H. Gary, were disregarded; if sundry 
allusions to biblical episodes were deleted; and if the 
possessive pronoun "our" before "Interchurch Com- 
mission" were changed to 'the' in a number of places, 
we would conclude without hesitation that the pamphlet 
was prepared by an attorney for the Steel Corporation ; 
perhaps by one of the younger men, less austere and 
more imaginative in his style of writing than his seniors. 
It is a caustic, ex paiie, frequently inconsistent, con- 
demnation of the report of the Interchurch Commission, 
and a palpably biased defence of the policy and attitude 
of the Corporation, with a generous sprinkling of 
encomium for Judge Gary himself. For example : ' ' The 
best way is to humanize the finance committee as it has 
been done with remarkable success in the personality of 
its chairman, Mr. Gary". Even he might blush at this 
fragrant compliment. The controversy between the 
American Federation of Labor and the Steel Corpora- 
tion has two sides ; much can be said in defence of Mr. 
Gary and his policy with respect to labor; the Corpora- 
tion is doing a great deal toward the betterment of work- 
ing conditions among its employees; and it is justified 
in publishing and distributing literature aimed to ap- 
prise the public of these things. Such is the obvious 
purpose of this pamphlet, which would be in no way 
remarkable except for what is revealed in the letters of 
introduction. The arraignment, it appears, is an address 
delivered before a meeting of Boston ministers at Pil- 
grim Hall by the Reverend E. Victor Bigelow of South 
Church at Andover, Massachusetts. In the first letter 
Mr. Gary expresses appreciation and gratitude that an 
"entire stranger" should take the trouble to present the 
"Interchurch world report in its true light" and asks 
permission to print and circulate the address. In the 
second letter the Reverend Mr. Bigelow reciprocates the 
appreciation and accedes with alacrity to the request. 
Were it not for the unimpeachable character of the rev- 
erend gentleman's position we should suspect collusion, 
of the kind vulgarly known as a 'frame up'. We venture 
to suggest to Mr. Bigelow that his address would have 
been far more convincing if he had been able to see some 
of the arguments on the other side ; but the most aston- 
ishing thing is that the astute Mr. Gary should be misled 
into thinking that the camouflage of Mr. Bigelow 's cleri- 
cal habiliments would make the propaganda more effec- 

.TaniKiry S. 1 !••_>! 




The Position of Silver 

Revival of mining in Mexico has been checked tem- 
porarily l>y the drop in the price of foreign silver, despite 
the stabilizing effect of purchases of American silver un- 
der the Pittman Act. The metal is produced most 
cheaply in the Pachuea district, where the cost is slightly 
under 60 cents per ounce ; in other parts of Mexico the 
cost of production at the smaller mines is about SO cents, 
the general average being about 70 cents per ounce. In 
the United States the cost ranges between 40 and 80 
cents, excluding the by-product silver incidental to ex- 
ploitation of ores valuable chiefly for the base metals, 
copper, lead, and zinc. At Cobalt, in Canada, the average 
cost is about 50 cents, with a low figure of 37 cents for 
the Nipissing mine. It is obvious that if the market price 
remains near 60 cents, it will be necessary for many, if 
not most, of the silver mines outside the United States to 
cease operations. That, of course, will tend at once to 
correct the sag in price by increasing the demand, which 
has fallen off for two principal reasons, of which the chief 
is the temporary cessation of buying from China. During 
the War the prosperity of the Chinese caused them to 
buy silver -freely, such buying being further stimulated 
by the fact that Great Britain and others among the 
Allies stripped China bare of silver in order to adjust 
their balances in the Far East. We know how the em- 
ployment, of Indian troops in Mesopotamia and Egypt, 
and of Chinese in France, called for a large supply of 
silver coinage. These various abnormal conditions 
opened a voracious market for silver in the Orient. In 
Europe likewise the payment of soldiers made a call on 
silver coins of every kind. Since the Great War the de- 
preciation of paper money has been so great that it has 
been profitable to melt silver and exchange it at a large 
premium for paper currency. A final blow at the weak- 
ening market was delivered by the French government 
when recently it decided to sell 40,000,000 ounces of sil- 
ver at the rate of 400,000 ounces per week, in order to 
meet pressing financial demands. General conditions, as 
will be seen, have been extremely unfavorable to the 
maintenance of what the miner would consider a fair 
price for his product. The purchases under the Pittman 
Act have cheeked the collapse somewhat. Under that 
Act our Government is buying back from the American 
miner the 207 million ounces that it released from the 
Treasury three years ago for the benefit of British 
finance in the East. Thus far only about 30 million 
ounces have been purchased by the Government, and it 
is estimated that it will take at least four years to com- 
plete the transactions authorized under the Act, provided 
that foreign silver sells for less than a dollar per ounce, 
for if it goes above that price on the open market the 
American miner will cease to sell his product to his Gov- 
ernment, and thus prolong the completion of the pur- 
chases legalized under the Pittman Act. Meanwhile tic 
silver being produced in Mexico is being coined rapidly, 
thereby helping to cure the inflation of the currency 
caused by 'infalsifiable' paper of various kinds and de- 
nominations. The coinage of Mexican silver is proceed- 

ing at the rate of 24 million Ounces per annum, equiva- 
lent to about a third of the normal production. This will 
be a factor in restoring economic conditions in that coun- 
try. Our miners are still the beneficiaries of the Pittman 
Act. Conditions are bad, but they might be much worse. 
Before they do become worse, it is likely that the decrease 
of production, in Canada and elsewhere, partly inci- 
dental to the curtailment of copper mining, will tend to 
correct the present unfavorable status of silver. 

The Broad Lode Hypothesis 

Our contemporary in New York has been discussing 
the limestone-lode theory as the chief point of contention 
in the Bingham suit, thereby eliciting a protest from a 
gentleman prominent in mining litigation. The contro- 
versy is an old one, for it may be said to have been the 
crux of the celebrated Eureka-Richmond suit, which was 
litigated in 1877. The question arose whether the 'lode' 
at Eureka, Nevada, was the limestone formation in which 
ore had been found or whether it was the system of ore- 
bodies more or less connected by fractures along which 
ore was distributed irregularly. One side wanted the 
entire stratum of limestone to be regarded as a 'lode' 
formed by the enrichment of the rock through fracturing 
and impregnation with minerals containing lead and sil- 
ver; the other side insisted that only the connected frac- 
tures, with their local enlargements into chambered 
masses of ore, constituted a 'lode' or 'vein' as recognized 
by legal statute. At Eureka the limestone lies between 
quartzite and shale ; it varies in thickness from a mere 
seam to a bed 500 to 800 feet wide, thereby forming a 
wedge-shaped mass of rock, in which orebodies of irregu- 
lar shape were discovered. Mr. Justice Field, who de- 
livered the opinion in the case, said that "the limestone 
zone in Ruby HOI, in Eureka district, lying between the 
quartzite and the shale, constitutes, within the meaning 
of the acts of Congress, one lode of rock bearing metal". 
The phraseology is curious, he did not say 'metal-bearing 
rock', as he might well have done. His main argument 
was that "the broken, crushed, and fissured condition of 
the limestone gave it a specific individual character by 
which it could be identified and separated from all other 
limestone in the vicinity. In the zone of limestone nu- 
merous caves or chambers were found, further distin- 
guishing it from the neighboring rock". The editor of 
our contemporary in New York, Mr. J. E. Spurr, is a 
distinguished geologist with wide experience in the field, 
and is therefore thoroughly competent to discuss the 
question in a useful way. He objects to the definition 
brought forward in the Bingham case, namely, that "a 
lode or vein is mineralized rock or rocks which contain 
such indications of valuable minerals as to justify de- 
velopment with the expectation of finding ore. As soon 
as quartzite over a considerable distance becomes min- 
eralized, then it becomes a lode". We agree with Mr. 
Spurr that this definition is so inclusive as to be un- 
reasonable, and wc would even say that it was ridiculous 
if it had not been the cause of a long and expensive liti- 
gation in the course of which honorable scientific men 



January 8, 1921 

have given testimony in support of it as a serious inter- 
pretation of geologic structure in terms of industry. At 
the time of the Eureka suit the structural relations of ore 
deposits were but little understood; in those days the 
simple fissure-vein, viewed as a tabular body of ore along 
a steeply inclined fracture in the crust of the earth, was 
the type upon which the law of the apex was predicated ; 
Since then the world-wide expansion of mining has dis- 
closed divagations from this type so marked and so 
varied as to compel a complete departure from those 
early and elementary ideas of lode-structure. The classi- 
fication of ore deposits has become as complex as the 
forms in which ore has been found in nature. It is true, 
the word 'lode' means something that leads the miner 
and in the term 'deep lead' we have its etymology dis- 
closed; so also the word 'vein' suggests the ramification 
of blood-vessels in the human body. Thus 'vein' is more 
suggestive of definite form than 'lode', but whichever 
term be used it must be tied to the economic factor in 
mining, that is, the winning of ore, which, in turn, en- 
tails a recognition of 'ore' as metal-bearing rock that can 
be exploited at a profit at a given time and place. The 
loose description invoked at Bingham corresponds with 
what the Cornishman calls "symptoms of indications", 
it bears no relation to the shape or form of an ore de- 
posit — and that,. it will be argued, is no defect, for are 
not some ore deposits without visible, boundaries, their 
limits being dependent upon the valuable metallic con- 
tents of the rock as determined by assay, the delimiting 
quality of which depends upon the current value of the 
metal being sought and the cost of the operations needed 
to extract it in marketable form? On the other hand, 
the idea that the presence of metal in proportion how- 
ever minute suffices to turn a rock formation into a lode 
is untenable, for then the ocean is a lode and the penin- 
sula of Lower California is another. The reductio ad 
absurdum is easy, as Mr. Spurr shows in his humorous 
reference to the geology of .Bingham. The clue to the 
difficulty, of course, is in the recognition of the real 
meaning of 'ore'. If "the quartzite over a considerable 
distance becomes mineralized ", it does not become a ' lode ' 
unless the mineralization is S3 r nonymous with ore ; in 
other words, the mineralization must have been so in^ 
tense as to result in a concentration of economic value, 
that is, one yielding a profit to the miner. Besides this 
economic factor, of exploitability, there is implicit in 
the words 'lode' and 'vein' the old idea of structure. 
The enriched rock has boundaries ; even if they have to 
be determined by assay, they will be found to be tied 
in some way to structural lines or planes, to walls, to 
fractures, to shear-zones, to something identifiable with 
the mode of origin of the ore deposit. At Bingham, for 
example, even the geologic sections submitted by the ad- 
vocates of a limestone lode indicate some genetic eon. 
nection between the impregnations of ore and the faults, 
fissures, and dikes that traverse the terrain. The Court 
held that the limestone was not continuously mineralized, 
that the part intervening between groups of mine work- 
ings was "unmineralized and barren", emphasis being 

placed on the fact that this part of the formation had 
not been prospected. Here comes the suggestion for a 
distinction between the geologist's idea of what consti- 
tutes minable ground as against the miner's idea of 
ground that he ought to prospect; the miner's object is 
to make money, the geologist 's is to obtain scientific in- 
formation. If the geologist had to spend his own money 
and apply his own muscle, he would, we think, restrict 
his definition of 'lode', from whole rock formations con- 
taining traces of metal to those recognizable channels and 
delimitable zones along which the agencies of mineraliza- 
tion have so concentrated their physical forces and chemi- 
cal reactions as to produce enrichments sufficiently valu- 
able to incite the miner's toil, not merely excite the 
geologist's curiosity. 

Mr. Bain's Appointment 

On the last day of 1920 it was announced from Wash- 
ington that Mr. F. G-. Cottrell had resigned as Di, 
rector of the U. S. Bureau of Mines and that his suc- 
cessor would be Mr. H. Foster Bain. Dr. Cottrell 's pub- 
lic spirit is so well known as almost to be proverbial ; his 
scientific discernment is likewise recognized cordially by 
his fellow- workers. , He was Assistant Director of the 
Bureau when last year he succeeded Mr. Van. H. Manning 
as Director and previously he had been chief metallurgist 
to the Bureau. Mr. Manning, it will be recalled, was as- 
sistant to the late Joseph A- Holmes, who was the, first 
Director, taking charge, at the time, in 1910, when the 
Bureau was created by enactment of Congress. Dr. Cot- 
trell has been chairman of a division of the; National Re r 
search Council, this being the kind of work inost con- 
genial to him. He will return to it now. The responsi- 
bilities that he has carried most capably for the past year 
are transferred to Mr Bain. As to Mr. Bain, he needs no 
introduction to our readers. He was editor of the 'Minn 
ing and Scientific Press' from 1909 to 1915, and then for 
a short time he was editor of 'The Mining Magazine', in 
London before going to China in 1916. From ther,e he 
was called in 1917 to become assistant to Mr. Manning> 
so he is already familiar with the work that he will, nov? 
direct as chief. In 1918 he resigned to return to China> 
where he was engaged in the examination of mines for an 
important Anglo-American syndicate. He returned to 
this county in November. By that time he had been in- 
vited to succeed Dr. Cottrell and after some hesitancy he 
accepted the appointment, being urged to do so by many 
of his friends. He is 48 years of age, a native of Indiana, 
a Ph.D. of Chicago University and a post-graduate stu- 
dent of Johns Hopkins. He has practised as a mining en- 
gineer in several States and has traveled in many coun- 
tries; for four years he served as State Geologist of 
Illinois. He has lectured on economic geology at several 
universities. This outline of his career indicates an ideal 
preparation for the important task to which he has now 
put his hand. By temperament, experience, and personal 
qualities he is peculiarly fitted to be an officer of the 
Federal government. We wish him the success that we 
feel sure he will deserve. 


January 8, 1021 



Silver as Money 

The Editor: 

Sir — I am just in receipt of your issue of this date in 
which Mr. Blamey Stevens has for discussion an article 
entitled 'An International Association of Silver Pro- 
ducers'. Having been very much interested in silver 
for the past ten years I have had occasion to make some 
study of the metal and its "peculiar position" among 
metals. Just in the last issue of the 'Engineering and 
Mining Journal', Mr. Spurr publishes an article by my- 
self under the title of 'An Advocate of Bimetallism', 
which was more of an argument against the Gold Bonus 
Bill now under consideration by Congress. 

Now, if you will be kind enough to allow me the space 
in your worthy journal, I would like to answer Mr. 
Stevens with this letter, under the title of 'Silver as 

In July, Mr. Charles Butters came through Nogales 
and delivered an address on silver, with the same object 
in view as Mr. Stevens. Today he is back in Nogales 
after an extended trip in the East, where he informs me 
that he got the "cold shoulder" on such an idea every- 
where he went. He seems to have become discouraged, 
and has closed down some of his silver mines. Now Mr. 
Butters, in my opinion, made the subject look like too 
much of a personal matter, but, on the other hand, always 
emphasized the fact that silver was necessary as money. 

I am surprised that any man should attempt to or- 
ganize an association to sell a certain commodity to a 
government and start out, like Mr. Stevens, by saying 
that it was "no longer suitable" for the purpose for 
which said governments would use it. It will be my 
object herewith to state facts pertaining to the issue 
from which any reader can arrive at his own conclu- 

In his recent address before the Federated American 
Engineering Societies, Mr. Herbert Hoover, its presi- 
dent, among many good things, said : ' ' This engineering 
association stands somewhat apart among these economic 
groups in that it has no special economic interest for its 
members. Its only interest, in the creation of a great 
national association, is public service. . . And if en- 
gineers, with their training in quantitative thought, with 
their intimate experience in industrial life, can be of 
service in bringing about co-operation between these great 
economic groups of special interests, they will have per- 
formed an extraordinary service". 

I believe the proper way to approach the subject of 
silver as money is first to go to the fundamental princi- 

ples upon which its value depends. So, first let us look 
up a bit of history on the subject. Shekels, or pieces of 
silver, are referred to in the Book of Genesis. Abraham, 
in the land of Canaan, bought a field for sepulture and 
paid for it in silver. Silver as well as gold was employed 
in the erection of Solomon's temple at Jerusalem. In 
1000 B.C. the ratio of silver to gold was 12: 1. At the 
Christian era it was 9:1. At 500 A.D., just 24 years 
after the downfall of the western Empire of Rome, the 
ratio was 18 : 1, but in 1100 A.D. it had fallen to 8:1. 
At the close of the seventeenth century it was 10: 1, and 
at the end of the last century it was 15 : 1. In 1850 the 
ratio was 15.4: 1. In 1873 it was 16 : 1. In 1896 it was 
30 : 1. In 1902 it was 39.15 : 1. In 1913 it was 34.19 : 1. 
During the "War, and just after, it varied from almost 
50:1 to 15:1. 

I presume it is owing to these last few years of ex- 
traordinary fluctuations that Mr. Stevens draws his con- 
clusions that silver is no longer "suitable for money". 
I agree with him that such wide differences are uncalled 
for, even in the worst of times, and that something should 
be done for silver. However, we must not lose sight of 
the fact that such regulations as favor a minority in- 
terest in this line or any other line will neither be popu- 
lar nor stand the test of time. 

This is an international subject, I well appreciate, and 
it must be handled as such. But I feel sure I am abso- 
lutely correct in saying that anything done to control the 
price of silver and thus eliminate speculation must from 
the nature of the case come from the other side, that is, 
the consumers and governments in this case. 

In this age of civilization we all constitute the govern- 
ment of our individual nations and we must be made to 
see the absolute need of the things that our tax-money is 
to buy; and, furthermore, the great struggle through 
which the world has just passed certainly has shown the 
absolute need for co-operation among nations and the 
need of an international congress, which unquestionably 
will soon be adjusted or formed with all nations partici- 

Hence all that is wanting in the case of silver is to 
prove that it is necessary to the united governments, 
then the correct price and demand will take care of itself. 
And this proof I hope to give in the following paragraps. 

Money is merely a medium of exchange. And although 
there are a few who do not even think that we need a 
medium of exchange, I believe it will stand without fur- 
ther argument that to carry on trade and commerce some 
medium of exchange is absolutely essential. Now, does 
this medium of exchange have to have an intrinsic 



January 8, 1921 

value ? That is the question before the world today. If 
it does not, why produce gold? Why mine more silver? 
I say, cut them both out and continue to issue paper (as 
it is about the cheapest thing we can find). Some say, 
use a bushel of wheat for a dollar ; all right, everybody 
will do nothing but plant wheat, while others will charge 
more than it is worth for transporting it. Name any- 
thing else that would be suitable for money, analyze it, 
ask if it can be counterfeited, preserved, etc., and see to 
what it leads. 

Silver and gold possess the physical and chemical char- 
acteristics necessary for a permanent international 
medium of exchange. Gold today is at a premium in 
Europe. Why? Because it is scarce, and therefore has 
value. Some American mining-men aand bankers are 
advocating a $10 per ounce bonus on American gold. 
This law should not pass, because it favors the few gold 
miners, and will tend to disturb the only standard we 
have. The gold miners are now being favored by the de- 
crease in the cost of production. The American silver 
miner sold, through his Government, under the Pittman 
Act, practically four years' production in advance for 
the just price of $1 per ounce. France as a last resort 
melted up her silver coins and dumped them on the 
market further to decrease the price of silver. England, 
we read, for the first time in history has been able to pass 
paper money in India, and still she produces 75%, of the 
world's gold, with which she expects to pay off her in- 
ternational debts. Now, with all of these basic facts be- 
fore us, how can we argue that a medium of exchange 
does not have to be backed up with something of intrinsic 
value? However, for argument's sake let us assume the 

In modern times what has been this medium of ex- 
change? Letters of credit, bills of exchange, paper 
money, bonds, notes, checks, and drafts, etc., all of which 
are good, convenient, necessary, and desirable by busi- 
ness men. I do not argue for a system that would abolish 
these, but I do say the world of nations does need some- 
thing to fall back on in case of war, and this, as argument 
and history show, must be gold and silver. I say, en- 
courage all the gold and silver production possible, en- 
courage its use in the arts, as small money, in jewelry, 
ornaments, table-ware, moving-picture films, photog- 
raphy, and every other use possible. The production of 
gold and silver, I think, can never exceed the demand, if 
they are fired in price at some definite ratio — weight for 
weight — of pure metal. By so doing, in case of an emer- 
gency, when foreign exchange on paper falls in value, there 
would be some stocks of so-called luxuries to fall back on 
and put into use as money. The best example of such 
action was shown by Germany during the War in the 
case of copper, the melting up of church-bells and copper 
utensils of all sorts. I further believe that if the world 
had been on a better and sounder financial system prices 
during the War would never have risen to such a high 
level, and in turn the different nations would not have 
been allowed to extend such unlimited credit, the results 
of which we now face in a period of depression. Why? 

Foremost because Europe has not the money with which 
to buy our products, that is, she has a money, but we say. 
the exchange is from 5 to 75% of what they value it in 
trading among themselves. Can it be expected, for ex- 
emple, in the case of France, whose franc is quoted at 
about six cents, to buy our copper even at 14c. and pay 
the exchange, which would be about the same as paying 
us over 50c. per pound for copper. It is not quite that 
bad with some other nations and even worse with others 
at the present time. This example applies to practically 
every commodity that we produce. It seems to be the 
direct result of the system of trading on an indefinite 
credit basis. Now if foreign exchange is going to par- 
alyze business, and cause hunger and suffering the world 
over, as well as undue fluctuations in all commodity 
prices both up and down, it certainly seems to prove that 
it is essential that the medium of exchange shall have an 
intrinsic value, either directly or indirectly. 

We learn that our warehouses are full of food, wool, 
cotton, and other raw materials. Our wheat districts 
have no place to store more flour. Our mines are having 
to curtail production. There is no market for our prod- 
ucts. On the other hand, we are asked to feed starving 
nations in Asia, and in China people are starving by the 
millions. Ample supply on this side and a pressing de- 
mand on the other. Why do not the laws of supply and 
demand function? Many thought the political elections 
were the cause, others still think that after the change is 
effected at Washington, things will be better; however, 
they will find that other things, more important, are re- 
sponsible for present conditions. The fault is simple and 
may be expressed in a few words : an unstable medium of 
exchange. The making of a commodity out of silver, and 
even gold. All of which should be stable and used as 
definite measures only. 

Now, what is the remedy? Either, further unlimited 
credits, or else call a special International Monetary 
Conference, sending authorized representatives from all 
nations, and first adopt a definite ratio between gold and 
silver with a definite proportion of credit expansion that 
would govern all nations alike, so that the different na- 
tions would ultimately adjust their coinage to that ratio, 
and the gold and silver money would become eventually 
international currency. To avoid the expense of trans- 
portation, the nations should issue gold and silver cer- 
tificates indicating on them the actual weight of pure 
metals deposited in their own vaults. Thereby a lot of 
silver would be brought back into monetary use that is 
being held as a luxury now in the European countries, 
and in that way the more wealthy nations could extend 
further credit to such needy nations as their credit ex- 
pansion warranted, and business would commence im- 
mediately. As silver and gold become more plentiful the 
national debts of the different nations could be paid or 
decreased, and the ratio of credit expansion, with gold 
and silver stocks as a basis, might be all that would have 
to be altered in future generations. Of course, the de- 
tails of ratio, seigniorage, credits, etc., would have to be 
worked out from statistics, but they present a minor de- 


January 8, L&SU 



tail. All of which could be done iu half the time that 
Congress mighl spend in debating the sfcFadden Hill. 

1 believe it is time that we Amerioans quit wasting 
time on dreams and get down to business. I "nl imit <•<! 
eredil means waste, extravagance, speculation, and sor- 
row. Cash, with limited credits and conservatism mean 

prosperity, economy, and happiness. We producers of 

metals and agricultural products must realize that war 

prices wire a nightmare. On the other hand, consumers 

must realize that progress means better living conditions, 

higher esthetic wants of individuals, consequently higher 

wages and production costs. ^ ^r , r 

Hugo W. Miller. 

Nogales, Arizona, December 18, 1920. 

Power From Low-Grade Fuels 

The Editor: 

Sir — Referring to my two previous letters on this sub- 
ject, I find in Bulletin 55 (1913) of the U. S. Bureau of 
Mines, by R. H. Pernald, that in that year there were 
from 900 to 1000 plants in the United States generating 
a total of 200,000 hp. from producer-gas. Of a list of 
722 plants, 610 were using anthracite, 77 bituminous coal, 
32 lignite, 1 wood, and 2 oil. A map accompanying this 
publication showed that most of these plants are in a 
region covering the north-central and north-eastern 
States. In the South and West, the installations could 
be counted on two hands, showing that where oil is pro- 
duced and plentiful, it is either burned under boilers or 
the distillates are used in stationary engines. The ad- 
vent of the oil-engine, its general simplicity, and an 
abundance of oil stopped development of the gas-pro- 
ducer; but as liquid fuel becomes scarcer and higher in 
price, the use of producer-gas may be extended. I under- 
stand, on good authority, that the net result of gas-pro- 
ducer installations in America has been to make a de- 
mand for special fuels, which work easily in gas-pro- 
ducers, so as to reduce the labor charge; in fine, they 
failed to utilize low-grade fuel or waste-products. How 
different is this result to that of British and European 
practice, where many times the American total of pro- 
ducer-gas plants are in successful operation. It might 
be helpful if engineers and others interested secured 
copies of the following Bulletins of the Bureau of Mines, 
which cover producer-gas power both here and abroad : 
No. 4, 7, 9, 13, 31, 55, and 109; also Technical Papers 

No. 9, 20, 123, and 207. 

M. W. vox Berxewitz. 

New York, December 10, 1920. 




The Editor : 

Sir — I read with interest an advertisement in your 
last issue, advising young graduates to go prospecting, 
and it brought to my mind certain questions. 

First, like most young technical men from the East, I 
have had little opportunity to come into contact with the 
old-time prospector and I thoroughly realize that it is no 
game for a tenderfoot to play on a lone hand. Therefore, 

I would like to know how to get in touch with some old- 

Second, wliat districts are there left to prospect, at the 
present time, other than .Mexico? 

Third, how much capital is needed, and what are the 
chances of getting grub-staked f 

Perhaps some of your readers can enlighten me on 
these questions. 

R. S. Everit. 

Ray, Arizona, November 19, 1920. 

Economic Interests 

The Editor: 

Sir — I am constrained to enlarge upon the opportuni- 
ties which would present themselves to men charged with 
the many tasks incidental to rehabilitation and protec- 
toration (a poor word, but mine own), opportunities that 
only business men would seize and that engineers would 
probably ignore. 

There is a mill-foreman in a Central American repub- 
lic who is dissatisfied with his salary. A few months ago 
he wrote to the New York Steel Exchange, which exports 
mining machinery, asking if there was any way in which 
he could add to his income. His letter reached the proper 
desk in the routine way, and the reply was designed to 
bring out a statement of the foreman's opportunities. 
It turned out that besides his immediate employers, there 
were other mining and industrial companies in his neigh- 
borhood, as well as a projected short railway and a vil- 
lage hydro-lighting plant. The foreman 's general knowl- 
edge in the way of requirements of supplies, iron, corru- 
gated iron, waste, balls, bolts, drill-steel, and the like, 
made it easy for him to help his neighbors prepare their 
formal orders, but his ignorance of selling, market prices, 
exporting, and credit matters is simply appalling. He is 
a good engineer, but any ten-year-old bank messenger 
knows more of financial matters. 

The export house is always glad to take the trouble 
necessary to complete the transactions, and this mining 
engineer is an apt pupil. A long letter from him re- 
cently expresses wonder how he could formerly go 
through a mill, seeing the needs of chrome spare parts, 
Dorr machines, ball-mills, red-edge shovels, and similar 
items, and calmly ignore the opportunity to make 
money. He says he needs the money, too. Seems to have 
a wife and some children. It is clear from his letters 
that he formerly looked over a mine and mill from a 
nose-to-the-grindstone point of view. Now he is' a much 
more useful member of society. 

Of course you, Mr. Editor, realize that advance in- 
formation leading to business is worth money to manu- 
facturers and exporters and to the buyers themselves, 
and buying advice is worth money to our foreman's 
neighbors. At first he got business after hours, but soon 
discovered that he was losing money working for wages. 
Upon one occasion his enthusiastic faith in the credit of 
one buyer, whom the exporter would not trust, cost him 
$280 on an order he personally guaranteed ; but it was 
cheap experience. 

Not a day need pass in the life of a mining engineer 



January 8, 1921 

abroad without his writing to New York of an oppor- 
tunity to do business. Hamilton (you do not know 
which Hamilton I mean) would have been a millionaire 
by this time, had he known and remembered this, or had 
he married and had his wife been told of the opportuni- 
ties he was missing. Patterson (the above parentheses 
applies to Pat also) has simply been too lazy to pick up 
this money. I know of only about 20 engineers who 
draw drafts like these on New York. 

One engineer who lives in Bolivia is about the laziest 
(commercially) that I know, but I met his wife. She 
heard me scolding her husband one day about missing 
his opportunities. He accompanied me to a near-by 
property and watched the writing of a simple spare part 
and supply order. When we returned to his house, I 
showed him and his wife what would be charged to the 
order for overhead and traveling expenses, and explained 
to his wife that if he did this work, no doubt any manu- 
facturer would send him an agent's pay-check. Well! 
He sends up orders, but he is my most deadly enemy. 
His wife leaves him not a moment 's peace. Every dia de 
fiesta they visit some plant, and instead of comfortably 
enjoying a discussion of jigs and tables and tailings, he 
is allowed only half his time for this, and must spend the 
remainder with the buyer, the mayordomo and the 
pulpero. His wife has no ethical ideas so far as concerns 
the kind of material to be ordered, and considers gro- 
ceries or tocuyo as ethical as ball-mills — and much more 
profitable. Moving-picture machines and a complete 
hospital equipment are some of his items, and represent 
as well as anything his "economic interest" in Bolivia, 
which Hoover says the engineer does not have. 

This engineer (and his wife) have been at this for a 
year. He is a far better employee for his own company 
and now knows how to buy. Engineers do not. He 
makes more in his odd moments than he earns as salary 
and is independent of salary and job. As time passes, 
he is less trouble to the exporter and manufacturer be- 
cause he sends his orders complete ; he attends to collec- 
tions ; he makes it easy for the buyer, the seller, and the 
shipper.. His wife writes most of the orders and en- 
dorses all of the agent's pay -checks. 

No one in any industry, or profession, without excep- 
tion, has the opportunities within the reach of the min- 
ing engineer. A near-by prospect is attractive. He can 
offer it to his employers. If they are not interested, he 
can offer it to New York. There is no limit, of course, to 
the number of mines that New York is willing to buy. 
'A man with ear-rings sold a mine here recently for more 
gold than there is in all Germany and Austria. A live 
engineer cannot only send advance information on im- 
provements and new works in mining, to exporters and 
manufacturers who are glad to pay for new business, but 
he can tell J. G. White & Co. of proposed port works and 
railways, Pelton of hydraulic developments, Redwood of 
pipe-line projects, and so on ad infinitum. The pages of 
the journals will give him a name for every different line. 
He will be careful in his choice of correspondents for 
each important item, and then will help to close the busi- 

ness. No one will pay for words. The engineer is in an 
ideal position to guide purchases because his opinion 
commands and merits respect and confidence. He is. 
head and shoulders above the ordinary salesman in the 
opinion of the machinery-buyer, the machinery-seller, 
the works-contractor, the buyer of mines, and the ex- 
ploration company. 

Few engineers but could widen their field of activity, 
broaden their experience, and thicken their bank account 
by seeing what should be done for and by their neighbors 
and telling somebody about it. These activities are only 
recommended to engineers who have thought of ways of 
using more money than their present income. It would 
be energy wasted for engineers who are paid a salary 
which supplies all their needs. 

I wish this message could reach the wives of engineers 
abroad, and I dare each of you to read it aloud to your 
wife, explaining it to her patiently and carefully and 
showing how it applies to your particular case. The rest 
I leave to her, if she has any use for an additional thou- 
sand or two a year, and if it does not result in Mr. 
Hoover changing his opinion of the "economic interest" 
of mining engineers, I do not know the species 'wife of 
a mining engineer'. 


San Francisco, December 17, 1920. 

Bunker Hill Smelter 

Sundry corrections in the text of the article on the 
Bunker Hill smelter, beginning on the next page, were 
overlooked owing to the early date of going to press this 
week. On page 53, line 7, the assay of the Caledonia ore 
should show 0.6% copper; in line 26, "the second tuyere 
jackets" should be "the second-tier jackets" ; in the first 
line of page 54, the revolutions should be 4700 ; in line 
35 of the same page, the height of the charge column 
should be 11 feet; in line 7 of page 58, "two pounds" 
should replace "three ounces". 

Most of the high-grade manganese ores in the Bates- 
ville district of Arkansas contain 45 to 52% of manga- 
nese, though some of the ore that has been shipped con- 
tained as much as 60.80% in carload lots. They gen- 
erally contain from 3 to 8% of iron, 0.15 to 0.30% of 
phosphorus, and 2 to 8% of silica. Some of the ore that 
has been marketed contained more than 0.30% of phos- 
phorus, and a very little contained 0.50% or more. As 
the usual requirements of ores that are used for metal- 
lurgical purposes specify that their phosphorus content 
should not be in excess of 0.25%, it is evident that some 
of the ores are too high in phosphorus. Phosphorus is, 
in fact, the most harmful ingredient in the ore of the 
district, but as it is not uniformly disseminated through 
the ore it can generally be avoided in mining. At some 
places the silica content is high, exceeding 8%, which is 
the maximum amount that is usually accepted by buyers 
without imposing penalties, but at some such places the 
silica content can be materially reduced by properly 
treating the ore. 


Januar; B. 192] 





:. '«* 

Ch a rge- hopper 

Charge-bins' during construction 


.Scales- and charging-chutes 




Januarv S. 1921 

Sbftenmg - -furnace 

Lead kettle about to be emptied 

January 6, 192] 



Feeders to Dwight-Lloyd machines 

The Dwisht-Uoyo! roasters 

A D-L. grate or palette 

General view of same 



January 8, 1921 

Zinking-kettles; refin'mg-fumace in background Drossing-kettles, blast-furnace in background 

Lead-pump, zinking-kettles', drossing-kettles FaberduFaurfurnace for distilling zinc 

Cupelling-furnace in silver refinerY Zinc-retorts and zinking-kettles 1 

January 8, 192] 



Fig. 1. cross-section op the bunker hill smelter 

The Bunker Hill Smelter 

By T. A. Rickard 

The site of the smelter is the old Bingham ranch, a 
tract of 80 acres adjoining the Bunker Hill mill-site on 
the west. It is particularly well suited to the purpose, 
having a draw or gully on each side of the central hum- 
mock; in the eastern hollow are the receiving-bins, the 
crushing-plant, and sampling-mill ; in the west hollow are 
placed the charge-bins; on top of the ridge between these 
two depressions are the roasters, track-scales, warehouse, 
shops, bag-house, Cottrell treater, and stack. Below them 
are the furnace-buildings, and the refineries. The main 
level of the smelter has an elevation of 2400 ft. and is 
connected with the Bunker Hill mill-yard by a standard- 
gauge railroad, which is a little less than a mile long. 
There is also a connection on the w r est with the Sierra 
Nevada branch line of the Oregon, Washington Railroad 
& Navigation Company. 

General Arrangement. From the top of the first 
ridge west of Government gulch, that is, on the side 
farthest from Kellogg, one obtains an excellent view of 
the entire plant. On the extreme right, on top of the 
opposite ridge, is a 125,000-gal. storage-tank for fuel-oil 
and behind it are the tanks that store water for the fur- 
naces and for domestic supply. Next below comes the 
Cottrell treater, a tell narrow structure, and to the left 
of it is the stack, made of radial brick, 200 ft. high and 
15 ft. in diameter inside. Against it appears the bag- 
house, which is built of brick and contains three com- 
partments, each of them holding 400 woolen bags, 
through which the fume filters. A little in front and west 
of the bag-house is the fan-house, which contains two No. 
19 Niagara conoidal 160,000-cu. ft. fans, for pushing the 
furnace gases through the bag-house and up the stack. 
The same building contains electrical equipment for the 
Cottrell treater. Athwart these buildings is seen the 
main flue ascending the hill. From where the flue passes 

under the main railroad tracks to the Cottrell treater it 
is divided into two parts. The upper part is used for the 
roaster gases, and the lower part for the blast-furnace 
gases, and also for a direct connection to the stack. In 
the gulch immediately below the spectator are the charge- 
bins and railroad tracks. On the sky-line, and below the 
bag-house, is the assay-office belonging to the Hecla, 
where a representative of that company is domiciled. To 
the left, below this assay-office, is the roaster-building. 
In front of it it a steel balloon-flue leading to a chamber 
that serves for humidifying the gases before they enter 
the main brick flue. Below the roaster-building is a small 
change-house for the employees; then comes the charge- 
track leading to the blast-f urnaees ; the first building 
below this track is the power-house, which contains the 
blowers, compressors, and motor-generator sets, and also 
the switchboards that control the distribution of power 
to the different parts of the smelter and refinery. Next 
is the furnace-building, and in front, just below, is the 
lead refinery, athwart which appears the silver refinery. 
On the extreme left is a building containing the Bonnot 
coal-pulverizing plant. At the rear of the roaster-build- 
ing one can get a glimpse of the top of the crushing and 
sampling buildings in the gulch beyond. To the right of 
the silver refinery there is a 100,000-gal. tank that is used 
for cooling the jacket-water from the blast-furnaces, re- 
fining-furnaces, lead-casting wheel, etc., and in the gulch 
at the spectator's feet is the building in which copper 
sulphate is made. The system of railroad tracks includes 
the high line, on which come the ore, coke, and flux. Be- 
low the lead refinery is another track for the removal of 
the product. The silver bullion is shipped by express en 
a passenger train, at the station named Bradley, after 
the president of the company. The main office, assay- 
office, warehouse, and machine-shop are not visible from 



January 8, 1921 

our point of vantage, being hidden by the other build- 
ings. A reference to the plan'and section (Fig. land 
2) will make the description clear. 

After preliminary surveys, the construction of the 
plant was started on May 1, 1916, and the first blast-fur- 
nace was blown?, in on July 5, 1917. The plant cost 
$2,500,000. The accompanying photographs show three 
successive stages; of the construction. The plant was de- 
signed by Jules Labarthe, of the firm of Bradley, Bruff 
& Labarthe, of San Francisco.* It consists essentially of 
the crushing and sampling mill, Dwight & Lloyd sinter- 
ing machines, Traylor blast-furnaces, lead refinery, silver 
refinery, besides bag-house, Cottrell treater, power-sta- 
tion, and the necessary equipment for receiving and stor- 
ing the various materials that go into the furnaces. 

The sampling-mill consists of two parts, for coarse 
and fine crushing respectively. The former has three 
receiving-bins, and the latter four. These bins are built 
of wood, and each has a capacity of 3500 cu. ft. Material 
of large size goes through the coarse-crushing plant, 
which contains an 18 by 30-in. Allis-Chalmers jaw- 
crusher. This building has the necessary elevators and 
screens, so that in crushing limestone the oversize ma- 
terial, about 2^ in., is delivered back into a railroad ear 
and can be taken directly to the blast-furnace charge- 
bins and stock-pile, while the undersize can be delivered 
directly to one of the roaster-charge bins. If it be neces- 
sary to crush the material fine, it can be passed to the 
fine-crushing plant, which has the following equipment : 
one 48-in. Symons disc-crusher, two 16 by 42-in. Allis- 
Chalmers rolls, and a Mitchell vibrating screen, with the 
•necessary elevators and belt-conveyors. There is a 30-in. 
behVconveyor in front of the three bins of the coarse- 
crushing plant; this conveyor feeds directly into the 
jaw-crusher. A similar conveyor serves the four bins of 
the fine-crushing plant, and feeds directly into the Sy- 
mons disc machine. At the discharge end of the fine-ore 
belt-conveyor, and directly above the receiving-hopper of 
the Symons machine, is placed a 220-volt magnet, made 
by the Electric Controller & Manufacturing Co. This 
magnet, Fig. 3, removes steel, scrap-iron, nails, etc., 
that may have accompanied the ore into the Symons ma- 
chine. Such pieces of scrap might otherwise get into the 
disc and cause an expensive shut-down. There is very 
little trouble' with the Symons disc-crusher, because the 
feeding-belt is also used as a picking-belt and when lead 
matte is being crushed any pieces of lead that may be in 
the matte can be easily seen and picked out, the matte 
having been already through the coarse-crushing plant. 
I noticed a collection of material that was caught by the 
magnet ; it consisted of tobacco-cans, snuff-boxes, railroad 
spikes, bolts, fish-plates, nails, hammer-heads, and pieces 
of drill-steel. The 'bit' of a miner's drill is non-mag- 
netic, and such material has to be picked by hand off the 

•Mr. Easton, the manager, tells me that particular credit 
is due to Walter K. Mallette in directing the construction of 
the smelter. Thanks to his energy and good judgment it 
was possible to complete the erection of the plant, without 
delay or confusion and at a minimum of expense, within a 
little more than one year. 

feeding-belt. An ingenious feeder is used at this point. 
This is set directly under the bin and over the belt. The 
gate of the bin is opened wide and the feeder is con- 
trolled by means of an electric switch, by which the oper- 
ator can regulate his feed to suit the Symons disc. On 
the Mitchell screen, it is customary to use Ludlow-Say- 
lor's wire-screen No. 523, and also No. 581. There are 
three Vezin sampling-machines, which take the entire 
stream of crushed ore during part of the time, and there 
is also a small set of Chalmers & Williams rolls, 12 by 12 
in., immediately above the last sampler. The cut from 
this last sampler is caught in a small cart that is pushed 
by hand into a room where the sample is cut down on a 
floor covered with steel plates. One sample is taken to 
the assay-office, while the reject is put in a sack and kept 
in reserve in case re-sampling should be required. The 
ore is taken from the mill by a 20-in. belt-conveyor dis- 

. This governs distance 
of magnet from belt. 

Fig. 3 

charging by means of a tripper into one of the series of 
eight roaster-charge bins. At the end of this belt-con- 
veyor there is also an inclined belt-conveyor of the same 
size, so that if it becomes necessary to store the material, 
or take it to the furnace-charge bins, it can be fed direct- 
ly into railroad cars. There is another row of bins im- 
mediately south of those just mentioned. The tripper 
cannot reach these bins, so that when it is necessary to 
fill them with ore from the sampling-mill, it is simply 
transferred in railroad cars. However, this second row 
of bins is generally used for material that can be hand- 
sampled directly out of railroad ears. There are three 
lines of track over this system of bins and they are so 
arranged that a ear can be spotted on the central track 
and unloaded into bins on either side. 

The roasting-plant consists of nine Dwight & Lloyd 
sintering machines and one Wedge furnace. This last 
has seven hearths, each of 23-ft. diam. ; but it is not in use 
at present. The Wedge furnace was used for roasting the 
lead matte, but for over a year the matte has been double- 
roasted on the D. & L. machines. At the present time the 


January 8, 1921 





January 8, 1921 

Fig. 4 

smelter is receiving no material that has a sulphur con- 
tent high enough to need preliminary roasting in the 
"Wedge before treatment in the sintering machines. The 
charge is brought from the different bins by a series of 
20-in. belt-conveyors to the receiving-hoppers of the D. & 
L. machines. At the top of the building there is a tripper 
that can be set over the hopper of any machine. The 
charge is fed from the storage-hopper of each roaster 
by a belt-conveyor into a blind-trommel mixer and it is 
then delivered onto the D. & L. grates by a swinging- 
spout feeder, as shown in Fig. 4. 

The grates used on the D. & L. machines were designed 
at Trail, by E. H. Stewart, formerly general manager for 

i in. Bolt 

the Consolidated Mining & Smelting Company of 
Canada. His 'pallet', one unit of a jointed moving 
hearth, has five interlocking serrated grates ; so that the 
interior grates are fixed and loose alternately, causing 
the sintered ore to detach itself readily when about to be 
dumped. A new method of fastening the grates to the 
pallet has been devised by A. L. Larson, mechanical 
superintendent in this smelter, and a sketch of it was 
given to me by M. H. Sullivan (McGill '04), the superin- 
tendent* of the smelter. See Fig. 5. There are only 
three bolts holding the fish-plates to the sides of the 
pallet where in the original grate there were seven bolts. 
This new method of attachment simplifies the replace- 
ment of a broken grate. Each grate has three loose mem- 
bers, and on account of their differential movements it is 
kept clean. Sidney Butler, the general foreman of the 
roasters and blast-furnaces, has devised a method for 
leveling the movable members of the grates. This device 
as developed here consists of a heavy east-iron wheel 
■ — a discarded- crane-wheel is suitable — mounted on a 

*To whom I am indebted for invaluable assistance in the 
preparation of this article. 

Fig. 5. device for connecting the grate to the pallet op the dwight & llotd sintering machine 

January B, 1921 



ON AUGUST 20, 1916 

ON DECEMBER 13, 1916 

ON OCTOBER 3, 1917 



January 8, 1921 

shaft that is held in place by two pieces of angle-iron bolt- 
ed to the frame of the machine. Each angle-iron is 
attached by a single bolt. This allows the wheel to move 
up and down, and when the pallet passes under the wheel, 
the movable members are leveled to the plane of the fixed 
members. If the grates are not leveled, there is a ten- 
dency for the sinter to stick to the projections of the 
tilted members at the discharge end of the roaster. 

At the present time pulverized coal is being used for 
the ignition of the sulphur in the ore to be sintered, 
whereas formerly fuel-oil was used, and the brick muffle 
has been replaced by one of cast-iron. The first cast-iron 
muffle was made of individual blocks that were simply 
dropped into the old brick muffle-frame. A strip of f by 
2-in. iron is riveted on the inside of the frame, the lugs 
of the cast-iron blocks resting on top of these strips. It 
was found later that the muffle was equally satisfactory 
when made in larger sections, as shown in Fig. 6. These 
cast-iron muffles proved to be much cheaper than those 
made of brick, and a repair can be made in a few minutes, 
because it is not necessary to change the muffles. Each 
sintering machine is served by a fan having a capacity 
of 10,000 cu. ft. of air per minute, and the fan is driven 
by a 50-hp. motor. Extra dust-boxes were added between 
the machines and the fan so that any fine material that 
would be pulled through by the suction can be separated. 
These boxes catch the fine material so that it settles be- 
fore it has a chance to cut the fan-blades, thus prolonging 
the life of the fans considerably. Under the sintering 
machines runs a belt-conveyor that catches any spill and 
removes it to an elevator, which carries it back to the 
feed-belt at the top of the building. 

Two types of muffles for pulverized coal are shown in 
Fig. 6. The coal is fed to the roasters by a 41-in. diam. 
fan, with six ^-in. blades making 1200 r.p.m. The feed- 
pipe is nine inches in diameter; this is cut down to five, 
inches for the return line. Directly over each machine 
there is a valve for feeding the coal to the muffle. There 
is also an auxiliary pipe-line to supply the extra air that 
is required to burn the coal. The coal-muffle is simple in 
construction and seems to work satisfactorily. 

Three of the D. & L. machines are used for pre-roasting 
material such as lead matte, fine table-concentrate, flota- 
tion concentrate that can be moved on belt-conveyors, 
and any other fine or coarse material with a sulphur con- 
tent too high to be eliminated successfully in one roast- 
ing operation. 

The sintered material, or 'roast', discharges into stand- 
ard-gauge railroad cars of 110,000-lb. capacity. The pre- 
roast material (partly sintered and its sulphur content 
reduced to 6 or 7%.) is weighed and taken back to the 
sampling-mill for re-crushing, whereas the 'roast' (com- 
pletely sintered and its sulphur reduced to less than 
3%) is weighed and dumped directly into the blast- 
furnace bins. The bins at the sampling-mill that are 
used for the first-roast or pre-roast material are lined 
with 'gunite' three inches thick on the sides and four 
inches thick on the bottom. This gunite, a mixture of 
cement and sand, is shot by a 'cement gun' upon the sur- 

face to be coated ; it is reinforced by J-in. rods and by a 
No. 8 wire-screen of triangular mesh. Spikes are driven 
into the sides of the bin and the reinforcement is hung 
from these spikes. The spikes, of course, also help to re- 
inforce. Since the bins were lined with gunite, no more 
trouble has been experienced from the hot 'roast' setting 
fire to the wood. The bins are also fire-proofed on the 
outside by a layer of gunite about J or i in. thick rein- 
forced with chicken-wire. This serves to preserve the 
wood from decay. 

The fume and gas from the roasters pass to the Cottrell 
treater through a 9-ft. balloon flue, which connects with a 
spray-chamber and then with the upper part of a double- 
deck main flue. As the fume contains very little free 
acid, it was found difficult to obtain a good clearance in 
the Cottrell treater. It was found necessary to add mois- 
ture by means of a series of sprays. These at first were 
placed too near each other, so that they formed drops, 
thereby defeating the purpose, which was to create a 
mist. A spray-chamber was built. The sprays used now 
are made by the Spray Engineering Co. ; they require 45 
gal. of water per minute under a 225-lb. pressure. It is 
necessary to have this water filtered so as to keep the fine 
screen in the sprays from choking and to keep the sprays 
at maximum efficiency. The gas is cooled from 225° to 
105°F., the relative humidity being about 50%. 

The Cottrell treater consists of four sections, each 
of which has 64 pipes made of riveted steel, 12 in. diam. 
and 16 ft. long. The principle of the Cottrell tube is the 
electrification of suspended particles by the discharge of 
high-potential electricity into a stream of gas or fume. 
The individual particles become charged electrically so as 
to cause them to be attracted by the opposite polarity of 
the steel tube or pipe. The electric current is conducted 
within the pipes by a wire or chain made of No. 12 iron 
wire. The first step in the operation is a discharge of 
free electricity from the wire or chain into a stream of 
fume; these charges of electricity are immediately con- 
densed upon the particles of dust, which then become re- 
pelled by the wire or chain, which is electrically of the 
same sign, and attracted by the wall of the steel pipe, 
which is of the opposite sign. The dust drops when it 
has accumulated thickly, but this detachment is expedited 
by rapping the pipes every two hours, which is done by a 
series of hammers suspended on a bar so that the move- 
ment of the lever causes them to hit the pipes. 

The humidifying chamber is protected by a coating of 
gunite; nevertheless the flue shows the stains made by 
the acid produced by the reaction between the spray and 
the fume. When nine roasters are in operation the 
volume of gas is 140,000 cu. ft. per minute, and this gives 
a velocity of 11 ft. per second in the pipes. The treater 
was designed for five roasters, but the D. & L. plant has 
been increased to nine roasters, so at the present time the 
treater is somewhat over-crowded. On account of their 
acidity and temperature the roaster gases would be severe 
on the bags of the bag-house, consequently it has been 
found much more satisfactory to treat the roaster gases 
in the Cottrell treater. 


January S. 192] 



The electrical equipment of the Cottrell treater con- 
sists of three rectifiers. The rectifier is mounted on the 
same shaft with the motor and generator. The current 
goes from the generator to the transformer of the rect i tier. 
so that a direct current is supplied. The primary voltage 
is from 200 to 220, and the transformer ratio is ahout 
436. The voltage used in the treater varies from 80,000 
to 100.000. The rectifiers are arranged so that, by a 
series of switches, any rectifier can be used on any com- 
bination of- treater sections. At the present time one 
rectifier is taking care of four sections. The motors are 
25 hp. and the transformers have 10 kva. capacity. The 
field current for the generators is derived from a small 
motor-generator set. The steel outlet-flues were gradually 
eaten away by the moist roaster gases. These steel flues 
were replaced about a year ago by wooden flues made out 

ifputvgrhed-coal pipe 
If lew-pressure air-pipe S\ 
Valves re regulate feed 

were filled with coke, one with coke-breeze, and one with 
antimonial skimmings. This list of contents suggests the 
variety of materials fed into the furnaces of the smelter. 

The limestone comes from lone, in Washington, on the 
Metaline branch of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
railroad and about 220 miles from the smelter. The 
Caledonia ore contains about 22 oz. silver, 6% copper, 
6% lead, and 70% silica. 

Each bin has two discharge-chutes, the material being 
held back by an ordinary arc-gate. Underneath each 
chute is a steel weighing-hopper, which is suspended from 
a Fairbanks scale. The man in charge of the weighing 
keeps in the several hoppers the exact amount of material 
required to make a complete charge for the furnaces. 
The ore, roast, flux, and coke, after being thus weighed, 
are discharged into the charge-car by the hopper-man, 

If pulveriied-coal pipe 
if low-pressure air -pipe 
Valves to regulate feed i 

Fig. 6 

of two-inch surfaced tongue-and-grooved stock. There 
are four of these outlet-flues and their cross-section is 30 
in. by 9 ft., inside measurement. They are painted with 
P & B on the inside. The wooden flues have proved most 
satisfactory, and no more trouble has been experienced 
from leakages. 

In the west gulch are the 24 charge-bins. The eight 
■ eastern bins are built of concrete and have a capacity of 
3600 cu. ft. each. The central eight wooden bins, for 
silicious ores and limestone, have a capacity of 3500 cu. 
ft. each, and the western eight wooden bins are for coke, 
of which each holds 60 tons. On September 17, 1920, the 
date of my first visit to the smelter, five of the concrete 
bins held Dwight & Lloyd sinter, one contained flue-dust 
from the bag-house, and two were filled with slag. Of the 
wooden bins, two held limestone, two were filled with mid- 
dling rich in siderite (iron carbonate), one contained 
flotation concentrate, two contained silicious ore from the 
Caledonia mine, one held dross from the lead refinery, six 

who travels with it. The car contains two compartments, 
each of which holds a complete charge, weighing about 
two tons ; it is hauled by a four-ton electric-trolley loco- 
motive, which runs on a standard-gauge track to the 

Blast-Furnaces. There are four of these, each being 
48 by 180 in. at the tuyeres. The crucible is 45 by 180 
in. The furnaces have two tiers of steel water-jackets, 
the only brickwork in the column being a 6-in. filler of 
brick between the top of the second tuyere-jackets and 
the cast-steel top, which extends to a point about seven 
inches below the feed-floor. The feed-opening is 27 in. 
by 13 ft. The blast-furnaces have five jackets on each 
side and each jacket has two 4-in. tuyeres. The blast is 
supplied by a Connersville blower and the furnaces are 
■usually run at a pressure of 32 oz. per square inch. The 
blower has a capacity of 100 cu. ft. per revolution and is 
driven at a speed of 145 r.p.m. There are also two Inger- 
soll-Rand turbo-blowers that have a capacity of 12,000.. 



January 8, 1921 

cu. ft. each, and are driven at the rate of 47 r.p.m. These 
turbo-blowers work very satisfactorily in conjunction 
with the positive blower, and will take up any variation 
of load, so that the elements of pressure and volume can 
be regulated to a nicety. Each furnace uses between 6000 
and 7000 cu. ft. of air per minute when smelting about 
300 tons of charge per 24 hours. The charge normally is 
as follows : 


'Roast' ' 65 to 70 

Limestone 4 to 5 

Dross 5 

Return slag and clean-up 3 to 4 

Middling 5 

Flotation slime 2J 

Sintered flue-dust 5 

Caledonia ore 7 

To this is added coke in the proportion of 11 to 12i%. 
Such a change as the above (taken from the record for 
one day) would average 30 to 35% in lead. It would take 
about four hours to go through the furnace. The slag is 
run into two settlers, one of 6-ft. diameter made of cast- 
steel 2J in. thick, overflowing into another of 5i ft. di- 
ameter made of cast-iron, one inch thick, and discharging 
into a Treadwell pot of 130-cu. ft. capacity. The slag- 
pot is handled by a 10-ton electric-trolley locomotive 
operating on a standard-gauge track. The lead is run- 
ning off the furnace all the time except when the slag- 
level is lowered by tapping, and flows into a 4-ton 
brick-lined cast-steel . pot riding on; a car pulled by a 
crane, the pot being then lifted and emptied into the 
drossing-kettle, of which there are four, each of 50 tons 
capacity. The matte is- tapped from the settlers into 
4-ton cast-steel pots similar, to the bullion-pot, and is also 
handled by the traveling crane. The charge-column is 
maintained at a height of about 8J ft. above the tuyeres. 
The fume from these furnaces passes through steel flues 
underneath the feed-floor into a large settling-flue sit- 
uated south of the blast-furnace building and extending 
a little west of the lead refinery. Here the settling-flue 
makes a 45° turn up-hill toward the bag-house and stack, 
and is gradually reduced in size. The cross-sectional area 
of the settling-flue, which has a 45° bottom, is 17 by 15 
ft. The cross-section of the main flue going up the hill to 
the fan-house is 12 by 11 ft. 10 in. The fume is sucked 
by a large fan (of which there are two, one being held as 
a spare) to the bag-house. 

The bag-house is built of brick and is 129 ft. long, 56 
ft. wide, and 49 ft. 6 in. high to the eaves. The thimble- 
floor is 14 ft. 6 in. above the ground-floor, and above the 
thimble-floor the bag-house is divided into three sections, 
each containing 400 woolen bags, 30 ft. long and 18 in. 
diam., suspended in the line of their length. The bags 
are shaken- every two hours by means of an eccentric 
device placed at the top of the bag-house and operated by 
an electric motor. While this operation is taking place 
krone compartment, the smoke is going through the other 
two. Usually, only two compartments or sections are 
Used at the same time. The bags will last five or six years, 
when they will have to be replaced on account of leakage' 
clue to corrosion caused by sulphuric acid. Each section 

below the thimble-floor is .divided into four chambers. 
The flue-dust is set on fire in these chambers and sintered. 
It contains about 74% lead and 8%. sulphur. The bag- 
house also receives the fume from the furnaces of the lead 
refinery and the silver refinery. However, there has been 
a tendency in the summer-time for the bag-house to get 
very hot, so that it is proposed to treat the refinery fumes 
in the Cottrell plant as soon as it has been enlarged. This 
will make a flexible arrangement. 

The lead refinery is an extension of the blast-furnace 
building, the total length of which is 396 ft. This build- 
ing is served by two 20-ton Pawling & Harnishfeger 
traveling electric cranes. There is also a 10-ton crane in 
the west end of the building for use in case one of tho 
other cranes becomes unavailable. 

The equipment of the lead refinery is as follows: 

Four 50-ton drossing-kettles, 

Three 75-ton softening-furnaces, 

Four 50-ton desilverizing-kettles, 

Three 7 5-ton refining-furnaces, 

One 200-ton circular merchant furnace. 

One 30-ton by-product or residue furnace, 

Two Miller casting-machines, 

Eight retorting-furnaces. 

This equipment is sufficient to treat 225 tons of refined 
lead per day. The molten lead from the blast-furnace is 
discharged, as described, into a cauldron the heat of 
which is brought up to 1000°F. so as to melt any free 
lead that may be in the dross, which is then skimmed off 
by a Howard press, a device invented by W. H. Howard 
of .the American Smelting & Refining Co. This separates 
the molten metal entangled in the scum or dross. The 
fire is then taken off and air is blown into the kettles so 
as to oxidize the copper, which comes to the surface on 
aeeount of the agitation, also forming a dross that is 
skimmed by the Howard press. The temperature of 
drossing is about 650°F. and the air is introduced until 
the lead almost freezes on top. The first skimming yields 
a dross containing about 80% lead and 15% copper, be- 
sides some sulphur and antimony. The copper content, 
of course, will vary according as the blast-furnace bullion 
is high or low in copper. The second skimming yields a 
product containing about 65%, lead and 15% copper. 
When this operation is completed the lead will contain 
only 0.06% copper. The lead is then heated so that it 
can be pumped into either one of the three softening- 
furnaces. An ordinary centrifugal pump is used and the 
lead is carried to the softening-furnaces in a launder 75 
ft. long made of t^-in. boiler-plate with a lining four 
inches thick on each side, and five inches thick on the 
bottom. The lining is made of a mixture of two parts 
cement and five parts limestone, which should be of the 
size of coarse sand. The mixture is put into the launder 
as dry as possible and is well tamped. The idea of this 
launder is credited to John P. Miller, who had used it at 
Port Pirie, Australia. ' The launder is a very poor con- 
ductor of heat, so that during the pumping operation 
the lead runs nicely with a very slight fall into the fur- 
naces, and there is practically no lead left in the launder 
when the operation is completed. The launder is not 
covered, and the opening is five inches wide. .' 

January 8, L921 


In the Boftening-foittaoe the arsenic and antimony arc 
Bnnoved. This usually takes about 20 hours, as the bul- 
lion contains around l\ antimony. It is necessary to 
bring lhf temperature of the lead in the furnace up to 
about Hi-">i> P., when the antimony starts to oxidise, and 
the heat is ent down slightly. After sufficient antimony 
has risen to the surface and oxidized in the form of lead 
antimonate, the doors of the furnace are thrown open, 
the fire is taken out, and the bullion allowed to cool. The 
antimonial slag solidities and is rabbled out of the doors. 
This material is sometimes caught in slag-pots: at other 
times it is dumped on the floor. The skim contains about 
TO', lead and 14',' antimony. 

When the bullion has thus been softened it is tapped 
into tie- desilverizing kettles. The dross is skimmed and 
put hack into the softening-furnace. Some fresh zine, 
and that returned from the last operation on the preced- 
ing batch of bullion, is added. The underlying idea of 

silver into as small a bulk of alloy as possible. The '/"Id 
recovered at this stage is derived chiefly from the con- 
centrate shipped Crom the Alaska Juneau mill in Alaska. 
It takes two operations to eliminate nil the gold and 
silver. The desilverized lead contains 0.6% zinc, which 
has to be burned off in the relining-furnaee. At the 
same time any remaining traces of arsenic and anti- 
mony are collected in the dross, leaving the refined 
lead ready for the merchant furnace, from which it is 
made into pigs by the Miller casting-machine. See 
Pig. 7. This was invented by John F. Miller, formerly 
superintendent of the lead refinery at Trail, B. C. It 
is necessary to eliminate the copper from the lead 
bullion because the copper has a greater affinity for 
zinc than for the other metals, consequently zinc will 
be wasted if the copper is not eliminated. The concen- 
tration of the zine crust is between 45 : 1 and 50 : 1. The 
zinc-silver-gold crust is dumped into a bin at the retort 

Fig. 7. the miller lead-casting machine 

the zincing is the separation of the gold and silver by 
their preference for zinc rather than for lead. This is the 
old Parkes process. An alloy of gold, silver, copper, lead, 
and zinc, is formed and it rises to the surface of the lead, 
to be skimmed into a Howard press, which squeezes the 
lead out of the crust (a zinc-lead alloy containing 2000 
oz. silver per ton) while this machine is suspended over 
the kettle (which has a capacity of 50 tons) by means of 
a crane. When the operation is finished, the crane swings 
the press to one side and dumps the crust, which is then 
broken by crowbars and shovels before it solidifies; theu 
the press is returned to the kettle, the operators skim the 
hath of metal and ladle the crust into the press as be- 
fore. One man holds the skimmer, a flat spoon, while two 
others employ wooden pushers to move the crust into the 
spoon, The. zine is stirred in by a double-shafted stirrer, 
the temperature being about 975° to 1000°F. The zinc- 
silver mixture is skimmed in the same manner as the lead 
dross,, except that it is necessary to have a goodpressurs 
of air -so as to squeeze all the lead possible out of the zinc 
crust,. as it,. is necessary to. concentrate all the gold and 

department, where it is drawn into a car and weighed in 
1200-lb. charges. The skim is then shoveled into either a 
No. 9 Dixon retort, or a No. 30 Jonathan Bartley retort. 
Each retort is set in a Faber du Faur tilting furnace, in 
which the zinc is distilled. Pulverized coal is the fuel. 
The operation takes about seven hours. Old retorts are 
used as condensers and the zinc is drawn off at intervals, 
as it condenses, into steel-plate molds. The operator can 
tell when the zine has been volatilized by pulling out an 
iron rod that fits into the hole in the top of the con- 
denser. If any zinc remains, a blue-green flame appears. 
However, this operation has to be carefully done, other- 
wise there will be considerable loss of zinc, due to the 
burning of the metal. The zinc that is recovered is used 
again in the Parkes kettles. At the outset the desilver- 
izing was done with zinc made at Great Falls, Montana. 
When the operation is completed, the condenser is pulled 
aside and the residue., called retort metal (consisting of 
lead containing the gold, and silver, with traces of zinc, 
copper, and other impurities), is tapped, .by tilting the 
retort, jnto a. ladle, amid pleuty^of white smoke and blue- 



January 8, 1921 

green spurts of flame produced by the combustion of the 
zinc. A shower of snow — zinc oxide from the oxidation of 
the fume — falls all around. After the retort metal has 
been tapped into a tilting ladle it is poured into molds 
in the form of a bright cherry-red stream that gradually 

coal in keeping the condensers cool enough, so that all the 
zinc vapor is condensed. A. Donaldson, the foreman of 
the refinery, inserted a 3-in. tile through the centre of the 
condenser. When the condenser is too hot the clay blocks 
are taken out of the ends of this tile, thereby exposing 

Fig. 8 

" / 


End View. 

45* Male and Female Flange 

h — ak m - 

Straight Male and Female Flange 

Fig. 9 

darkens to a ruby tint, and finally to a leaden look. Then 
the furnace is tilted back and another charge is shoveled 
into it hastily. This is done by hand as rapidly as possi- 
ble in order not to waste any heat and to avoid unneces- 
sary burning of the zinc. 

Difficulty has been experienced when using pulverized 

more surface to the fume. This idea has been most suc- 
cessful. A setting of the retort is shown in Fig. 8. The 
pulverized coal is fed through the top of the brickwork 
and the gases are taken out on the side, although some of 
the settings are slightly changed so that the gases of com- 
bustion can be taken out through a flue in the centre at 

January 8, 1921 



the back of the retort. "When pulverized coal was substi- 
tuted for fuel-oil, it became necessary to lower the bottom 
of the retort -setting about sis inches. This gives space 
for the slag from the ash in the coal to accumulate and 
also gives a chance to pull the slag out when the metal is 

retort is to be used, it is taken from the upper flue, placed 
immediately in its setting, bricked up, and fired at once, 
so that the retort is not allowed to cool. This practice has 
lengthened the life of the retorts, the average endurance 
being 35 heats, although on a trial of six special retorts, 


1. _w— - ■- --ft* 

J m -. ' ' 
— y > 



■Is©, * He P* •-' • a ' H 

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ing poured from the retort. The flue carrying the 
ises of combustion is made in two sections, the upper 
e, which is used for annealing the retorts, being covered 
th steel plates. Holes in the arch of the lower flue 
low the heat to circulate through the upper flue, thereby 
rving to anneal the retorts thoroughly. When a new 

under working conditions, an average of 82 heats was 

The retort metal contains 2500 oz. silver per ton and 
it requires seven hours to remove the zinc by distillation 
from the charge of 1200 lb. of zinc crust. The recovery 
of the zinc ranges between 80 and 85%. The retort metal 



January 8, 1921 

is then refined by cupellation in the silver refinery. 

The Silver Refinery. Here the lead and other im- 
purities in the retort metal are separated from the silver 
in a cupelling furnace of the type designed by Frank 
Rhodes, formerly at the Omaha smelter. Heat is sup- 
plied either by the burning of pulverized coal or of fuel- 
oil. A blast of low pressure, about three ounces per 
square inch, serves to hasten the oxidation of the lead, 
which, as litharge, is skimmed into small slag-pots, using 
a splitting-plate of cast-iron, thereby aiding the recovery 
of small particles of metal in the litharge. The metal 
that remains in the furnace is an alloy of gold and silver 
called dore ; it is poured into molds by tilting the cupel, 
which will contain about 60,000 oz. at a time. The bars 
of dore weigh about 500 oz. Troy. The cupel itself is 
lined with a mixture of five parts limestone, three parts 
clay, and two parts cement. The limestone is crushed to 
the size of coarse sand. These materials are mixed thor- 
oughly with a little water and tamped very carefully into 
the frame of the cupel. Around the sides there is a lin^ 
ing of magnesite bricks placed on end. 

The dore ingots, in charges of 10,000 oz., are parted in 
cast-iron kettles by means of sulphuric acid of 66°B. 
strength. The silver is dissolved and the resulting silver- 
sulphate solution is drawn into lead-lined vats. Here 
copper bars are suspended in the liquor by means of 
'corrosiron' hooks and steam is introduced so as to cause 
the solution to boil. The silver is precipitated on the 
copper, which in turn goes into solution as sulphate ; the 
silver is deposited in the form of 'cement silver', which is 
filtered, washed in boiling water, dried, and then melted 
in a Monarch double-chambered tilting furnace, fired by 
oil. The silver is 999 fine ; it is cast in bricks of 1250 oz. 
and shipped by express to San Francisco. In producing 
1000 oz. of silver it is customary to use 125 lb. of acid 
and 21 lb. of copper. The insoluble residue, after the 
silver has been dissolved in the parting-kettle, contains 
the gold in the form of a brown powder, which is boiled to 
remove any sulphates and is then melted in a graphite 
crucible, as at Selby.f 

The copper solution is-pnmped to an adjoining build- 
ing, where it is evaporated sufficiently to cause the copper 
sulphate to precipitate in crystals ; these are re-dissolved 
in water and again crystallized on strips of lead in an- 
other lead-lined vat. The copper sulphate is pretty stuff, 
and remarkably pure; it is an industrial sapphire that 
deliquesces readily; it is sold either to the farmers, who 
use it for spraying, or to the flotation mills.' For a time 
it found a local market at the Interstate Callahan mill, 
now idle, which used a selective-flotation method. The 
mother liquor is evaporated, to 66 °B- and put back into 
the main acid-storage tank. 

In the lead refinery there is another reverberatory fur- 
nace, named the residue or by-product furnace, in which 
the different drosses are treated. The products from this 
furnace are lead bullion, copper matte, and an antimonial 
Galena is added to this furnace to supply the sul- 


t'The Selby Smelter', by T. A. , Rickard, 'M. & S. P,', 

pril 8, 1916. 

".fa - ■ ■!,: . ■,.,.- ...-, ■ 

phur required to put the copper into a matte, which con- 
tains 25% copper and 40% to 50% lead. The antimonial 
slag contains 50% lead and 18%. antimony; it is smelted 
in one of the blast-furnaces with an equal amount of 
blast-furnace slag, together with refinery-furnace drosses 
and lead ore poor in silver. The antimonial content of 
the 'hard lead' is controlled so as to suit the requirements 
of the trade. The Bunker Hill 'hard lead' contains 18% 
antimony; it is the base of most of the common anti- 
friction metals, as well as of the type used in printing. 

The dimensions of the steel pans for the reverberatory 
furnaces in the lead refinery are 21 ft. long, 12 ft. wide, 
and 3 ft. 4 in. high. The distance from the bottom of 
the pan to the top of the brick arch is 6| ft. The brick- 
work is protected by water-jackets made out of 15-in. 
channel-irons and J-in. plate, which is welded to the 
channels. The length of the side jackets is 20 ft. 6 in. 
and the length of the end jackets is 11 ft. 6 in. There is 
also a simple flange and clamp used for connecting pipes 
through which lead is to be pumped. The clamp is ar- 
ranged so that by tightening one bolt the flange is made 
tight. This is convenient, as the pipes and clamps are 
quite hot and the old-fashioned flanges and clamps are 
very awkward to handle. It takes some time to break the 
old flange, and in the meantime the lead is likely to 
solidify in the pipes. The credit for this coupling is due 
to Louis Anderson, the head pipe-man, an old employee 
of the Bunker Hill Co. This flange and coupling are 
shown in Fig. 9. 

The coal-pulverizing plant has the usual Bonnot equip 
ment. The screw-conveyors, under the storage-bins dis- 
charge onto a belt-conveyor running under an electric 
magnet and into a weighing-hopper. The coal is then 
fed into a 4 by 30-ft. dryer, which is fired direct, and from 
here the coal is conveyed by a screw-conveyor to two one- 
ton storage-hoppers over two Bonnot pulverizers. The 
pulverizers have a capacity of 14. tons per hour. The> (lis 
fine coal is sucked by a fan from the pulverizer into thei ikn 
main storage-bin, where it is settled by a Bonnot 'col- 
lector'. There is one distributing fan for the silver and 
lead refineries, and another for the D. & L. roasters. An 
air-float valve regulates the speed of the motor that drives 
the serew-conveyors from the main storage-bin into the I 
distributing fans; it is arranged so that when more 
burners on the line are opened, more air is supplied tl- 
there ; consequently, this float-valve accelerates the screw-' % 
conveyors and increases the quantity of coal fed into thei n.> 
line, and, similarly, when coal-burners are turned off the 
quantity of air drawn is lessened and the speed of the 
screw-conveyors is decreased. Thus the mixture of air it% 
and coal is kept constant. The mixture in the distrib- 1 to- 
uting pipe is 50 cu. ft. of air to one pound of coal, and8;'.^ 
an additional' 150' cu. ft. of air is supplied at the furnace* >; 
by an auxiliary blower in order to make perfect combus- 5i S] 
tion. About 85% of the pulverized coal will pass a 200- 
mesh screen. lav 

The average consumption of fuel-oil on the D. & L. ' : 
roaster is If gal. per ton. This figure takes into account 
only the actual tonnage of material roasted, and does not I 


1 1 

January 8, 1921 



allow for the extra tonnage caused by double-roasting 
some of it. The same work used to be done by 7 lb. of 
pulverized coal. 

A saving of time was made when pulverized coal was 
substituted for oil on the retorts. The average quantity 
of oil used on the charge was about 44 gal., whereas the 


[uantity of pulverized coal is 680 lb. In the lead refinery 

15 lb. of coal is used per ton of refined lead. 

■ The slack coal is purchased from the Central Coal & 

Coke Co. and the Gunn-Quealy Coal'Co. It comes from 

Jock Springs, Wyoming, which 

s 1030 miles distant. The coke 

Dines from Sunnyside, Utah, 

080 miles from the smelter. 
Recording pyrometers, ther- 

tometers, and pressure-gauges 

?gulate all operations. The 

nelter has a four-wheel Link- 
elt locomotive-crane that 
oves all the coke and lime- 
one into stock, besides shift- 
ig the slag, matte, and dross. 
here are also three locomo- 
ves, the newest one a six- 
heel American locomotive, 
eighing 60 tons and oil-fired, 
ineteen steel cars owned by 
:e company are used in the 
lily operations ; most of these 
iing employed for moving the 
. & L. roast, either to the sam- 

ing-mill, for re-crushing, or to the charge-bins. The 
lelter has three water systems, for domestic purposes, 
mace use, and fire protection. The valves on the een- 
ifugal pumps are arranged so that water can be drawn 
om any source of supply and pumped into any of the 
stributing lines. The water is obtained from the 
inker Hill system, and there is also a new 12-in. water- 
le that has just been laid in Government gulch, which 

gives the smelter an ample supply of domestic water. 
The smelter and Sweeney mill are protected by an electric 
system of fire-alarms. First-aid cabinets are maintained 
all through the plant, and it is a strict rule that all cuts, 
no matter how slight, must be immediately dressed, so as 
to avoid any possibility of blood-poisoning. The smelter 
has its own sewerage plant. 

M. H. Sullivan is superin- 
tendent, A. F. Beasley, assis- 
tant superintendent, S. But- 
ler, general foreman of the 
roasters and blast-furnaces, 
A. Donaldson is foreman of 
the refineries, J. B. Schuet- 
tenhelm is in charge of the 
Cottrell treater, roaster 
charges, and testing depart- 
ment, P. C. Feddersen is chief 
chemist, and G. C. Gage is in 
charge of the smelter office. 

Notes. A few further scat- 
tered notes may be added: 
During the War the smelter 
was enclosed within a barbed- 
wire fence and protected by 
armed guards. No trouble, 
however, was experienced. At 
that time most of the Bunker Hill silver went to the 
Orient, for paying the Indian cavalry that conquered 
Mesopotamia for the British. The lead was sold chiefly 
to the Chinese, the special pigs, weighing 200 lb. apiece, 


destined for China being marked with Chinese characters 
instead of the usual stencil; they were shipped by the 
Robert Dollar Company from Seattle. 

On the day of my first visit only one blast-furnace was 
running ; usually two are kept busy. The four furnaces 
could treat all the lead ore produced in the Coeur 
d'Alene, their capacity being out of proportion to that 
of the refinery. It is comfortable for the men to have an 



January 8, 1921 

idle, and cool, furnace on either side of the one they are 
tending. On the charge-floor a Bristol recording ther- 
mometer registers the temperature of the gases dis- 
charged from the furnaces; it serves also to record the 
number of charges, by means of the dip on the chart 
made at the moment when a car is dumped into the 

It is pleasant to stand before the blast-furnace and 
watch the stream of molten lead pouring into the kettle 
and then watch the slag being tapped from a higher out- 
let, with much spluttering, into a pot. The slag-dump, 
after only three years of operation, already fills the east- 
ern gully and upon it there has been built a garage to 
hold the six automobiles used by members of the staff. 

The final casting of the refined lead is likewise attrac- 
tive. The market lead is pumped into the casting-ma- 
chine, the overflow running back into the kettle. The 
division between the molds produces a superfluity. The 
metal in the conducting-pipe is kept hot by means of an 
electric heater consisting of a coil of wire around the 
pipe. The easting-machine is a wheel, water-jacketed in- 
side and outside ; on its periphery are the molds. The 
lead is pumped through a hole in the outer water-jacket, 
so that by the time a mold comes round to the bottom the 
metal in it is cool enough to fall out, being loosened by 
natural contraction. The pigs are stenciled 'bunker 
hill ' ; they are weighed and check- weighed before being 
loaded into a railroad-car. The tally shows the destina- 
tion of the shipment. The one I read was to "Hoyt 
Metal Co., Perth Amboy, N. J.", and bore the further 
inscription: "This car contains B. H. lead 99.99 per 
cent pure". As the pigs of lead fall with a dull thud 
upon the loading-truck it is a satisfaction to realize the 
end of the many and varied operations through which 
the metal has passed on its way from the rock in the mine 
to the railroad-car at the siding. 

The lead from the Bunker Hill goes direct to the con- 
sumer. Other mining companies in- the Coeur d'Alene 
have to follow a more devious procedure; for example, 
the Hercules concentrates its ore at Burke, Idaho ; smelts 
it at Northport, Washington; and refines the bullion at 
Carnegie, Pennsylvania. The astonishing diversity of 
the industries using lead is suggested by the following 
list, given to me by Mr. Bradley, from among those who 
buy the Bunker Hill lead : 

Remington Arms U. M. C. Co. . .Bridgeport, Conn. 

Simplex Wire & Cable Co East Cambridge, Mass. 

The Okonite Co Dundee, N. J. 

Ford Motor Co Detroit, Mich. 

Conley Foil Co New York, N. Y. 

Peters Cartridge Co Kings Mills, Ohio 

Union Sra. & Ref. Co Newark, N. J. 

Ellenwood & Doyle New York, N. Y. 

Norton Company Worcester, Mass. 

Grasselli Chemical Co Graselli, N. J. 

Matheson Lead Co Long Island City, N. Y. 

Robert Dollar Co Hankow, China 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours Co. . . .Newark. N. J. 
Standard Underground Cable Co. Perth Amboy, N. J. 
Electric Storage Battery Co Philadelphia, Pa. 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co ... . Black Eagle, Mont. 

Pacific Metal Works Portland, Ore. 

W. H. Harrison Great Falls, Mont. 

Latimer Goodwin Chem. Co Grand Junction, Colo. 

Eagle Picher Lead Co Cincinnati, Ohio 

Winchester Repeating Arms Co . . New Haven, Conn. 

Standard Tin Foil Corp Philadelphia, Pa. 

Great Western S. & R. Co San Francisco, Cal. 

Pacific Metal Works San Francisco, Cal. 

Nathan Trotter & Co Philadelphia, Pa. 

General Electric Co Schenectady, N. Y. 

Crerar Adams & Co Chicago, 111. 

U. S. Foil Co Louisville, Ky. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Denver, Colo. 

American Brass Co Kenosha, Wis. 

Cutler Bros New York, N. Y. 

Standard Rolling Mill Co Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Carnegie Steel Co.. Bessemer, Pa. 

Northwest Lead Co Seattle, Wash. 

Gardiner Metal Co Chicago, 111. 

National Lead Co Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Windsor Mfg. Co Milwaukee, Wis. 

Sherwin Williams Co Kensington, 111. 

Hazard Mfg. Co Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

Wensley Metal Products Co Denver, Colo. 

John Wahl Commission Co Utica, N. Y. 

A. Wilhelm Co Reading, Pa. 

American Rolling Mill Co Middletown, Ohio 

Michigan Sm. & Ref. Co Detroit, Mich. 

Rockwood Sprinkler Co Worcester, Mass. 

General Fire Extinguisher Co ... . Atlanta, Ga. 

United Lead Co Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Hoyt Metal Co Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Carnation Milk Products Co Kent, Wash. 

Metals Warehouse Co East St. Louis, 111. 

Adam Hope & Co Hamilton, Ont. 

Lima Locomotive Co . Lima, Ohio 

Southern Pacific Co Sacramento, Cal. 

Doehler Die-Casting Co Toledo, Ohio 

Norfolk & Western R. R. Co Roanoke, Va. 

Louisville & Nashville R. R So. Louisville, Ky. 

United Iron & Metal Co Canton, Ohio 

Nat. Transit Pump & Mfg. Co .... Oil City, Pa. 

Chicago Bearing Metal Co Chicago, 111. 

Hammer Bros. White Lead Co... East St. Louis, 111. 

Standard Sanitary Mfg. Co Louisville, Ky. 

National Conduit & Cable Co ... . Hastings-on-Hudson, N.Y 

H. Kramer & Co Chicago, 111. 

Washburn Wire Co 117th St., Harlem River | 

N. Y. 
Safety Insulated Wire & Cable. . .Bayonne, N. J. 
White & Bros., Inc Philadelphia, Pa. 

The names of the buyers indicate the various uses ti 
which they put the lead, namely, for shot, bullets, bab 
bitt and other anti-friction alloys, lead foil, sheet lead 
pipe, casing for electric wires, white and other paints 
lining for acid-vats and electrolytic cells, solder for cans 
and plumbing supplies. 

The smelting at this plant is characterized by a big 
proportion of lead in the charge, from 30 to 35%, an 
by a very low zinc content, averaging less than 4$| 
Looking at this extensive and comprehensive smeltin 
plant, it is pleasant to realize that there is a splendidl 
productive mine back of it. 

January B, 1821 



Notes on Mining in British Columbia During 1920 

Special Correspondence 

There can be no doubt that the weakness of the copper 
market is having its effect on the industry in British 
Columbia. How serious this is to be depends entirely on 
the length of time it takes for world conditions to adjust 
themselves. It serves no good purpose to attempt to 
blind ourselves to the facts ; the outlook is not promising. 
"With the Granby company's forces at Anyox materially 
reduced; with the Britannia Mining & Smelting Co., ac- 
cording to authentic report, devoting itself to develop- 
ment of its properties to the exclusion of production and 
shipment, with a cutting down of the working force ; 
with the Canadian Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co. 
at Trail declaring that only necessary construction will 
be proceeded with; and with the Canada Copper Co., 
whose Copper Mountain mines at Allenby are just ready 
for production, announcing that operations must cease 
until the market improves, it is clear that the large pro- 
ducers have concluded that it is impossible to produce 
copper at a profit at the present time. 

That many of those in close touch with the situation 
declare that it cannot last for long, and that as soon as 
copper climbs back to its normal place all these com- 
panies will resume both production and development, 
constitute the silver lining to the cloud. In passing, it 
is interesting to direct attention to the paramount im- 
portance of copper in considering mining in this Pro- 
vince. When that metal slumps, its effect is serious 
wherever there is a mining industry, but in this Province 
the result is calamitous, as, being without an iron and 
steel plant of consequence and there being no produc- 
tion in iron, it hits at the very backbone of the industry. 

Taking the year 1920 all through, up to the middle of 
December, British Columbia has not done badly in point 
of the production of its metal mines. From the general 
information available, it appears that the output of cop- 
per for the twelve-month will be about equal to that of 
1919, that is, 42,459,339 lb. For the first nine months 
of the year, it must be borne in mind, the larger com- 
panies, for the most part, maintained their production 
at a high level. The Britannia Mining Co., for instance, 
milled as many tons of ore as it did in 1919 before the 
copper market fell into the doldrums. The price having 
fallen to 14c. per pound in New York, production was 
cut down, otherwise the tonnage treated by flotation in 
the concentrating mill at Britannia this year might have 
established a new record for the plant. These latter ob- 
servations tell the story of the operations of the Granby 
Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co. at Anyox. Not un- 
til the latter part of the year was the output reduced, 
so that it is expected that the figures for the period will 
no be unfavorable in comparison with those of the pre- 
vious year. 

As to the Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co., at 
Trail, it is not at present a large producer of copper. Its 
returns in this respect are likely to be unfavorably 
affected because of the fact that the Rossland mines have 
not been shipping largely. "With a number of indepen- 
dent shippers, although none contributing in quantity 
and regularly, and with some shipments of importance 
from the Mandy mine of Manitoba, the Trail smelter re- 
turns, however, may contain a surprise. 

This company, in a greater degree than heretofore, is 
turning its attention to copper. The construction of con- 
centrating plants at the Old Sport claims, on Quatsino 
sound, and at the Sunloch, Jordan river, both on Van- 
couver Island, had been planned for 1920, but the cost 
of labor, supplies, and machinery were too high as com- 
pared with the average price of the metal and the pro- 
jects were permitted to stand. A start on these plants 
may be looked for during the new year. The interven- 
ing time has not been lost, as development was con- 
tinued ; working openings have been driven on both 
properties and diamond-drilling so pressed that much 
greater reserves of ore have been exposed. 

The Tidewater Copper Co., operating the Indian Chief 
group at Sidney inlet, Vancouver Island, is an enterprise 
to which special attention should be directed. Through 
the adoption of a definite policy this company has placed 
itself in a position to mine and ship considerable quan- 
tities of concentrate over a long period, with every pros- 
pect of developing further resources as the work con- 
tinues. During the past two years a sufficient body of 
ore has been blocked out to furnish 300 tons for treat- 
ment daily for two years by a mill which has been re- 
constructed, enlarged, and improved. In connection 
with the latter, a battery of Peterson flotation cells and 
an electrical plant for driving all machinery, including 
the air-compressor, have been installed. Two creeks have 
been used for the generation of power ; the necessary 
plant has been provided. 

The Kamloops district will show a drop in copper pro- 
duction this year because of the closing down of the Iron 
Mask mine. This took place last April, and- since that 
time a start has been made in the installation of a new 
water-system and other improvements to the plant. The 
shaft has been straightened, new concrete foundations 
to the head-frame provided, a new conveyor built from 
the shaft to the mill, and increased storage-tanks con- 
structed for the treatment-liquids. 

"With reference to the 1920 production of gold, there 
probably will be a decline in comparison with the pre- 
vious year. In placer mining there has been consider- 
able activity in the Cariboo, and farther north and 
north-east. In 1919 the placers of British Columbia 
produced 14,325 oz. of gold. That the lode gold mining 



January 8, 1921 

will not show as satisfactory results as in 1919 is assumed 
from the fact that the Rossland mines have been quiet 
and the Nickel Plate mine had been slowing down for 
some time prior to the final close of the mine. This 
occurred some two or three months ago and was the re- 
sult of high costs and diminished purchasing power of 
gold. It is not advisable, however, to make anything but 
a qualified prediction in respect to gold, because, while it 
is true that the Rossland mines have not been producing, 
it must be remembered that they did not do much in 
1919 ; and, although it is a fact that the Nickel Plate 
cannot be depended upon for a large production, it 
should be borne in mind that there will be a considerably 
greater return in gold from the output of the Premier 
mine in the Salmon River district. The lode-gold pro- 
duction for 1919 was 152,426 ounces. 

Notwithstanding that the silver production of the 
north-east coast of British Columbia, where is situated 
the Dolly Varden mine, will be substantially greater than 
in 1919, it looks as though the total 1920 output will be 
less than it was in the previous year. The whole of the 
provincial coast and the Boundary district will show 
about the same production for this year, or perhaps a 
little better than in 1919. If the figures are higher the 
credit will have to go to the Premier and the Dolly Var- 
den mines, especially the latter, which has been operated 
on a large scale throughout the year and from which 
a large quantity of high-grade silver-bearing ore has been 
shipped. But the Sloean district will be found to be 
short in production, and, in order that the significance 
of this may be properly understood, it may be said that 
in 1919 the northern coast produced in silver, 920,413 
oz. ; the Boundary- Yale district, 231,599 ; East Kootenay, 
274,134; and West Kootenay, 1,799,229. The total for 
the Province was 3,403,119 oz. The richest silver mines 
of West Kootenay are in the Sloean district. What have 
been the conditions responsible for the slump 1 Two 
circumstances have served to restrict output. One was 
the lack of labor in the early part of the year and the 
other the discontent which developed later among the 
miners, finally resulting in. a strike called by the ' One 
Big Union'. If the workers aimed to tie up the mining 
industry they were successful beyond a doubt. The op- 
erators refused their demands with the one exception of 
the Silversmith company, operating the old Sloean Star, 
and for months only that property was active. The 
situation -now has changed. The lumber business has 
fallen off, logging is at a standstill, and there are plenty 
of men for the mines. Latest advices are that work has 
been resumed on most of the well-known properties of 
the district, but the damage, as far as the year's produc- 
tion is concerned, has been done and the record of pro- 
duction will suffer. 

The production of lead and zinc depends largely on the 
output of the Sullivan mine, of Kiniberley, which is 
treated at the Trail smelter of the Consolidated Mining 
& Smelting Co. This mine has been extensively de- 
veloped and it has been yielding greater quantities of 
ore so that it is possible the lead production of the 

Province, which in 1919 was 29,475,968 lb., will be about 
the same for 1920. There is no doubt that there will be 
a falling off in the product of the Sloean district so that 
much depends on the showing made by the company's 
mines. In regard to zinc the same remarks apply, except 
that it would appear likely that 1920 will show an in- 
creased output of that metal. Again the Sullivan mine 
is responsible, zinc ores being largely mined at Kimber- 
ley during the past twelve-month. In 1919 East Koote- 
nay produced 46,460,705 lb. of the total 56,737,651 

Taking it as a whole the foregoing is not as bright a 
review as it has been possible to give for several years, 
but it is not unsatisfactory. For some time exceptionally 
high prices in copper, silver, and other products of the 
minerals of this Province were enjoyed and the fullest 
advantage was taken of the opportunities thus afforded 
for development. Consequently the industry has ad- 
vanced far beyond the point it had reached five years 
ago. The present slump in the market, the existing un- 
settled conditions, and the results, should not be viewed 
with alarm in view of the richness of British Columbia's 
proved resources. 

An Australian Mining Scandal. Quite a sensation 
has been caused throughout Australia with regard to 
what has transpired in connection with a mining property 
acquired and held at Badak, in the Malay peninsula, by 
Victorian speculators. The reports at first received re- 
garding this property, based on extensive borings, taken 
first by one individual and subsequently supported by 
another, were to the effect that a very rich run of tin had 
been found. These reports were of such a nature that, 
as a result of the wildest speculation, £10 shares in the 
Victorian syndicate were sold at as high a figure as £2000. 
Soon afterward, however, following the receipt of very 
different reports, a change came o'er the spirit of the 
dream of the rash speculators, and now it is apparent 
that either a big mistake has been made or something 
equally, if not more, unsatisfactory has occurred. The 
latest report from Malay is by I. Boadle, who has been 
boring on the Badak property under the supervision of 
H. F. Scarborough, a representative of the Victorian 
company specially sent over to look into matters. Mr. 
Boadle says he put down 86 bores, all of which bottomed. 
He carefully measured and washed the material from 
each bore, but in no case, he states, could he find ground 
that would pay to work, and in many bores there was not 
even a trace of tin. In the meantime the Victorian com- 
pany has taken the unusual course of asking the Mel- 
bourne Stock Exchange not to call the shares of the com- 
pany 'on Change' until such time as authentic and re- 
liable reports have been received from the company's 
general manager, who was then on his way for Penang, 
and the Exchange has expressed its approval of a sugges- 
tion that the State government should hold an inquiry 
into all the affairs of the Badak company with a view to 
placing the responsibility if it develops that any irregu- 
larities are proved. 

January B, L921 



Karl Eilers v. Guggenheims 

The following reply to Mr. Eilers' charges was made 
by Edgar L. Newhouse. chairman of the board of the 
American Smelting & Refining Co., as a return to the 
petition for a writ of mandamus. We take it from the 
'Engineering and Mining Journal' of January 1, having 
received no copy directly. 

. . . The original election of Mr. Simon Guggenheim 
to succeed Mr. Daniel Guggenheim as president of the 
company on January 21, 1919, represented the free and 
unanimous choice of the directors of the company. It is 
not true that the board of directors were given no oppor- 
tunity to express any wish in the matter. The re-election 
of Mr. Simon Guggenheim as president of the company 
thereafter likewise represented the free and unanimous 
choice of the directors, save in the case of Mr. Eilers. 

It is true that since their assoeiation with the company 
the Messrs. Guggenheim, or some of them, especially Mr. 
Daniel Guggenheim, Mr. Murry Guggenheim, ami .Mr. 
Simon Guggenheim, have exerted a weighty influence in 
the counsels and management of the company. It is not 
true that the Messrs. Guggenheim, or any of them, domi- 
nated the directors and officers of the company in the in- 
jurious and objectionable sense in which the term is em- 
ployed in the petition. Such position of influence and 
authority as they held w-as altogether due to their great 
abilities, their unusual knowledge of the business and 
their singular qualifications as directors in the enterprise. 
It was in no wise due to arbitrary methods or to artificial 
means of control. . . . 

It is not true that the Messrs. Guggenheim, though con- 
tinuing to act as directors, ceased to hold stock in the 
company except in a negligible amount. On the contrary, 
they have always been substantially interested as stock- 
holders in the company. 

The only member of the Guggenheim family who is 
now an officer of the company is Simon Guggenheim, who 
is president and is the owner of over 20,000 shares of the 
common stock of the company and, so far as deponent 
has been able to ascertain by investigation, is the largest 
single stockholder of the company, the total holdings of 
said Simon Guggenheim and his wife in common and 
preferred stock being in excess of 28.000 shares. Isaac 
and Daniel Guggenheim are directors but not officers, and 
draw no salaries. Their aggregate holdings of stock of 
the company are in excess of 8,000 shares. It is not true 
that any of the Messrs. Guggenheim ever received salaries 
from the company while not rendering commensurate 
service. ... No salary is paid by the company to any 
of the Messrs. Guggenheim other than to the president of 
the company, Mr. Simon Guggenheim. . . . Especially 
is it denied that the Messrs. Guggenheim, or any of them, 
during their association with the company acted in dis- 
regard of the interests of the corporation or sought to 
employ it to serve their own ends. 

The facts as to the company's activities in Bolivia are 
that prior to 1910 the company had never smelted tin nor 
had tin been smelted in the United States to any sub- 
stantial extent by anyone. The company was then en- 
gaged in smelting and refining silver, copper, lead and 
other ores. In 1910 Messrs. Newhouse and Stewart, 
officers and directors of the company, went to South 
America for the purpose of obtaining contracts for the 
smelting of ores other than tin, at the company's plant at 
Tacoma, Wash. They did not while there investigate min- 
ing properties of any kind for purchase. While in Bolivia 
they became convinced that it would be to the advantage 
of the company to add the smelting of tin to its other 
smelting activities and upon their recommendation the 
company built a tin smelter at Perth Amboy, N. J., and 
entered into contracts with tin mines in Bolivia for the 
smelting of their ores and that business has been carried 
on up to the present time. It is true that a number of years 
later an examination of one or two tin properties in Bolivia 
was made for the company, but a majority of the board 
was opposed to the company's investing money in any tin 
mines in South America, and no such mines have ever 
been acquired by it. None of the property in Bolivia so 
examined for the company, or the purchase of which was 
considered by directors and officers of the company, was 
ever purchased by the Guggenheim Brothers, or by any 
member of that family. I deny that any demand was 
made by directors of the company that the company be 
allowed to share in Guggenheim Brothers' operations in 
Bolivia, or that any such demand was refused by the 
Messrs. Guggenheim. 

With reference to the Premier silver and gold mine in 
British Columbia, the company's interest in making any 
investment therein was primarily to insure to itself the 
smelting and refining of the ore from that mine. Officers 
and directors of the corporation, other than the Guggen- 
heims, were opposed to the investment of a sum of money 
as would be required to purchase a one-fourth interest 
in the mine which was the interest offered to the company 
by owners of the property. On the other hand, it was 
necessary for the corporation to arrange for the purchase 
of at least a one-fourth interest, if any interest was to be 
acquired, as the sellers did not desire to sell a smaller in- 
terest. The smelting company therefore solicited, through 
its Mr. Guess, the 'head of its mining department, the 
Guggenheim Brothers to purchase a one-half of the one- 
fourth interest offered, thereby relieving the company of 
the necessity of purchasing more than the remaining one- 
half of the one-fourth and this arrangement was infor- 
mally approved by all of the directors of the company ex- 
cept possibly Mr. Eilers, and I have no recollection of Mr. 
Eilers ever objecting at the time or until this action. 

The allegations of the petition in respect to sales of 
copper are incorrect and misleading. By far the greater 
amount of copper sold by all large copper producing and 



January 8, 1921 

selling companies is sold for future delivery, and owing 
to the custom of the trade and the requirements of the 
copper market, it is impossible for any company having 
a large output of copper to sell more than a compara- 
tively small part of its production by current sales, 
such as are possible in other metals. Moreover, the 
volume of copper to be sold by the company has included, 
since about the year 1908, not only its own copper, but 
also copper sold by it as selling agent for a number of 
large copper producing companies, the selling agency 
arrangement having been made as part of arrangements 
to smelt and refine the ores of such companies, so that 
this company receives, in addition to its profit from its 
operations upon the ore, a separate and additional com- 
mission for the sale of the copper. The selling agency 
arrangement provided that the company sold its own 
copper, together with the copper of the companies for 
which it acted as selling agent, all sales of copper being 
pro-rated against the total amount of copper available 
for sale at any particular time, including the company's 
own copper. The net proceeds of the commissions paid 
to the company for its services as selling agent for other 
companies amounted, in the period from Jan. 1, 1913, 
to Sept.-l, 1920, to a sum in excess of $10,000,000, and 
the conducting of such agency proved to be, during nor- 
mal times, a source of large profit to the company. The 
existence of the agency, however, increased the necessity 
and volume of forward sales of the company's own cop- 
per, and particularly in the abnormal period following 
the outbreak of the European war it is true that some 
losses were suffered from this source. These quotational 
losses were due almost entirely to the existence of the 
selling agency. The statement made by Mr. Hills, the 
comptroller, as of Oct. 31, 1920, which is apparently the 
statement referred to at folia 28 of the petition, shows 
that from Jan. 1, 1912, to Oct. 31, 1920, the net proceeds 
from the selling agency amounted to $10,046,409, and 
that from this should be deducted quotational losses in- 
curred during the same period amounting to $4,594,824, 
leaving an apparent net profit for the period on the 
operation of $5,451,585. But this apparent profit will 
at present prices of copper be more than wiped out by 
quotational losses which will be suffered if the present 
dull copper market continues. 

The statement that in April, 1920, as the result of a 
policy of withholding copper from sale, the company had 
on hand approximately 160,000 tons of refined copper is 
absolutely untrue. On May 1, 1920, the company had 
on hand for its own account 26,855 tons of refined cop- 
per. This accumulation was not due to any policy of 
withholding copper for sale, as the company had used its 
best efforts to sell all the copper it could, but was due, 
first, to lack of demand because of the fact that all con- 
sumers of copper were overstocked; second, to the fact 
that during the war production was greatly stimulated 
because of the war demand, and a large amount of copper 
ore came through after the signing of the Armistice in a 
volume much larger than during normal conditions ; 
third, to the fact that labor and railroad conditkms dur- 

ing the war and after the signing of the Armistice were 
such as to lengthen the period between the delivery of 
ore to the company and the arrival of the refined copper 
at tidewater; and, fourth, to the fact that the company 
was not free to sell its own copper, independently of the 
copper of the companies for whom it acted as selling 
agent, since, under the selling agency agreements, the 
company's own copper had to be sold pro rata with that 
of all of the companies for whom the company acted as 
selling agent, and the aggregate amount which thus had 
to be sold was much greater than the market has been 
able to absorb during the conditions existing since the 
signing of the Armistice. All of these were conditions 
which were due to the abnormal times and for which the 
officers of the company were in no way responsible. The 
conditions experienced in these abnormal periods by this 
company have been common among companies in the 
same business. 

The officers and directors of the company have from 
time to time during the past two years made efforts to 
work out a modification of the selling agency contracts 
which would leave the company the profits from its com- 
missions as selling agent in normal periods and at the 
same time leave it free to sell its own copper independent- 
ly during times of abnormal conditions, but although the 
greatest efforts were made by the company's officers to 
that end, this finally appeared not to be practicable, and 
as the end of the abnormal conditions are not yet in 
sight, it was determined by the board of directors during 
the month of November, 1920, to terminate the selling 
agency, which was accordingly done. 

In other words, the company's selling agency was 
originally attractive and profitable to it, and during nor- 
mal times resulted in large net profits accruing from the 
selling commission. The unprecedented abnormal con- 
ditions which arose during the war and again since the 
signing of the Armistice have created a situation which 
could not have been foreseen, and the result of which has 
been to offset quotational losses against the profits thus 
accruing, and no one can now foresee when normal con- 
ditions in the industry will return. The company's board 
of directors has, in order to prevent further losses from 
this source, deemed it to the advantage of the company 
to terminate the selling agency, so that hereafter the 
company will sell merely its own copper, unrestricted by 
obligations to sell the copper of any other company. 

The various changes in the board of directors and in 
the officers of the company, referred to in the latter part 
of the seventh paragraph of the petition, took place, but 
the reasons therefor, and the inferences therefrom as 
stated in the petition, are wholly imaginative. 

It is stated that an American-owned manganese mine 
situated on the Gulf of California at Punta Aguja penin- 
sula is now operating and is shipping 200 tons of high- 
grade ore monthly. The ore extracted runs from 20 to 
92% manganese, averaging about 48%. Since the prod- 
uct is shipped to Chicago at present, it is impracticable to 
send other than high-grade ore. 

January S. 192] 






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Prescott. — A receivership for the Consolidated Ari- 
zona Smelting Co. of Humboldt was granted in the Fed- 
eral court at Tucson by Judge SawteHe on December 24. 
Tin action culminating in the receivership was instituted 
by Francis S. Viele of Prescott and other creditors of the 
Company. G. M. Colvocoresses, general manager for the 
company, was named by the court as receiver. 

Final payment on the Stargo group of claims, 26 in 
number, from which shipments of silver and gold ore 
have been made continuously for the last 15 months to 
the snielters at Douglas, has been made, and the Stargo 
Bines, Inc., formed to receive title to the property. 
George J. Stoneman, president of the company, an- 
nounced that about $50,000 will be expended at once in 
development work in the lower levels with the expecta- 
tion of justifying the erection of a 100 or 200-ton mill 
during 1921. This work will be carried on under the 
direction of William B. Ghoring, as consulting engineer, 
formerly superintendent of mines for the Calumet & 
Arizona Mining Co. of Bisbee. 

Following the recent sustention of a demurrer to an 
injunction suit filed in Los Angeles in connection with 
the battle for the control of the Jerome Superior Copper 
Co., the plaintiffs have filed their action in the Yavapai 
county court. Counsel for those stockholders named as 
defendants in the suit, interposed the demurrer in Los 
Angeles on the ground that the court had no jurisdiction, 
as the corporation was of and in Arizona. The plaintiffs 
seek to bind the defendants from taking control of the 
corporation and of the corporation property. Officers 
and directors of the company are named as defendants. 

Kingman. — Kecent work done on the old Rawhide 
claim of Rawhide camp by Tony Hill and associates has 
opened rich silver ore, assays of which run 400 to 2000 
oz. per ton in silver. A shipment of 140 lb. of the richest 
ore has been sent to the Selby smelter. 

Operations, which have been suspended at the Arizona 
Mossback Mines Co. pending the overhauling of ma- 
chinery, are to be resumed on the lower levels soon. It 
is reported that the company has sold half of its $500,000 
bond issue, the money from which is to be used for de- 
velopment and the erection of a mill. 

Mater. — "Work at the Kay mine of the Kay Copper 
Co. was resumed on January 1 ; the new electric hoist has 
been installed. The power-line and other electrical equip- 

ment is already in place. As soon as the installation of 
the hoist is completed sinking of the new three-compart- 
ment shaft is to be resumed. 

Wickenbtjeg. — The Magewood Copper Mines Co. has 
taken over the Eva Consolidated Mining & Leasing Co. 's 
properties consisting of ten claims upon which there are 
said to be eight veins. The Magewood Copper Mines Co. 
is incorporated for 2,000,000 shares, 450,000 of which 
have been underwritten by the Standard Securities Co. 
of New York. Development work is to be done under the 
direction of Kirby Thomas of New York. About 500 
ft. of development work has been done on the group and 
ore averaging $26 per ton is said to have been opened. 
The property has been idle for some years. 



Breckenridge. — Ore assaying 2600 oz. silver and 70 
oz. lead has been found in the June Bug lode. About one 
ton sacked by the lessees was shipped to obtain cash for 
celebrating Christmas. A shipment from the Auge lease 
on the Brooks-Snider was settled for by the A. V. smelter, 
of Leadville, at $700 per ton for first-grade, and $50 per 
ton for second-grade ore. The Wellington Mines Co. has 
ceased operating its two mills, due to the low price of 
zinc, and is confining operations to mine development. 

Central City. — Rich lead-carbonate ore, with silver 
averaging 300 oz. per ton, has been opened up on the 
After Dinner mine adjoining the Hard Money in the 
Hughesville district. The vein, struck at 50 ft., is re- 
ported widening. The operators, Hughes brothers and 
Swarthout, are installing machinery and plan to sink to 
a depth of 200 ft. Sinking is in progress at the Atlantic 
shaft at Hughesville, and will continue to 200 ft. Rich 
silver ore is saved from a vein in the shaft and in the 
85-ft. level drift. 

The Midwest M. & M. Co. has let a contract for a 300- 
ft. cross-cut tunnel starting from North Clear creek to 
connect with the Silent Friend shaft at 400 ft. Eight 
known veins, outcropping at surface, lie directly across 
the tunnel line. The Cyclops shaft is also to be drained 
to a depth of 400 ft. by the cross-cut, and with connec- 
tion made an underground hoist will be installed and the 
Cyclops operated below the tunnel-level and ore taken 
to surface through the tunnel. The Midwest is also min- 
ing a good grade of ore in the Peruvia, and the Alaska 
mine, two miles distant, is under development. The ore 



January 8, 1921 

now being mined contains around 75 oz. silver and 10% 
lead. The ore is treated at the Iron City mill controlled 
by the Midwest, but a new mill will be constructed next 
spring in which flotation will be used. 

Cripple Creek. — A gold brick weighing 102 oz., of 
estimated value of $2100, was forwarded to the Denver 
Mint on December 15, from the mill of the Lincoln M. 
& R. Co., on Ironclad hill. This was the first bullion 
shipped. The mill is treating low-grade gold ore by the 
Gasche process. F. G. Gasche is manager for the com- 
pany. Owen Roberts, former lessee of the El Paso Gold 
King, has taken a new lease on the Poverty Gulch mine, 
reputed the first producer of the Cripple Creek district. 
Twelve sets of sub-lessees started in with Roberts the 
first day. Roberts is also operating the Strong mine at 
Victor and, with a number of sub-lessees active, is ship- 
ping about 600 tons monthly of $20 ore. Both mines 
are controlled by the Giddings-Lennox interests of Colo- 
rado Springs. 

Idaho Springs. — The Humboldt property on Ute creek 
has been leased to local operators who are prospecting in 
one of the three tunnels on the property. Work is 
shortly to be resumed by lessees on the Columbia mine 
on Chicago ci .vk. The Black Eagle on Chicago creek 
has been leased to Leadville operators who plan to op- 
erate the pronerty th.-ough the Star tunnel. All three 
of the Idalm Springs mills are operating at capacity and 
report more ore delivered at their plants than for several 
years past. 

Aspen. — Excitement continues high over the discovery 
in the Hope tunnel and this has been enhanced by an- 
other important discovery in the Park tunnel. It is 
nearly a month since a high-grade seam was exposed in 
the Hope and the first assay returned 19 oz. silver. The 
entire breast of the tunnel is now in high-grade ore with 
neither wall yet determined. Late assays are reported 
to have shown 74 oz. silver, 29% lead, and some copper. 
The shoot has now been proved by a drift for 50 ft. and 
it shows no sign of decreasing in volume or value. Prac- 
tically every railroad man running into Aspen or Lead- 
ville is interested and merchants in both Leadville and 
Aspen have steadily contributed to the Hope Tunnel de- 
velopment fund for the past twelve years and apparently 
their persistence is about to be rewarded. Eighteen 
inches of high-grade silver ore in the Jenny Lind runs 
as high as 180 oz. silver and the entire 2| ft. of ore lying 
flat carries but little less. The orebody has been proved 
for a width of 35 ft. with the hanging wall not yet in 

Leadville.' — Leadville men have taken a three years 
lease on the Daly shaft of the Little Chief group on 
Fryer Hill. Sundry sections of the Pittsburgh, Little 
Chief, and Dives properties, included in the lease, will be 
developed. The lessees are experienced miners and are 
confident of opening a rich deposit of black iron. The 
triple-compartment shaft on the Daly is in need of repair 
and is being re-timbered and straightened. Few un- 
patented claims in Leadville have been neglected and 
the assessment work has in many cases been accom- 

plished. A few old-timers will, however, be benefited by 
the relief measure passed by Congress and signed by the 
President just before the first of the new year. 



Houghton. — With the price of copper so low that few 
Lake Superior mines can make a new dollar while spend- 
ing an old one, the mining companies of this district face 
a gloomy prospect for the new year. None of them looks 
for substantial improvement in the metal market until 
at least mid-year and it is certain that the present out- 
look from an operating standpoint is precarious. 

The year end leaves the district with only the Calumet 
& Hecla, Copper Range, and Stanton groups, and the 
Quincy mine in operation. Only the conglomerate 
branch of the Calumet & Hecla proper is active, all 
Osceola lode shafts having been closed, and of the sub- 
sidiaries, the Ahmeek and Isle Royale are the ouly ones 
working. The Champion, Baltic, and Trimountain mines 
of Copper Range are producing 60% of normal, and 
Quincy also is on a 60% basis. Mohawk and Wolverine 
of the Stanton group are rapidly increasing production 
and will be back on a normal basis soon after the first of 
the year. Of the operating mines, Copper Range and 
Quincy are just about 'breaking even' on a 15c. copper 
market. Calumet & Hecla will finish the year with about 
70,000,000 lb. of copper on hand. Copper Range and 
Quincy metal stocks are fully as large as a year ago, while 
Mohawk and Wolverine are cleaned up on copper, selling 
it about as fast as it is produced. 

All companies in the district that have attempted to 
maintain production have been hard hit by unusual costs 
this year. The high price of fuel has been a big item. 
Coal that was purchased a few years ago and laid down 
at the docks here at a cost of $3 per ton now costs $10.50. 
The sharp advance in freight-rates also has hit some of 
the mines not owning their own railroads. As an illus- 
tration, one company is compelled to pay $700 per day 
for the privilege of hauling ore to its mills, a distance of 
seven miles, while it pays $100 per day for transporting 
coal from docks to mine. It means a big extra expense 
that adds materially to production costs. Calumet & 
Hecla and Quincy own their own railroads and are not 
affected by these high freight-rates, while Copper Range, 
which is a stockholder in the Copper Range Railroad 
company, which serves the Champion, Baltic, and Tri- 
mountain mines, gets some of its freight expenditure 
back in the form of dividends. 

High costs have driven some of the smaller properties 
into idleness. The Franklin and Hancock have been 
closed for some months, and during the year Mass and 
Michigan also shut-down. None of the so-called Lake 
group of properties is doing any development work and 
Winona is closed. The recent curtailment policy of Calu- 
met & Hecla also added the Osceola, Osceola lode shafts, 
Allouez, Centennial, La Salle, and White Pine to the list. 
Owing to the fact that the Calumet & Hecla curtailment 

January 8, 1923 



l>oli.-v came late in the year, the production of the Calu- 
met & Heela group will not he much under the output of 
last year. Production will be slightly under 
Ik. while in L919 it was 101,000,000. 

Of the developing properties, Arcadian Consolidated, 
Seneca, and Mayflower continue in operation, with en- 
couraging pros] ta of success. Particularly in Seneca 

■nd Arcadian the ground penetrated in sinking and 
drifting is uniformly and heavily mineralized, comparing 
favorably with any amygdaloid openings in the district, 
and a continuation of present content should put these 
properties in the producing class. Seneca announces a 
production in November of 82,451 lb. of refined copper 
from 2275 tons of rock taken out in course of develop- 
ment. This is an increase over October. The south drift 
is yielding splendid rock and the highly mineralized area 
in the north drift on the same level persists. In the third 
and fourth levels, north, good quality rock still is found, 
with the general outlook in that section uniform. In the 
Arcadian 's New Baltic shaft, the outlook continues good. 
The shaft is now 800 ft. deep. A station has been cut 
at 719 ft., which corresponds with a depth of 750 ft. in 
the New Arcadian shaft. No drifting will be done on 
the lode, but the shaft will be sunk without a stop to a 
depth of 942 ft., at which point a drift will be driven to 
connect with the 900-ft. level of the New Arcadian shaft. 
This drift will be 3500 ft. long. Subsequently drifts will 
be extended from both shafts at points of contact with 
the lode. Mayflower's south raise, now 400 ft. long, is 
breasted in a mixture of trappy and mineralized matter. 
The raise in the east cross-cut, driven from the north 
drift, is in conglomerate formation and breasted in rock 
that is practically barren of copper. Four machines, 
operating two shifts, are at work on the two projects. 



Tule Canyon. — Seven men are employed by the Sil- 
ver Hills, which is operating the Ingalls mine under an 
option. It is reported that milling is to be resumed and 
that the search for the vein on the 200-ft. level is to be 
| continued. Men who have been at the mine recently say 
I that 40 ft. of drifting in a direction opposite to that in 
| which the former work was done should result in the 
jvein being entered. 

Yerington. — Gypsum for use in the manufacture of 
Portland cement is being shipped from the mines of the 
Ludwig Mines Co at a rate of 100 tons daily. Twenty- 
five men are employed by the cement company, which is 
developing the deposits under a lease which may be ex- 
tended to ten years as a result of the large tonnage of 
material, containing 85 to 95% gypsum, that has been 
developed. The company is developing two deposits and 
has a plant at Mound House on the Southern Pacific rail- 
road. The largest and most valuable deposit is said to 
be at Ludwig, near Yerington, where there is reported to 
be 1,000,000 tons exposed. The plant at Mound House 
may be moved to Ludwig, according to reports. 

Death Valley Junction. — The Pacific Coast Borax 
Co., due, it is said, to a reduced demand combined with 
increased freight-rates, has cut the working force at the 
mines and treatment plant. This is the first, time in the 
years the company lias been working in Death valley that 
an appreciable reduction in the number of men employed 
has been found necessary. Increased freight-rates also 
have greatly reduced the output of the Carrara Marble 
Co. at Carrara and the Continental Fluorspar Co. at 
Beatty, both of which have been shipping to Eastern 
points. Despite the difficulties of these and other com- 
panies there are many searching for non-metallic min- 
erals everywhere in the southern part of the State, the 
inquiries coming principally from chemists in industries 
being established on the Pacific Coast. These men ap- 

Mineral Hill 

Cripple Cree, 

Signal Hit! 

Carbonate Hill 

Tenderfoot Hill 

Catena Hill 

'oOititf- Hjjj 


parently enter the field in the desert region of southern 
California and work north as far as Goldfield. There 
appears to be a demand for diatomaceous earth, used as 
an absorbent and polisher; sodium sulphate, used in the 
manufacture of glass ; barite, used to weight paper, and, 
as barium hydroxide, in refining sugar; fuller's earth, 
used in refining oil ; and calcite in the form of chalk for 
feltilizer. Fuller's earth is being mined on a large scale 
at Shoshone and oil companies continue to buy ground 

Bonnie Clare. — The first carload of lead-silver ore 
from the Arrowhead Rico, at Ubehebe, California, has 
been loaded here and another carload is nearly ready. 
The ore is being shipped to the United States Smelting, 
Refining & Mining Co. under a contract made by J. C. 
Bramblay of the Salt Lake office of that company, who 
recently visited the mine. "Work in the tunnel at a depth 
of 80 ft. has been stopped until the tunnel can be cleared 



January 8, 1921 

of broken material and this sacked and shipped. The 
ore-shoot has been opened for a distance of 60 ft. and 
the limit has not been reached. 

Fallon. — The Silver Range Mines Co., operating in 
the Cox canyon part of the Silver range, east of Fallon, 
plans to spend $100,000 in additional development work 
on the 52 claims owned by the company. Two veins are 
being developed, one copper-silver-gold and the other 
silver-lead-gold. The company has done 5000 ft. of de- 
velopment work and the present work consists of a tunnel 
that has been driven 50 ft. in ore two feet wide and 
assaying $40 in silver and lead. It is reported that much 
low-grade ore has been opened and the company plans 
to erect a concentrator eventually. 

Ely. — The Nevada Consolidated, following in the wake 
of other big copper companies, has announced a general 
reduction in wages, including a cut of $1.25 for crafts- 
men, $1 for other employees receiving $5.25 or over, and 
85c. for those receiving less than $5.25. The company 
has been seriously affected by an order of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission suspending until April 29 the 
voluntary reduction in freight-rates on smelter products 
that the railroads granted. It is said that this order will 
make it difficult for the company to operate the smelter 
at a profit because of the low price for blister copper, 
which is the principal product. 

Virginia City. — The Virginia City Miners' union has 
voted on and accepted a wage-scale agreement for their 
part of the district practically identical with the agree- 
ment recently reached between the Gold 'Hill miners and 
operators. The agreement involves a gradual reduction 
in wages to $4 on December 1, 1921. The vote is said to 
have been almost unanimous. 

Eureka. — At the Eureka-Croesus mine the 'shale' 
raise has holed through into the old workings and a drift 
has been started on the ore. In raise No. 8 the face of 
the shale is dipping flatter to the west ; this is believed to 
indicate the near presence of ore. In No. 2 raise, along 
an east-west fracture leading from the north-south 
fissure, high-grade ore is" being extracted, said to be 
identical with a similar body found in that locality a 
year ago. On three other cross-fissures, within 100 ft., 
the showing is promising. The company is adding to its 
holdings by purchasing contiguous ground. Develop- 
ment work is carried on through the Catlin shaft, at the 
southerly end of the Connolly claim at the most southerly 
part of the Eureka-Croesus property. A double-geared 
60-hp. air-operated hoist and two Chicago pneumatic air- 
eompressors of 356 cu. ft. have been received at the mine, 
but are not yet installed. The Eureka-Eclipse mine, just 
west of the Holly and Bullwhacker mines, north of 
Adams hill, is being developed. The company is sinking 
a shaft in quartz porphyry which assays from a trace to 
80c. per ton and is the same formation in which the ore- 
hodi^s in the Holly and Bullwhacker occur. The shaft 
at the Eureka Holly mine is down to the 600-ft. level, 
where a station is being cut out. Sinking will be resumed 
as soon as the station is finished. The machinery for the 

Holly mill has been hauled to the ground and is being 

At the Uncle Sam Con. mine a contract has been let to 
drive an additional 100 ft. in the main adit, which enters 
the property from the south side of New York canyon. 
The face of the adit is now 350 ft. from the north end of 
the Hamburgh mine ; within the last 10 ft. two stringers 
of ore, which look promising, were cut. 



Salt Lake City. — Carl A. Allen, State Inspector of 
Coal Mines, estimates that the coal production in Utah 
during 1920 was 5,818,500 tons, as compared with 4,629,- 
722 tons for the preceding year. The record output for 
any one month in the history of coal mining in this State 
was- in January 1920, when 589,668 tons was mined. 
Had this record been maintained throughout the year, 
production would have been 7,076,016 tons. Mr. Allen 
estimates that the maximum capacity of Utah coal mines, 
as at present developed, working eight hours per day for 
52 weeks per year and without any interruptions, from 
labor shortage, strikes, lack of market, mine disability, 
and other causes, is about 8,760,000 tons per annum. 

A representative of an English syndicate, two of a 
Belgian company, and two of a French syndicate, oper- 
ating jointly, have been in the Uintah basin inspecting 
the enormous deposits of oil-shale in that locality, ac- 
cording to R. S. Collett, of Roosevelt, Utah, who repre- 
sents local capitalists interested in the deposits, said to 
aggregate 40,000 acres. After spending some days in the 
Basin, the representatives left for New York, to present 
their report. 

The local lead-smelting companies are being seriously 
affected by the decline in ore shipments, owing to the un- 
satisfactory condition of the metal market. At the United 
States smelter at Midvale, "W. A. Howard, manager, re- 
ports that its heaviest shipper of high-grade lead concen- 
trate, the Snowstorm mine at Troy, Montana, has sus- 
pended operations entirely ; the Pittsburg-Idaho and the 
Latest Out properties at Gilmore, Idaho, have also closed, 
as has the Utah-Apex mine at Bingham, the largest pro- 
ducer of lead in Utah. 

Bingham. — During its fiscal year ending August 31, 
1920, the Utah Apex Mining Co. had gross receipts of 
$1,279,562, while expenses, including cost of litigation 
and a charge of nearly $100,000 for depletion and de- 
preciation, amounted to $1,224,277, leaving net profits of 
$55,285. On that date the company had current assets of 
$621,535, mostly cash and Liberty bonds, against current 
liabilities of $77,501. During the year various changes 
were effected in the flotation department of the concen- 
trating plant, which increased its efficiency, and consider- 
able attention was devoted to the question of a lead-zinc 
separation in the mill on a. commercial scale. The mine, 
as now developed, has a capacity of 1000 tons output per 
day. The Utah Consolidated company is now withdraw; 


January 8, l'.'-Jl 



in^ r iis equipment from the territory awarded to the 
Otah Apex company on October 21, 1920, by the United 
Btatee District Court of Utah. 

Eureka. — The directors of tin- Grand Central Mining 
Co. have declared a dividend of one cent per share, pay- 
able January 21, which will call Eor the payment of 
$6000. A dividend of four cents per share was paid 
daring the first quarter of 1920, and one for three cents 
per share during the second quarter of the year. The 
total of such disbursements to date is $1,866,000. The 
directors of the Gold Chain Mining Co. have also de- 
clared a dividend of one cent per share. 

During the week ending December 25, the Tintic Stand- 
ard shipped 50 cars of ore; Chief Consolidated. 45; 
Dragon, 22; Eagle & Blue Bell, 13; Iron Blossom, 13; 



Vancouver. — The necessity of encouraging the produc- 
tion of gold in British Columbia is I oming increasingly 

apparent: the latest public body to take action is the 
Mining Bureau of the Vancouver Board of Trade which 
recently passed a resolution offering a number of sug- 
gestions to the Dominion and Provincial governments. 
One is the removal of all taxation on gold mines until 
"such time as conditions return to normal"; another 
"the return to Canada of all gold produced from ex- 
ported ores and the purchase thereof by the Mint at 
Ottawa and the Dominion Assay Office at Vancouver"; 
and a third "that all gold sold by the before-mentioned 


Iron King, 9 ; Victoria, 7 ; Gemini, 4 ; Mammoth, 2 ; Gold 
Chain, 2 ; Colorado, 2 ; Swansea, 2 ; Tintic Drain Tunnel, 
1 ; making a total of 172 cars, as compared with 180 for 
the preceding week. The decrease in shipments is due to 
the fact that the Tintic Standard has been requested by 
Salt Lake Valley smelters to hold its production down to 
approximately 300 tons per day. 

Walter Fiteh, president of the Chief Consolidated Min- 
ing Co., returned on December 24 from Washington, D. 
C, where he attended the meetings before the Interstate 
Commerce Commission on freight-rate hearings as ap- 
plying to ore shipments in this State. Mr. Pitch states 
that he feels confident that the Interstate Commerce 
Commission will uphold the action of the Utah Public 
Utilities Commission and that there will be no increase 
in the present rates on coal and ore shipments. With the 
decreases in prices of metals, even the largest lead and 
silver producers in this district are operating on a com- 
paratively small margin. 

institutions for industrial purposes should be so priced 
as to cover the normal cost of production, any surplus 
revenue to be distributed among the gold-mining com- 
panies in proportion to production". 

Rumors are in circulation to the effect that negotiations 
are in hand having in view the transfer of the holdings 
of the Granby Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co., Ltd., 
at Anyox, including the Hidden Creek mine, and at 
Cassidys, Vancouver Island, where is situated a modern 
coal-mining plant now in operation, to the Canadian 
Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co. It is stated, briefly, 
that engineers representing the Canadian Consolidated, 
a subsidiary corporation to the C. P. R., have been over 
the plant of the Granby company at Anyox ; that the C. 
P. R. would find it convenient to have the output of the 
Cassidy Collieries available now that coal is replacing 
oil as fuel for its coast steamships and its British Colum- 
bia railways ; and that the Canadian Consolidated has 
long been feeling its way toward the establishment of a 



January 8, 1921 

smelter on the coast. On the latter point reference is 
made to the company's expenditure of approximately 
half a million dollars in the development of the Old Sport 
mineral claims, on Quatsino sound, to its interest in the 
Sunloch Mining Co. 's properties; and to the option it 
has secured on the Big Interior group. All these are cop- 
per prospects and, if development proves them capable 
of producing the tonnage of copper-hearing ore now 
indicated, especially in respect of the Old Sport and the 
Sunloch, a smelter on the coast for the treatment of the 
ore will be necessary. Hence it is claimed to be not un- 
likely that the Canadian Consolidated Co. might, con- 
sider the acquirement of the Granby company 's holdings. 

Barkerville. — R. F. Ward states that he has bonded 
the Bullion mine to New York and Kansas City interests, 
and that a deposit of $20,000 has been made to bind the 
deal. The consideration has not been divulged. This 
property has seen many vicissitudes. At one time it was 
owned by a group of Canadian Pacific railroad officials, 
including Messrs. Van Home and Shaughnessy, who 
spent in the neighborhood of two and a half million 
•dollars in exploration and the construction of canals, and 
who took about half a million dollars worth of gold from 
the property. Then it passed into the hands of the Gug- 
genheims, who spent considerable sums in development. 
From the Guggenheims it passed to the present owners in 
1913, and then became involved in legal complications, 
from which it was not freed until recently. During the 
six years of idleness much of the original construction 
work has fallen into decay, and, Mr. Ward estimates, 
fully a quarter of a million dollars will be required to 
put the property on a working basis. 

Trail. — During the third week in December 9967 tons 
of ore was received at the smelter, 9168 tons coming from 
the Consolidated company's mines. The other shippers 
were: Canada Copper, Allenby, 161 tons; Horn Silver, 
Chepaka, 53 ; Josie, Rossland, 256 ; North Star, Kimber- 
ley, 190 ; and Paradise, Lake Windermere, 138. There 
is a considerable supply of all base metals on hand at the 
smelter, and all but absolutely necessary work has been 
stopped. This has caused the dismissal of a large number 
of men, and, as a consequence, curtailed expenses. 



Porcupine. — Negotiations are in progress looking to 
the merger of the Vipond-North Thompson and the North 
Crown Mines Co. As a preliminary step Major Bell, 
manager of the Vipond-North Thompson, has made an 
examination of the workings of the North Crown and 
H. J. Stewart, manager of the North' Crown has investi- 
gated the records of the Vipond-North Thompson, the 
mine being inaccessible owing to its being full of water. 
A meeting will be held this week in Montreal for the pur- 
pose of arriving at a basis of amalgamation. The com- 
bined area embraced in the proposal is 320 acres. 
Each of the two groups has a mill with a capacity of 120 

tons per day. It is estimated that important economies in 
operating costs can be effected by the amalgamation, as 
the ore in the mines involved often extends from one 
property into another, and one of the improvements like- 
ly to be carried out should the merger take place will be 
the utilization of the North Thompson shaft as a main 
hoisting-way for the combined properties. On the Krist 
property of the North Crown diamond-drilling almost 
horizontally from the 500-ft. level has passed through 
several important orebodies. About 250 ft. of cross-cut- 
ting has been undertaken in order to reach them. 

The Hollinger Consolidated by the use of auxiliary 
steam equipment has been able considerably to increase 
its tonnage, having treated as much as 2400 tons of ore 
in 24 hours, as compared with an average of between 1700 
and 1800 tons during November. 

Kirkland Lake. — During November the Lake Shore 
treated 1810 tons of ore with a recovery of $49,339 being 
an average production of $27.25 per ton. Production 
during the company's fiscal year which ended November 
30 was $483,701, the average recovery being $25.63 per 
ton. More than half the ore treated came from develop- 
ment work, otherwise a much higher average would have 
been reported. 

Operations at the Teck-Hughes have been temporarily 
suspended on account of a broken hoist, which is expected 
to be repaired in about a week. 

Cobalt. — As the result of a conference between repre- 
sentatives of the Workmen's Central Council and the 
Temiskaming Mine Managers Association it has been de- 
cided to hold the proposed sick benefit scheme in abey- 
ance. The reason assigned is that under the unfavorable 
and uncertain conditions now prevailing it would be un- 
wise to start at present, as the comparatively small num- 
ber of men now employed would not provide sufficient 
funds to fairly test the feasibility of the scheme. It was 
decided to postpone its operation till some future date, 
probably May 1. 

A new company has been organized under the name of 
the Ruby Co-operative Cobalt Mines, Ltd., with a capital- 
ization of $1,500,000, to take over and operate the Ruby 
mine in the south-eastern part of the Bucke township. 
Development during the fall has met with encouraging 
results and a considerable quantity of good milling ore 
has been opened. 

Much importance is attached to the deep drilling oper- 
ations now being carried on at the Crown Reserve mine. 
The hole that is being put down to test the ground under- 
lying the diabase in the section where the principal veins 
have been found is now down 1300 ft. below the surface. 
Officials of the Dominion Geological Survey are making 
a study of the geology of the mine as shown by the drill. 

Larder Lake. — The Crown Reserve plans to carry on 
exploration of its claims by diamond-drilling beginning 
early in the year. Exploration of a belt running north 
from the Costello claims was undertaken during the sum- 
mer but little progress was made by reason of the heavy 
overburden. In places where they did get through the 
results were encouraging. 

January 8, 1921 




Calaveras County. — The new 10-stamp addition to the 
mill of the Carson Hill Co. has been in operation about a 
month, bringing the total capacity of the plant up to 500 
tons of ore per day. The ore is reported to average about 
$11 per ton, with total operating expenses ranging around 
$4 per ton. The company is at present developing an ex- 
tensive area of ground adjacent to its productive territory 
and steadily increasing the reserves of commercial ore. 
Plans for 1921 include opening new levels, exploration of 
new sections of the outside territory, and maintenance of 
capacity production. 

Nevada County. — Unwatering of the inclined section of 
the main shaft of the Idaho-Maryland mine has reached a 
point where the company will soon be in a position to under- 
take exploration of the lower levels. In the upper levels, 
served by the vertical part of the shaft, lessees have opened 
shoots of profitable ore, but the chief interest centres on 
prospective discoveries in the lower workings. The mill is 
running on ore from leasing operations, and the shaft is 
being unwatered as rapidly as practicable. The enterprise 
Is managed by the Bulkeley Wells Syndicate and ranks 
among the most important in the Grass Valley district. 

Sierra County. — Temporary suspension of mining at the 
Kate Hardy property has been ordered and most of the 
miners have been laid off. The reason given is the inability 
of the company to finish its reduction plant as soon as ex- 
pected and the lack of further storage space for ore. Work 
on the mill is being rushed as fast as weather conditions will 
permit. The shaft is now sunk to a depth of nearly 20 ft. 
At the 100-ft. level a station has been cut and a large cen- 
trifugal pump installed to handle the water. Another sta- 
tion is to be cut at the 200-ft. level, and drifts will be run 
both north and south on the vein. 

Cripple Creek. — Gold production from the mines of the 
district, due to prevailing labor conditions and high operat- 
ing costs for the year 19 20, is the lowest since 1895, when 
the camp, but five years old, produced $6,100,000. The 
1920 total is reported at $5, 956, 222. The production by 
months was as follows: January, $609,674; February, 
$511,500; March, $605,000; April, $473,590; May, $442,- 
867; June, $494,264; July, $614,937; August, $477,603; 
September, $426,489; October, $425,298; November, $450,- 
000; and December, $470,000. 


Coeur d'Alene. — That the Bunker Hill & Sullivan com- 
pany will erect a million-dollar electrolytic-zinc refinery at 
Kellogg, and that through the purchase of an interest in 
the Northwest Lead Co., of Seattle, it has entered into the 
manufacture of lead plumbing material, has been announced 
by Frank M. Smith, smelter director of the Bunker Hill & 
Sullivan company. "The company has definitely decided to 
go into the zinc field," said Mr. Smith. "An electrolytic- 
zinc plant is to be built at Kellogg to treat the Star ores, 
probably using this process. We are making arrangements 
with the owners of the Star mine that, when market condi- 
tions are favorable, the mine will be operated and the ores 

treated at the Bunker Hill & Sullivan plant. The ore is a 
complex zinc-lead ore from which two concentrates will be 
made: lead, which will be treated at the smelter; and zinc, 
which will be handled by the proposed new electrolytic 
plant. The initial capacity will be 25 tons of metallic zinc 
per day, so arranged that the capacity can be increased to 
50 tons per day when market conditions warrant. The 
plant will cost approximately $1,000,000 for the first unit. 
We are going ahead with the plans so that they will be in 
readiness for use as early as next year if building costs 
justify. It will be two years probably before the plant is in 
operation. The Bunker Hill & Sullivan company has bought 
a substantial interest in the Northwestern Lead Co., of 
Seattle, a concern manufacturing lead pipe, sheet-lead, lead 
traps, bends, and many other lead products for the plumb- 
ing trade. This company has been operating for the last 
two or three years and has used the Bunker Hill & Sullivan 
pig-lead exclusively. Now that the Bunker Hill & Sullivan 
company has acquired a financial interest in the company, 
It is proposed to extend its market in the north-west ter- 
ritory."- The Morning Club, of Mullan, was recently dedi- 
cated. It is evidence of broad-minded policies on the part 
of the Federal Mining & Smelting Co. The expenditure of 
$100,000 for the club-house and its equipment is the indirect 
result of prohibition, which left the miners without their 
usual recreation resorts. The company, which owns the 
Morning mine, felt that something should be done to make 
pleasant the leisure hours of its men. They planned the 
club-house, first intending it to be built at the mine. Citi- 
zens of Mullan asked the company to put the club at Mullan 
and the citizens of Mullan furnished the site. Everything 
else, including entire furnishings and equipment, was paid 
for by the mining company. Mullan people are given the 

privilege of the club. The Idaho Mines Leasing Co. has 

secured good results in exploring the old Black Bear mine 
on Canyon creek. It has ordered a 5 0-ton mill which it is 
building and which it expects to have ready for operation 
by January 1. This is the Black Bear belonging to the old 
Frisco mine and now held by the Federal Mining & Smelting 
Co. The Idaho Leasing Co. has a lease on all the workings 
of the Black Bear above the No. 3 tunnel. A good body of 
lead-silver ore has been discovered which is said to be four 
feet wide and 200 ft. long. The lessees say they have enough 
ore in sight to operate their mill for three years. Bins have 
been built at the railroad and an 800-ft. cable tram installed 
from the bins to the tunnel above that will be used in bring- 
ing out the ore. Material for the new concentrator at 

the Yankee Boy mine on Big creek of the Coeur d'Alene 
is now being delivered at the property. The Yankee Boy 
property was recently consolidated with the Sunshine Min- 
ing Co.'s holdings and will be operated by that company. 
The property has been a shipper of high-grade silver ore 
for a number of years, shipping a hand-sorted product, in 
the course of which a large tonnage of mill-ore has been 
accumulated. This will now be treated in the new mill, 
which also treats the lower-grade ore taken from the mine 

while extracting the richer ore. Steady development of 

the Chicago-Boston mine is proceeding. In the lower tunnel 
at a point 420 ft. from the shaft a cross-cut has been started 
and run 50 ft. south-easterly. This is intended to cut into 



January 8, 1921 

the orebody found on the 200-ft. level. The Paragon 

mine in the Murray district expects to sink its shaft to an 
additional depth of 300 ft. The company's mill has been 
overhauled and is in better shape now than ever before. The 
additional depth will give a much better grade of ore than 
that which was shipped some years ago from the upper 

levels of the property. The Giant Ledge Mining Co. will 

continue work throughout the winter and by spring hopes 
the development work will warrant completing and operat- 
ing the mill which is partly constructed. From the bottom 
of the 400-ft. shaft the vein has been followed 900 ft., and 
at no point in that distance is the tunnel out of ore, although 
at some points its grade was not as good as at others. The 
vein is 35 ft. wide at the far end of the tunnel. 

Soda Springs. — The construction of an eight-mile branch 
by the Union Pacific Railroad Co. from Soda Springs to the 
phosphate mines of the Anaconda Copper Co. has been com- 
pleted, together with the 'y's' for loading-purposes, and two 
locomotives are on the ground and power connections for 
4000 horse-power have been made with the lines of the 
Utah Power & Light Co. At this property Anaconda has a 
working supply of phosphate ample for 100 years, accord- 
ing to engineering estimates, the indicated tonnage amount- 
ing to about 200,000,000, with ample phosphoric acid con- 
tent. The company also has on the ground a 'mucking' ma- 
chine which will handle ten tons of rock at a shovel. Plans 
are under way for the shipment of approximately 1000 tons 
of phosphate rock daily to the Washoe smelter, where it 
will be treated with sulphuric acid, the latter manufactured 
by a special process devised at the Anaconda smelter. 

Butte. — Metal production of the Anaconda Copper Co. 
at present is approximately 38% of normal based on an 
output of 10,000,000 lb. monthly as compared with 26,000,- 
000 lb. for the same period a year ago. The latter amount 
is regarded as a fair average of the capabilities of the Ana- 
conda company. But the ore output is considerably less, as 
included in the metal production is the copper obtained 
from the treatment of accumulated tailings at the Washoe 
works. The company has increased the number of its lead- 
stacks at the Boston & Montana smelting works at Great 
Falls from one to three. The residue from the electrolytic 
zinc-plant is being treated for its lead content. Heretofore 
this residue was shipped to the Tooele smelter of the Inter- 
national company in Utah, which is controlled by Anaconda, 
but the increased freight-rates forced Anaconda to more 
economical measures. This is the first lead-smelting opera- 
tion which the company has conducted in Montana. Fol- 
lowing the announcement of, the reduction in wages, John 
Gillie, manager of mines for the Anaconda company, said: 
"Under present conditions every pound of copper and zinc 
mined in the Butte district is produced at a loss. There has 
been no market for the metal and with enormous surplus 
of copper and zinc in the country and the low price of the 
metal an adjustment of operations to suit present conditions 
became imperative." 

East Butte is hoisting around 30 tons of ore daily of a 
grade exceeding 5 % copper. Underground sorting is done 
efficiently at the Pittsmont mine of the company and in con- 
sequence the management has been able to make a good 
showing as far as the grade of ore is concerned. Under- 
ground sorting is not employed generally in the Butte dis- 
trict, but is advantageously done when extra economy of 
operation is necessary. East Butte is employing 140 men at 
the mine and about 75 in its smelter, where it treats the ore 
from Davis-Daly, which amounts to from two to three cars 
daily, averaging 50 tons each. 

Cooke City. — The Republic, Glengarry, and Irma mines 
are producing some good ore. The ore is being hauled by 
truck to Gardiner, where it is loaded for shipment to the 
East Helena smelter. 


The Editor invites members of the profession to send particulars of their 
work and appointments. The information is interesting to our readers. 

Willard S. Morse is at Los Angeles. 

C. Erb Wuensch, of Denver, is here. 

B. L. Thane has returned from Los Angeles. 
Nelson Dickerman has sailed for Japan and China. 

A. H. Bedford, recently at Grass Valley, has gone to New 

Oliver C. Ralston, of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, is in San 

E. A. H. Tays, recently of Sinaloa, Mexico, has moved to 
Nogales, Arizona. 

Robert Bulnian has arrived in San Francisco from Reef- 
ton, New Zealand. 

Conrtenay De Kalb has been to Bagalusa, in Louisiana. 
He is now at New Orleans. 

D. J. Argall, of San Diego, California, has gone to Thane, 
Alaska, in care of the Perseverance mine. 

H. C. Goodrich, chief engineer for the Utah Copper Co., 
spent several days at Los Angeles recently. 

L. W. Storm, of Seattle, is examining the old placer mines 
of Sonora, in Tuolumne county, California. 

John T. Reid, mining engineer of Lovelock, Nevada, has 
gone to New York, expecting to return in May. 

P. A. Simon, president of the Simon Silver-Lead Mines 
Co., at Mina, Nevada, was in San Francisco this week. 

H. V. Burgard, secretary for the Mineral Metal & By- 
products Co. of Denver, has returned to San Francisco. 

H. G. Thiele is superintendent of the Borosolvay potash 
plant of the Solvay Process Co., at Borosolvay, California. 

S. M. Soupcoff, mining engineer with the Utah Depart- 
ment of the A. S. & R. Co., is making an extended visit in 
the East. 

T. L. Josephs, metallurgist with the U. S. Bureau of Mines 
at Minneapolis, has been examining coal and iron deposits in 
the vicinity of Cedar City, Utah. 

Oscar Friendly, superintendent of the Judge properties at 
Park City, Utah, has returned home after a trip to St. Louis 
and the mining districts of Missouri and Colorado. 

C. Minot Weld, Donald M. Liddell, and Paul H. Lazenby 
announce that they have formed a partnership for practice 
as consulting engineers and economists at 2 Rector street, 
New York City. 

D. H. Bradley Jr., who was manager for the Parral Con- 
solidated Mines Co., at Parral, Mexico, has recently been re- 
leased from his commission in the Army and is in San 

E." L. Jorgensen, formerly general superintendent of re- 
duction with the Chile Exploration Co., at Chuquicarnata, 
has after 15 years with the Guggenheims opened an office 
as consulting engineer at 150 Nassau street. New York. 

W. R. Crane is now superintendent of the Bureau of Mines 
Experiment Station at Tuscaloosa, Alabama, with head- 
quarters at Birmingham. Mr. Crane has been chief engineer 
for the War Minerals Relief Commission at Washington 
during the past year. 

Joseph H. Brown, assistant purchasing agent for the Ray 
Consolidated Copper Co. at Hayden, Arizona, died on De- 
cember 29. For a number of years he was general store- 
keeper for the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad at Salt Lake 
City. About 15 years ago he became purchasing agent for 
the Boston Consolidated Mining Co., and when that company 
was taken over by the Utah Copper Co. early in 1910, he 
went to Arizona and has been connected with the Ray Con- 
solidated since that time. 

January 8, 1921 




San Francisco. January 4 

Aluminum-dust, cents per pound 65 

Antimony, cents per pound 9.50 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound 14.00 — 14.50 

Lead, pig . cents per pound 5 — 8 

Platinum, pure, per ounce ¥75 

Platinum. 10% iridium, per ounce $115 

Quicksilver, per flask of 75 lb 850 

Spelter, cents per pound 8.25 

Ztnc-dust. cents per pound 12.50 — 15.00 

(By wire from New Tork) 

January 3. — Copper is quiet and Bteady. Lead is more active and 
stronger. Zinc is quiet and higher. 


Below are given official or ticker quotations for silver in the open market 
as distinguished from the fixed price obtainable for metal produced, smelted, 
and refined exclusively within the United States. Under the terms of the 
Pittman Act such silver will be purchased by the United States Mint at $1 
per ounce, subject to certain small charges which vary slightly but amount 
to approximately three-eights of one cent. The equivalent of dollar silver 
(1000 fine) in British currency is 46.65 pence per ounce (925 fine), calcu- 
lated at the normal rate of exchange. 

Zinc is quoted as spelter, 
in cents per pound. 
Dec. 26 

" 29 


" 31 

Jan. 1 Holiday 

" 2 Sunday 



New York 

28 65.00 

29 66.62 

30 65.12 

31 64.50 

1 Holiday 

2 Sunday 

3 65.75 





Average week ending 

22 76.41 

29 73.72 

6 69.08 

13 62.54 

20 63.77 

27 63.77 

3 65.40 


Jan 88.72 

Feb 85.79 

Mch 88.11 

Apr 95.35 

May 99,50 

June 99.50 


Monthly averages 



July 99.62 

Aug 100.31 

Sept 101.12 

Oct 101.12 

Nov 101.12 

Dec 101.12 




Prices ef electrolytic in New York, 

Dec. 28 13.00 

29 13.00 

30 13.25 

" 31 13.25 

Jan. 1 Holiday 
2 Sunday 

3 13.25 

1919 1920 
20.43 19.25 
17.34 19.05 
15.05 18.49 
15.23 19.23 
15.91 19.05 
17.63 19.00 

in cents per pound. 

Average week ending 

Nov. 22 


Dec. 6 




Jan 23.50 

Feb 23.50 

Mch 23.50 

Apr 23.50 

May 23.50 

June 23.50 

Jan. 3 



July 26.00 

Aug 26.00 

Sept 26.00 

Oct 26.00 

Nov 26.00 

Dee 26.00 



20 45 



Lead is quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. 




Average week ending 





-. 6.85 

. 7.70 

. 7.26 

. 6.99 

. 6.99 

June 7.59 



Monthly averages 













. 8.05 

Prices in New York, in cents per pound. 

Monthly averages 







. 85.13 
. 85.00 
. 85.00 
. 88.53 
. 91.00 














standard Western brands. New York delivery. 


Average week ending 

22 6.66 

20 8.26 

6 6.14 

13 6.42 




Jan. . 

Feb. . 

Mch. . 


May . 

June 7.92 



Monthly averages 


















4 48 



The primary market for 
the largest producer. The 
quantity. Prices, in dollars 
Dec. 7 

■' 14 


quicksilver is San Francisco. California being 
price is fixed in the open market, according to 
per flask of 76 pounds. 

| Dec. 21 60.00 

..66.00 " 28 50.00 

..65.00 1 Jan. 4 60.00 

Monthly averages 

1918 1919 

Jan 128.06 103.75 

Feb 118.00 90.00 

Mch 112.00 72.80 

Apr 116.00 73.12 

May 110.00 84.80 

June 112.00 94.40 



July 120.00 

Aug 120.00 

Sept 120.00 

Oct 120.00 

Nov 120.00 

Dec 115.00 










Below are shown quotations as of December 15. 1920, for those com- 
modities regularly carried in 'Commerce Monthly', together with the highest 
price for the fifteenth of any month since the armistice. Prices of specific 
commodities which were under government control are compared with the 
highest price recorded after the removal of control. 

It should be specifically noted that the price for the nearest available 
date to the fifteenth of each month was not necessarily the highest price 
reached. For purposes of comparison, the price is also shown for January 
15. 1914. 

Highest price for 
15th of any month 
since armistice or 
since removal of 
government con- Price on 16th of 
trol Dec. Jan. 

Commodity, unit Date Price 1920 1914 

Cattle. $ per 100 lb Oct. 1919 16.80 9.60 8.60 

Coal — 

Anthracite, buckwheat. S per ton... Dec. 1920 8.00 8.00 2.25 

Anthracite, stove. $ per ton Dec. 1920 8.00 8.00 4.00 

Bituminous. Fairmont. S per ton... Aug. 1920 12.00 4.00 0.85 
Bituminous. Pittsburgh, 8 per ton... Aug. 1920 11.00 3.75 1.30 

Copper, c. per lb Aug. 1919 22.50 13.76 14.12% 

Corn. S per bu May 1920 2.16 0.72 0.62% 

Cotton, c. per lb Apr. 1920 41.50 14.75 12.88 

Hides — 

Heavy native steers, c. per lb Aug. 1919 52 17% 

Calfskins, c. per lb Aug. 1919 100 15 21 

Hogs, 8 per 100 lb July 1919 22.10 9.10 8.25 

Iron and Steel — 

Pig iron. S per ton Sept. 1920 48.50 33.00 12.50 

Steel billets. S per ton July 1920 65.00 45.00 20.00 

Lead. c. per lb Mar. 1920 9.37% 4.75 4.10 

Petroleum — 

Pennsylvania. S per bbl Dec. 1920 6,10 6.10 2.50 

Kansas-Oklahoma. S per bbl Dec. 1920 3.50 3.50 1.03 

Rubber — 

Plantation. S per lb Feb. 1919 0.56 0.17% 0.56 

Para, S per lb Jan. 1919 0.60 0.19% 0.73 

Silk. S per lb Jan. 1920 16.25 6.20 3.80 

Spelter, c. per lb Jan. 1920 9.10 5.75 5.10 

Sugar, c. per lb May 1920 21.57 4.63 3.29 

Wheat — 

Spring, S per bu May 1920 3.30 1.61% 0.91% 

Winter. 8 per bu May 1920 3.06 2.00 0.96% 

Wool — 

Ohio fine delaine. 8 per lb Apr. 1920 2.35 1.12 0.56 

Ohio Vi blood. $ per lb Aug. 1919 1.20 0.45 0,39 


Foreign quotations on January 4 are as follows: 

Sterling, dollars: Cable 3.56% 

Demand 3.57 % 

Francs, cents: Cable 5.86 

Demand 6.88 

Lire, cents: Demand 3.45 

Marks, cents 1-41 



January 8, 1921 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York, December 29, 1920. 

The year draws to a close with the demand for all metals 
almost nothing and with prices practically readjusted to 
pre-war levels. They are also at the lowest levels for the 
year, the declines having come in the last three months. 

There is almost no buying of copper and prices are a little 

Consumers and dealers remain absent from the tin market 
and quotations are nominal. 

Only a very moderate demand exists for lead and prices 
are a little easier. 

The zinc market is lower because of weakness in London. 

Antimony has declined. 


In taking account of conditions as the new year comes in, 
the iron and steel trade sees no prospect of a buying spurt 
for some weeks. The flood of shipments from mills of ac- 
cumulated and current output following the release of cars 
restricted up to that time to carrying coal, has placed in 
large consumers' yards somewhat more material than they 
were able to dispose of, especially with the curtailment in 
general demand. 

The last week of the year is marked by production at full 
blast by the Steel Corporation and by total idleness of some 
independent plants and for others rates varying up to per- 
haps 5 5%, or an average of about 25% for the independents 
and not much over 54% for all the mills. Revision of steel 
contracts to the basis of March 1919 has not prevented 
suspensions, and in the case of the Steel Corporation the 
successive suspensions since August have been released only 
in a small measure, and it seems clear that the leading pro- 
ducer has now less than six months orders, particularly in 
view of its present high scale of operations. 


What little business is reported is for small lots for 
prompt delivery and this is being taken largely by small in- 
terests at concessions or by those needing cash. The volume 
is negligible and it may be said that the market is stagnant. 
Quotations, largely nominal, are 13.25 to 13.50c, New 
York, for electrolytic copper for prompt and early delivery, 
with 13.50 and 13.75c. asked for first quarter. Large pro- 
ducers either have no price or ask 14c. for prompt and 
future. Production is being curtailed, but to what extent 
is mere conjecture. 

A study of recent statistics shows surprising imports of 
refined and old copper. To November 1, 1920, receipts of 
refined copper have been 98,745,714 lb., against 35,138,760 
lb. in all of 1919. Of old copper, classed as 'old and clip- 
pings', the imports for th-> first 10 months of 1920 were 
9,742,907 lb. or at a monthly rate three-fold greater than 
in 1919 and 50% heavier than in 1913. Even old brass re- 
ceipts are very heavy, having been 34,864,700 lb. to Novem- 
ber 1, 1920, or three times what they were in all of 1919 
and nearly four times the 1913 imports. 


There is little life to the market and quotations are large- 
ly nominal. Consumers, dealers, and even speculators show 
no interest and until they do no betterment is possible. 
There are expressions to the effect that an active tin market 
will be witnessed early in 1921, but this will depend on the 
attitude of consumers, the market at present being stagnant. 
It is in fact so lifeless that a measure of values is difficult. 
The week has brought forth almost no sales, the only one 
reported having been 50 tons of January shipment Straits, 
sold on the New York Metal Exchange on December 23 at 

32.75c. Spot Straits tin, New York, was quoted yesterday 
at 33.50c. nominal. The London market, closed Monday 
and Friday, was low yesterday at £200 per ton for spot 
standard, £205 15s. for future standard, and £205 for spot 
Straits. Arrivals thus far this month have been 2420 tons, 
of which 180 tons is credited to Pacific ports with 1890 tons 
reported afloat. 

Some sellers are of the opinion that the bottom of the 
market has been reached this time at 4.50c, St. Louis, for 
outside market, and 4.75c, St. Louis, for the leading in- 
terest. There are a few sellers who sold on the decline and 
are not as eager for new business and there are others who 
do not want to compete at present levels, with the result 
that there are less sellers than a week or so ago. This makes 
for a steadier stronger market tone. A little more interest 
is reported in small lots of one to three carloads, but actual 
business is small. We quote the outside market at 4.45 to 
4.55c, St. Louis and New York, the latter being influenced 
by possible or actual imports. 

The London position is the dominating factor in the 
American market. New levels for the year have been made 
in London, where prime Western has fallen under £24 per 
ton, against £50 some months ago. While the British mar- 
ket was £1 higher yesterday than last week, already sales of 
about 20 00 tons have been made for importation into this 
country in January and February at around 5.40c, seaboard, 
duty paid. This tendency had lowered the American market 
to 5.50c, St. Louis, on Monday and to 5.60c. yesterday, with 
the New York price for imported metal at practically the 
same figure, 5.65c, New York. Domestic metal for delivery 
in the East is around 6.10c. All quotations are for prompt 
delivery, producers not being willing to sell futures and sell- 
ing only for immediate requirements. 

It is authoritatively estimated that Belgian zinc cannot be 
produced under £40 per ton, while German zinc can be made 
around 1 to 1.50c per pound, but in limited quantities for 
export. This is taken to indicate a good future for American 

Wholesale lots for early delivery are obtainable at 5.25c, 
New York, duty paid. There is no demand. 
Virgin metal, 98 to 99% pure, is obtainable from inde- 
pendent sellers at 22 to 23c. per pound, New York, while 
the quotation of the leading interest is 28.30c f.o.b. pro- 
ducer's plant for 15-ton lots for early delivery. 
Tungsten: There has been a light business in small lots. 
Predominant in the minds of the trade is the tariff bill and 
the effect on the tungsten industry. As low as $3.50 per 
unit could now probably be done on low-grade ore, with 
other grades proportionately higher. 

Ferro-tungsten can be obtained as low as 59c per pound 
of contained tungsten. 

Molybdenum: The market is devoid of feature or interest. 
No test of values is reported. 

Manganese: No business has developed and prices for 
high-grade ore are nominal at 3 5 to 40c per unit, seaboard. 
Manganese-Iron Alloys: British ferro-manganese from at 
least one producer can be obtained at low as $110, seaboard, 
on a firm offer. American makers will probably meet any 
British price when business is offered. At present demand is 
almost nil. Spiegeleisen can be obtained as low as $45, fur- 
nace, and perhaps lower. A sale of 200 tons is noted. . 

MmiuiiimiimMiimiim tmMiiiiiimriiiiiimfiniimiiimimmimiimiiiimimiMmiJ niiiiuii n 

mnuurnaT an 



A. 8. Parsons, associate eoitor 

Member Audit Bureau of Circulations 
Member Associated Business Papers, Inc. 


Pultuhed at l£0 Market St., San Francisco, 
bv the Dnceu PvblWiino Company 


C.T.Hutchinson, manaser 
. h . leslie. 600 fisher bos., chicaro 
. a. weicle, 31 nassau st., new york 

llllllllllllllllll Ill 

iniiiMi i i ii iiiitiiimiitmiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniii 


Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, January 15, 1921 

$i per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 




. 75 


Mr. Vanderlip's status as a mining engineer. His 
interview with the 'Los Angeles Times', and the 
light it throws on the Bolshevik government. 
Legal status of loot and the sale of Russian gold 
in the United States. 


Scheme for exploiting the water-power of the Colo- 
rado river. A step in the right direction. Permit 
granted to the Southern California Edison Com- 
pany. Details of the enterprise. What the rail- 
roads will do. 


An appreciation of the book by James R. FInlay. 
The writing of books by practitioners. Quick pub- 
lication at the cost of care in editing and revision. 
The academic treatise of other days. Excellence of 
Mr. Finlay's book. 



By W. H. Shockley 79 

Some facts concerning Mr. Vanderlip and his ac- 
tivities from one who knows him personally. 


By A. G. Ologist 79 

The definition of a 'lode' advanced by the Utah 
Consolidated company in its recent litigation. 
Criticism of it by editors. Some essentials of a 
lode. A proposed definition. 


By Michael Merrick 80 

Further testimony by a single-jacker himself. 



By William E. Greenawalt 81 

General description of the process and machinery. 
The method of mixing the charge. The pan; the 
exhauster; the charge-car; and the igniter. Flexi- 

bility of operation. Existing Greenawalt plants. 
Sintering v. drying flotation concentrate. Prepar- 
ing a blast-furnace product. 


By Alfred D. Flinn, Secretary 8 6 

The benefaction of Ambrose Swasey. Researches 
conducted by the Foundation. 


By Newton L. Hall 88 

A suggestion for an ore-bin that can be emptied 
with comparative facility. 


By Alfred A. Cook 89 

An attempt by its attorney to answer a few of the 
charges against Minerals Separation made by the 
American Mining Congress and supported by evi- 
dence given by witnesses testifying before the 
U. S. Federal Trade Commission. Minerals Sepa- 
ration has modified the form of its license agree- 


By Victor H. Wilhelm 95 

The orebodies of the Premier mine. Development 
of the Missouri and Spider groups, 


Statistics prepared by Charles G. Yale. New 



COPPER IN 1920 98 










Established May 24. 1860. as The Scientific Press: name changed October 
20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific Press. „.«.**«. rahla 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. Cabie 
address; Pertusola. 

New York. 31 Nassau St.; 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 600 Fisher Bdg\; 
London. 724 Salisbury House. EC 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-elaas matter, 
address: Pertusola. 



January 15, 1921 

The age-old dream of the alchemist 
is realized because of Linde 

THROUGH countless cen- 
turies man dreamed of 
transmuting the baser met- 
als into gold. Patiently, labori- 
ously, often consecrating their 
very lives to the work, the Al- 
chemists of old toiled on toward 
their elusive goal. 

As late as 1873 James Price, 
the last of the Alchemists, sought 
death by his own hand rather 
than acknowledge the failure of 
his experiments. 

Linde Engineers of to-day have 
made this dream of by-gone ages 
come true. 

By producing uniformly pure 
oxygen in industrial volume, they 
have made it possible for oxy- 
acetylene welders and cutters to 
reclaim thousands of tons of 
metal machinery annually — turn- 
ing base metal into gold — a saving 
in money far in excess of any 
vision of wealth dreamed of by 
ancient philosophers. 

And Linde does more than supply 
oxygen of absolutely uniform purity. 
Thanks to a chain of twenty-nine 
plants and forty-six warehouses it 
delivers Linde Oxygen when and 
where it is wanted in any volume. 


Carbide and Carbon Building, 30 East 42nd Street, New York 

Balfour Building, San Francisco 



January 15, 1921 



T. A. KICKARV. .... Editor 

miHiiimtiiimiiiitiiiiiiiiNiiimiiji iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiriiiititirHiiiitiiiniiitiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiMiiiitiriiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiuiitiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiit iiiiimiiiiiiii 


VV/ K liavo received an interesting letter, postmarked 
" Paxton. California, on the Eilers v. Guggenheim 
affair, but. unfortunately, it is anonymous, and therefore 
cannot be published. If the gentleman will disclose his 
identity, not necessarily for publication, but for the 
Editor's information, his letter will be published. 

QUESTIONS continue to come to us asking whether a 
locator must, make a declaration or take any other 
Uteps in order to avail himself of the extension of time 
for doing assessment work on a mining claim. As we 
understand the recent enactment of Congress, he need not 
do so ; if he does his $100 worth of work before July 1 
his rights will be maintained as if the work had been done 
before December 31, 1920. 

(~* W. Barron of the 'Boston News Bureau' has a good 
^ J> ' deal to say on current events and most of it is to 
the point. He has a way of speaking plainly that we 
like, because it saves time and thinking. Our present ills, 
he says, are due to the fact that ' ' it was deemed patriotic, 
good politics, and good business to double wages to pro- 
duce for the War. It is now seen as bad business, bad 
politics, and most unpatriotic." The luxurious wages 
have destroyed thrift as well as efficiency. We camou- 
flaged the wage-profiteers who did a third of a shift for 
$10 by calling them our base-line of defence. Retail 
prices were advanced, by the greed of the middlemen, 
until the workers with doubled wages were no better off 
than before. Now comes the reckoning : the bromo-seltzer 
after the jag! It remains for us as a natioii to devise 
simpler forms of taxation, to curtail the expense of gov- 
ernment, to unshackle enterprise, and to cultivate hal'its 
of thrift. 

•VlNC OXIDE is being made from sulphide eon.-en- 
*-* trate in a single furnace-operation at the plant of 
the Metals Extraction Company at Joplin. Mr. Charles 
E. Schwarz, manager of the plant, developed the pro- 
cess, which consists essentially in burning a mixture of 
unroasted concentrate and pulverized coal under a 
strong forced draft, the sulphur in the ore supplying 
part of the fuel to promote combustion. The entire cycle 
of treatment requires but 45 minutes, and is conducted 
alternately in each of a pair of twin furnaces, the oxide 
being collected in a bag-house in the usual way. De- 

tailed technical information as to the construction of the 
furnaces, the fineness of the concentrate and fuel, the 
proportions used, the extraction obtained, and the purity 
of the resulting product are not at hand, but sufficient 
success has been attained to warrant thorough investiga- 
tion by representatives of large companies with the ex- 
pectation of making use of the process. There is a long 
stride between metallurgical accomplishment and the 
successful application of the scheme on a commercial 
basis with resultant economy in the production of a satis- 
factory grade of zinc oxide, but apparently progress has 
been made. 

T N this issue we publish a description of the Greenawalt 
■*- machine by the brother of the inventor, Mr. John E. 
Greenawalt. Mechanical furnaces for desulphurizing 
concentrates or other fine mill-products and at the same 
time producing a 'cinder' suitable for treatment in the 
blast-furnace have made notable progress in recent years. 
The Dwight-Lloyd machine, for example, forms a promi- 
nent feature of the new Bunker Hill smelter and details 
of the construction and operation of this well-known sin- 
tering furnace were given in the article appearing in our 
last issue. The Greenawalt machine is not as well known, 
but is being used on a large scale, notably by the Bethle- 
hem Steel Company, at Lebanon, Pennsylvania, where 
one 1000-ton machine is in operation and a second will 
soon be ready to start, taking the place of several nodu- 
lizing furnaces. At Duquesne, also in Pennsylvania, the 
U. S. Steel Corporation is erecting a second Greenawalt 
unit of 1000 tons, for the purpose of treating the current 
product of flue-dust. We are informed, by Mr. William 
E. Greenawalt, that the wider use of his brother's in- 
vention has been delayed by patent litigation. The novel 
idea is said to be the porous or permeable bed of non- 
sinterable material underlying the charge ; this preserves 
the grate and the discharge of the sinter. We 
understand that the litigation with the owners of the 
Dwight-Lloyd patents has been adjusted satisfactorily to 
all concerned. 

"A/TOST of us like to give both sides a chance. That is 
*■*■*■ why we publish an article in defence of Minerals 
Separation. It consists of portions of a speech delivered 
by Mr. Alfred A. Cook, counsel for Minerals Separation, 
in Denver before the Flotation Conference of the Ameri- 
can Mining Congress. We give about half of the speech 




January 15, 1921 

as sent to us by Mr. Cook himself, regretting that the 
exigencies of space prevent us from giving it all. His 
opponents, Messrs. Nye and Montague, had the advan- 
tage of him, in that their statements were prepared and 
written, whereas his was impromptu and delivered as a 
speech; therefore it is diffuse and repetitive, as oral 
utterances usually are, but it has a pleasant naturalness 
and a personal touch that a written statement lacks. In 
selecting extracts for publication, we have used our own 
judgment, giving our readers those that seemed best to 
express the speaker's ideas — that is, we have selected 
what we think he would have wished to be published, if 
compelled to apply the Procrustean method. Our read- 
ers will be interested in the speech; they have read our 
own attacks often and they will have wondered if there 
were any defence and what the nature of it might be. 
We are glad to give them Mr. Cook's speech, knowing 
him to be a shrewd and courteous antagonist. 

/~VN January 1 the Engineering Council, formed in 
^-' 1917, was formally merged in the American Engi- 
neering Council of the Federated American Engineering 
Societies, of which Mr. H. C. Hoover is president. The 
four vice-presidents are Messrs. Calvert Townley, Wil- 
liam E. Rolfe, Dexter S. Kimball, and J. Parke Chan- 
ning. To Mr. Channing the Engineering Council is 
largely indebted for its success, and it is the good work 
that it has done that has led to the formation of the larger 
and more comprehensive organization. It is announced 
in New York that "the new council will enter immedi- 
ately upon a campaign of public- service and will co- 
operate with chambers of commerce, labor organizations, 
and other bodies in an effort to solve pressing social, in- 
dustrial, and political problems". Efficiency and economy 
in government is one of these important subjects, and 
more particularly the reorganization of the Department 
of the Interior as a National Department of Public 
Works. Mr. Channing has made public a letter received 
by him from President-elect Harding stating his entire 
approval of the plan for "bringing together under one 
department all the present agencies of public works now 
scattered around Washington". The governmental ac- 
tivities of the Council will be in charge of a Committee 
on Public Affairs, of which Mr. Channing is chairman. 
The Council, "whose sole idea", says Mr. Hoover, "is 
public service", represents nearly a hundred engineering 
societies, comprising more than 150,000 members. It is 
under excellent leadership and should do good work for 
the profession and the nation. 

The Vanderlip Concession 

If Mr. Washington Baker Vanderlip wanted notoriety, 
he has obtained lots of it since his return from Russia; 
indeed if fame be, as has been said, "getting one's name 
mis-spelled in the newspapers", he is even famous, for 
he has been called by the press Washington D. and even 
Frank A. Vanderlip. A nice question arises: he is de- 
scribed as a "well known" and "prominent" American 
mining engineer, and yet he is not a member, of the 

American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engi- 
neers, which is the national organization of our pro- 
fession. Of course, one can be a mining engineer, even 
"well known" and "prominent", and yet not be a mem- 
ber of the Institute, but such a condition of affairs is ex- 
ceptional. Sometimes an engineer quarrels with the 
powers that be ; a paper of his is declined by the secre- 
tary of the Institute or whoever is responsible; he may 
have suffered some slight, real or fancied; he may dis- 
like somebody prominent in the organization; indeed, 
there is ample opportunity for the play of pique or 
prejudice, reasonable or unreasonable, so that there are 
today, as always, a few engineers conspicuous by their 
detachment from the national organization. But they 
are few, and most of them are what we call 'cranks'; 
therefore if a mining engineer is not a member of the 
Institute, it is fair to say that he is not in good standing 
as an "American mining engineer", just as a lawyer is 
not in good standing if he be not a member of the Bar 
Association. On the face of it, that is Mr. Vanderlip 's 
status ; but in so far as he has done the work of mining 
engineering, notably the examining of mines and mining 
districts, he cannot be denied the appellation of "mining 
engineer". If one were to be meticulous, apropos of the 
Russian concession, one might prefer to call him a 'min- 
ing man', a term that covers all those engaged in making 
money out of mining. It is not necessary to be a mining 
engineer in order to do that, effectively and honorably. 
Our multifarious industry makes a call upon an extraor- 
dinary variety of skill, character, and experience. Mr. 
Vanderlip has shown unquestionable abilities of a certain, 
and useful, kind. He obtained what he wanted, and under 
conditions calling for the exercise of initiative and inge- 
nuity of no common order. In his interview with the 
'Los Angeles Times' of December 19 he gives more infor- 
mation concerning the Bolshevik government than Mr. 
H. G. Wells did in his series of articles in the 'New York 
Times'. Certainly he had a longer contact with Nicolai 
Lenin and is able to tell us more about him and his aims 
than the celebrated English writer. According to Mr. 
Vanderlip, it is acknowledged by Lenin that communism 
has proved a tragic and costly failure. He (Vanderlip) 
claims that on the concession granted to him in Eastern 
Siberia, no soviet or communistic laws are to apply, and 
he is free to employ any kind of labor he pleases. One 
■wonders what is Lenin's purpose. Is it to embroil the 
United States with Japan? Is it to cause the British 
government to hasten recognition of the de facto gov- 
ernment of Russia? Here it is interesting to note that 
an English court has decided that the ownership of loot 
does not pass to the present possessor. In 1918 the Soviet 
government confiscated some timber belonging to a Rus- 
sian firm, and in August last the Soviet's commercial 
agent, Krasin, contracted for the sale of this timber to 
an English firm. As soon as a part of it arrived in Eng- 
land, the Russian owners brought suit in the English 
courts to establish their claim to the property, and the 
Court decided in their favor. As the 'Weekly Review', 
from which we get these facts, says, the main object of 

January 15, 1921 



the Krasin mission and of Bolshevik agitation for the 
resumption of trade is to obtain recognition of the Soviet 
government, thereby legalizing seisures and confiscations. 
and the means adopted to realize on them. Perhaps the 
concession to Mr. Vanderlip is meant to serve the same 
purpose; in any event, according to his own story, the 
idea is to promote a resumption of trade between the 
United States and Russia, and that is laudable enough, 
if it can be done to mutual advantage, which is the essence 
of all good business. Whether Messrs. Lenin and Van- 
derlip can give adequate assurance for the safety of 
business under existing conditions, is then the vital 
question. It remains to note the fact that even Russian 
gold in the form of bullion has no legal value in the 
United States, because our Government refuses to buy 
or convert any gold of Soviet origin, the reason being, as 
stated by Mr. Raymond T. Baker, the Director of the 
Mint, that its ownership is under a cloud. Agents of the 
Soviet government and others have been endeavoring to 
obtain an assurance that the ban will be lifted, but with- 
out success. The Treasury Department is standing firmly 
on its decision. It would appear as if the same embargo 
would apply to other Russian exports and that Mr. Van- 
derlip 's concession may prove a barren coup. We have 
no wish that it may; on the contrary, we would like to 
see a resumption of trade with Russia, and more par- 
ticularly the mining regions of Siberia. Perhaps the in- 
coming administration of the new President may be able 
to arrange matters to that end. We have no quarrel with 
the Russian people, even if we consider Lenin and his 
friends as pirates in excelsis. 

Power Projects 

Mine operators in sundry districts in Arizona, Utah, 
Colorado, and Nevada, the executives of railroad com- 
•panies, and others engaged in industries requiring 
an economical source of power will be keenly interested 
in the projects now under way to utilize the immense 
.reservoir of potential energy available in the Colorado 
.river. With its tributaries this river forms one of the 
largest of our drainage systems, for, according to the 
estimate of conservative engineers, there is available for 
development some 3,000,000 horse-power, equal to more 
than one-third the total hydro-electric power generated 
in the United States today. We have windmills that 
serve a useful purpose ; a motor actuated by ocean waves 
has been made, though a practical device has not been 
perfected ; and there is a reasonable chance that the tide 
may some day be harnessed so as to translate its energy 
into mechanical form suitable for running railroads and 
industrial plants ; but at the present time there are only 
two important primary sources of energy, namely, that 
Of fuel, including gas, coal, and oil, and that of falling 
water as developed from rivers and torrential streams. 
Only about 12% of the available water-power in the 
Western States has been exploited. The stimulation of 
effort in this direction was the principal purpose for the 
establishment about a year ago of the Federal Power 
Commission, which is composed of the Secretary of the 

Interior and the Secretaries of War and of Agriculture. 
This board has recently accepted the application of the 
Southern California Edison Company for a permit to 
exploit a number of the possible water-power pzojeots 
on the Colorado river, principally in Arizona. This 
acceptance need not be followed necessarily by the 
issuance of the permit ; it merely establishes priority on 
behalf of the Edison company for a limited time, so that 
competing corporations cannot interfere or take advan- 
tage of the costly preliminary work that the Edison com- 
pany plans to perform. The company owns a number 
of hydro-electric and steam plants for generating electric 
power and has an extensive system of distributing mains 
centring around Los Angeles. It is presumed to be 
affiliated with the Electric Bond & Share Company, a 
huge holding corporation in New York, with practically 
unlimited financial backing. It is proposed first to un- 
dertake the development of some 410,000 horse-power in 
Marble canyon, extending for a distance of 60 miles just 
below the Utah-Arizona state-line and immediately above 
the Grand Canyon. Here a fall of 550 ft. can be utilized 
to develop 410,000 brake horse-power following the con- 
struction of three dams and appropriate storage reser- 
voirs, according to the estimates of Mr. E. C. La Rue, who 
made an investigation of various phases of the utiliza- 
tion of the waters of the river for the U. S. Geological 
Survey in 1916. The flow of the Colorado is peculiar; the 
normal minimum in Marble canyon is 3500 second-feet, 
while the maximum is perhaps not less than 200,000 dur- 
ing flood-time. To obtain the maximum amount of power 
it would be necessary to control this flow by storage of the 
water so as to permit a steady average of about 10,000 
second-feet. The construction of the necessary dams is 
a huge undertaking, requiring a large investment ; in- 
deed, the initial cost of a hydro-electric plant and the 
interest on the capital constitute the chief items of ex- 
pense, for the costs of operation and maintenance are 
comparatively small. The problem of financing the Colo- 
rado River project is affected favorably by the possibili- 
ties of reclaiming additional areas of arid land by means 
of irrigation. The low minimum flow seriously limits the 
amount of land that is now being supplied in the Im- 
perial Valley region and in Arizona under the Laguna 
canal, and accordingly the plan to regulate the flow 
doubtless will be favorably regarded by farmers in the 
lower portions of California and Arizona as well as by 
those owners of land farther up the river who will benefit 
by the construction of new dams in their vicinity. The 
income derived from the distribution of water for irriga- 
tion manifestly lightens the burden on the users of power, 
and, as the area of excellent irrigable land is far in excess 
of the 3,000,000 acres that can be supplied, the field is 
an attractive one for the power companies, from that 
point of view. A highly important consideration affect- 
ing the success of further projects is the policy to be 
pursued by the railroads in the electrification of their 
lines. There are seven important railroads whose lines 
traverse the territory that may be served by power gen- 
erated from the Colorado. The Chicago, Milwaukee & 


January 15, 1921 

moonteifl AWukom of its 

a ri f , 
lit, whil<: al 


I a, el night, ,:•. Wasting ; •/ that 

might d to pall the train, A dam, a 

i, an eUetrfe g. and a system o 

rl to utilize thi 

■(.'Hi bat talked, 

Stad, but Bt UMt tb*M in reason 

i/, believi idai. (i method imit U'-n provided whereby the 

"oii.pniie ;: engaged i/i Id. inesa -an exploit OUr 

1 1-- ■in-, raw iiini eympathetic governmental protection, The 
Colorado is among the Largest, bot it la only one oi many 
«i,/ 1 .wnn iiuii. miiy be utilized in a eimllai 

ll.< Cotl -I Mining' 

.'.I., n in tl .■ ... |,ui,ii ill a review of th. ■ 
edition '.i Mi James R Flnlay's bool on "The Cott of 
Mining' Thleieon. ■■> the notable contributtona to the 
technology of mining | with Mr n I Hoover'i 'Prin 
elplaa of Mining' it rank* as the moat Important contrl 
inii mil i .1 Hi- mbjecl 1 1 in -ii i Li im of the American min 
mi/ profession , Indi . d, ii.- fact that then i wo bool 
■ nil. i. I,,, -hi/hi— iv, ., i i.i. . perienee and high repnta I., i iii-n general acceptance »<■■ 
mill. ..I iini r ■. treatises n may ba nngrscious to soy so, 
but both booka wmiiii have gained by more careful n-vi 
lion and oloaei editing, each, foi i ample, in Dr, Bay 
mond -..hi. i have given to then Unfortunately while 

'i'." i ' n ... timelinew and freahneaa by being 

• nil. ii quid i and pi Inted promptly, withonl the de 
i.i.. Mil.. hi and delay uauaJ In doya gone-by when n die 
• i 1. 1 -i i in 1 1 ..ii ii progressiva aoienoe or a growing Indu ti 
wnn inn', i ...ii . .i.i, ii. bj the time it aaw the light,' yet 
ii la .. pity thai flboke rinwddaya are Issued In 

euah n. inn i \ .-,1 i-r -in -I'm i roviaion and editing in. 

■ -ii. Pi i.i ■. |.i. lot ii I If that 

li."ln< (in i ih l ■ in,- 1 . i'. onn Mini la (iniahed bill l"' 

i"i. 'i n i In • 1 1 1 i,i, ■ ho i i- 

lili ii. wiii ii ,'i i i ii, i pi aa VV- make 

ii- -i am a Hi, ii- -I. n ,.i i helpful rioi of be 

ih lllufj Hi. i • n bool in. hi inn. -I - in< ih ii .,,'.i,r, I,, in 

iidl luo I hnl 1 1- di 

i- "w- in p.'. jural and Ih pHniring bheii Hku i 

■ ii.i.i ..hi i ' 18* -I M - 

!■■ lied h Ihi .-I. hi Ion M rrfnl tei di nflliij 

Ol Hi- — i- ■ "I ■ 

" n. . i ,M- i hi mil inn mnl nil,,,. i. M i I'imIih- line 

■ tl hi- i |. ii, I.- i he w i'.i 

....'.. >' bi i ■■• hi - hi ., i"i- ii-. 

i in 11)03; whllt I'.'vln 

-I ol ii" i'. "iimi. I min, hi . Irlppl Ii Li wwa 

| I Ii. i "" llli Ill - I I i" Ii" - •■- ,-l iilneli III' 

stres* rat (be profit, not the coat, that 

waetl factor In mining operations. That 

. the present wi 
at that time the editor of the publi 
Pinlay addressed bhneelf, and elicited a promi 

ng bun t/, write farther on the enbject. Mr. Finlay 
in ao engineer possessing the useful faculty of mental 

ntratfon; be ie able to apply bfaneelf intentlj 

mbject, as be has proved on several occasion i 

then, for ho bia report upon the taxation of the 

Michigan copper minea and in his various later papers 

on mi/I" valuation, In the eonrae of his career be has 

tied many of the most, important minus of the 

for example, the United v'erde Extension, -on 

eerning which, and ita geology, In: gives, in this edition 

. hook, m. i-li information illustrating the proper 
method of mine appraisal It is this foundation of pro- 
fessional practice that gives strength to his writing on 
the economics of mining; the personal contact with actu- 
alities renders his statements convincing to his readers, 
American technology has gained greatly hy recruiting 

iiion from tli- rank'-, of the active profession, in- 
iteod of being dependent, as was and is still the cu 
In Knro I,-, upon Hi- academic writings of indoor students 
of tli- subject, The engineer who has been outdoors, in 
Hi- moat expanaive meaning of the word, in mining 
regions scattered all over the world, involving diverse 
economic conditions, is the one fitted to give to hu 
juniors, and even to bia contemporaries, the vital fructi- 
fying informal ion upon wlii-li I— linieal progress ,1- 

penda, 'Modern Copper Smelting', liy the late Edward 
Patera was a pioneer In t.iiis departure. Spurr'a 'Geology 
Applied i" Mining' whs another example of field east 
perienee becoming joined to Literary expreaaion. But the" mil's of mining, tin- art of making money liy exS 
plotting dopoaita of ore, remained on the academic shelf 
until first. Mr. Pinlay and then Mr. Hoover used the 
ipari hours of p buey profeaaional cireer to set ilown on 
paper the findings of men in whom a technical training 
was joined i" the examination; appraiaal, and manage- 
m-iii of large mine! operating under conditibna suffi- 
ciently diverse i" prevent the product!. f Unfounded 

generalizations The members of the American mining 

profession ought i" be able to ii" mud re in tliis dfl 

i —ii.," i "i ,i long time they irore inarticulate); twenty! 
year* ngo Eha standard hunks oh mining and metallurgy 

• i 1 1- Mi- p i .-ii ii i nf Rnglish u rii-i's. for example, 

I.i' N-v- Foster mi 'Stone mnl I >re Mining', Henry l,"uis 
mi 'Slump Milling', Ifiis- mi 'Gold 1 , IwiIhtIs Austen's 

' In 1 1 1, f In i\1elnl!nrg.\ ', Cnllins on 'Kih'er ami 

I'.,,, null's 'Sin : - 1 j » . - . - Ili-n Hi- I, tIii--.. 

nf mining li.m lieeli gii'iill.V elii'ielie,l hj A ri-uii \U'it- 

ei-s, piirlirnlin h in Hi- field 6f -e.inninii' geology, in 

which I Igrmi'a iMin-nil Deposlfa' lends n long list «< 

in il.le liiiuki The poiui we w i^h I" make is thai the 
\im i i-iin practitioner, not (He artvant, the pnifeseor, m - 
in- pi, .I,-,,. .J writer, line lieei "late and there- 
in i lin-il treat . i imftli nhd more useful iliah 


| |.itl>li' Inii I'IvvioiInU 


January 1".. ]!»•_'! 



D I 3 

Washington B. 


The Editor: 

Sir — Mr. Vanderlip, to whom you jocosely refer in 
your editorial note on page 859, has recently attracted 
world-wide attention, even as did the star Novae Aquilac, 
which burst into blazing glory some months ago. This 
sudden prominence is due to his obtaining a concession 
for Kamchatka and north-eastern Siberia, an area of 
400,000 square miles. 

As the public knows so little about him, and as you 
have mentioned him in your columns, it seems worth 
while to give a little authentic information. In the first 
place, his name is "Washington B. (not D.) Vanderlip. 
Those who wish to know more of him should read his 
book. 'In Search of a Siberian Klondike', published by 
the Century Company in 1903. The frontispiece gives a 
picture of him that I took in 1900 at Indian Point, on 
Bering Sea. At that time we were fellow-passengers on 
the steamer 'Progress', which, under my charge, made a 
voyage from Vladivostok to East Cape, thence to Gejiga, 
at the head of the Okhotsk Sea and back to Vladivostok. 
We left Vladivostok in May and returned in October; 
since then I have met Mr. Vanderlip in New York, where 
he had an office for a time, being engaged in mining 
ventures; I have also met him in San Francisco and 
Tonopah. From these meetings I learned that he was 
busy looking for mines and devising inventions of many 
varieties; one improvement on a concentrator, I under- 
stand, proved profitable to him. 

■ Mr. Vanderlip is an active man, perhaps a little below 
fatverage height; he is of excellent physique, a fast runner, 
a. good. horseman, a good shot; he is bold, enterprising, 
"and inured to hardship. He has that excellent power of 
•making capitalists see things as he sees them ; this was 

i ■shown by his being able to interest London capitalists in 
financing the Gejiga expedition and has been more strik- 
ingly shown in his dealings with Lenin. He has a con- 
siderable knowledge of mining and is specially well-iri- 
-formed about north-eastern. Siberia and Kamchatka. 
. Xot much. is known about the mineral resources of the 

| concession. Gold is found in Kamchatka, and along the 
■shores of Bering Sea, but whether there are valuable de- 
posits has not been, revealed. Excellent steam-coal exists 
•mthin a- few yards of the sea at Ugolnoi Bay. The most 
■tangible and immediately available wealth is the fisheries. 
iSalmon run up every river in incredible numbers. 

Just what sort of a title Lenin can give to a .concession 
in a region where his authority is not recognized is a 
puzzle ; but if the capitalists who are back of Mr. Vander- 

lip will continue to support him they have a fighting 
chance of making a profit. 

The concession, if finally found valid, should naturally 
come under the consortium that has been entered into re- 
cently by Great Britain, Japan, the United States, and 
other powers. w R Shocklet 

Palo, Alto, December 23, 1920. 

The Broad Lode Hypothesis 

The Editor : 

Sir — The reading of the excellent editorial on this 
subject in your issue of January 8 impelled me to re- 
read the comment, presumably written by the editor, 
Mr. J. E. Spurr, in the 'Engineering and Mining Jour- 
nal' of November 18, in which he takes exception in no 
undecided way to the definition of a lode or vein as ad- 
vocated by the geologists testifying for the Utah Con- 
solidated company in the recent litigation with the Utah 
Apex company at Bingham, namely: "mineralized rock 
or rocks which contain such indications of valuable min- 
erals as to justify development with the expectation of 
finding ore. As soon as quartzite over a considerable 
distance becomes mineralized it becomes a lode. Just as 
soon as either of the rocks can produce and do produce 
ore, or contain indications which lead the experienced 
miner or prospector of judgment to develop it with the 
expectation of finding ore, then it becomes a lode." In. 
his criticism Mr. Spurr uses his editorial prerogative- 
he has almost appropriated poetic license — to exaggerate 
in order to emphasize his exceptions. You agree that 
the definition is "so inclusive as to be unreasonable" and 
that it would be ridiculous were it not for the' seriousness 
of the litigation that centred about it. An effort to con- 
struct an unassailable definition of anything is hazard- 
ous; in this' instance it is particularly so because of the 
conflict of ideas between miners, geologists, and the 
courts, each of which contemplates a lode from a some- 
what different' point of view. However, the attempt is 
interesting* even if futile, .and I shall suggest sundry 
modifications whereby the definition quoted can lie al- 
tered so as to avoid sdme of the criticism launched agaihs't 
it, and at the same time reconcile; diverging views 6f the 
judge, the scientist, and 1 the miner himself. ' The' courts', 
following the 'intent of the mining statute, regarded 
'ledge', 'lode', and 'vein '"as being- synonymous and in- 
terchangeable terms. ' The practical miner, howeVet, 
drew an arbitrary distinction to the effect that a narrow 
vein was a 2 "-' vein', while a wide vein was 1 a 'lode"'; fre- 




January 15, 1921 

St. Paul has demonstrated to its entire satisfaction, we 
understand, the technical efficiency of electric locomo- 
tives when operating on the mountain divisions of its 
transcontinental line. From the standpoint of national 
economics there is nothing more inconsistent than to 
travel up a mountain valley behind a straining locomo- 
tive that is burning tons of precious coal or oil, while at 
the same time one can look down at a rushing mountain 
stream that, day and night, is wasting the energy that 
might easily be employed to pull the train. A dam, a 
water-wheel, an electric generator, and a system of cop- 
per wires are all that is needed to utilize the water and 
conserve our fuel. For years the Government has talked, 
and considered, and vacillated, but at last there is reason 
to believe that a method has been provided whereby the 
companies engaged in the power business can exploit our 
hydro-electric resources with some assurance of reason- 
able and sympathetic governmental protection. The 
Colorado is among the largest, but it is only one of many 
streams that may be utilized in a similar way. 

'The Cost of Mining' 

Elsewhere in this issue we publish a review of the new 
edition of Mr. James R. Finlay's book on 'The Cost of 
Mining'. This is one of the notable contributions to the 
technology of mining; with Mr. H. C. Hoover's 'Prin- 
ciples of Mining' it ranks as the most important contri- 
bution to the subject from members of the American min- 
ing profession ; indeed, the fact that these two books were 
written by engineers of wide experience and high reputa- 
tion is one of the reasons for their general acceptance as 
authoritative treatises. It may be ungracious to say so, 
but both books would have gained by more careful revi- 
sion and closer editing, such, for example, as Dr. Ray- 
mond could have given to them. Unfortunately while 
modern books gain in timeliness and freshness by being 
written quickly and printed promptly, without the de- 
liberation and delay usual in days gone-by when a dis- 
quisition on a progressive science or a growing industry 
was largely out-of-date by the time it saw the light, yet 
it is a pity that so many Books nowadays are issued in 
such a hurry as to render eareful revision and editing im- 
practicable. Presumably most men prefer a book that 
lacks finish but is timely to one that is finished but be- 
lated; somewhere between the extremes, however, it is 
'possible to obtain a satisfactory compromise. We make 
•the criticism with the idea of being helpful, not of be- 
littling the two books mentioned, which it seems to us 
"were' and are of such persistent value that they deserved 
more care in preparation and in printing than has been 
given to them. The third edition of ' The Cost of Mining' 
; has been enriched by the addition of matter dealing 
with the broader aspects of the economics of mining, 
reflecting the author's maturer outlook. Mr. Finlay has 
had an experience fitting him exceptionally for the writ- 
ing of such a treatise. 1 "We remember when he wrote his 
first contribution on the subject,' in 1903, While superin- 
tendent of the Portland mine, at Cripple Creek. It was 
a letter ott local • conditions, in the' edurse of which he 

stressed the point that it was the profit, not the cost, that 
was the decisive factor in mining operations. That letter 
caught the appreciative attention of the present writer, 
at that time the editor of the publication to which Mr. 
Finlay addressed himself, and elicited a prompt response 
inviting him to write further on the subject. Mr. Finlay 
is an engineer possessing the useful faculty of mental 
concentration ; he is able to apply himself intently on a 
given subject, as he has proved on several occasions since 
then, for instance, in his report upon the taxation of the 
Michigan copper mines and in his various later papers 
on mine valuation. In the course of his career he has 
examined many of the most important mines of the 
West ; for example, the United Verde Extension, con- 
cerning which, and its geology, he gives, in this edition 
of his book, much information illustrating the proper 
method of mine appraisal. It is this foundation of pro- 
fessional practice that gives strength to his writing on 
the economics of mining ; the personal contact with actu- 
alities renders his statements convincing to his readers. 
American technology has gained greatly by recruiting 
its authors from the ranks of the active profession, in- 
stead of being dependent, as was and is still the custom 
in Europe, upon the academic writings of indoor students 
of the subject. The engineer who has been outdoors, in 
the most expansive meaning of the word, in mining 
regions scattered all over the world, involving diverse 
economic conditions, is the one fitted to give to his 
juniors, and even to his contemporaries, the vital fructi- 
fying information upon whieh technical progress de- 
pends. 'Modern Copper Smelting', by the late Edward 
Peters was a pioneer in this departure. Spurr's 'Geology 
Applied to Mining' was another example of field ex- 
perience becoming joined to literary expression. But the 
economics of mining, the art of making money by ex- 
ploiting deposits of ore, remained on the academic shelf 
until first Mr. Finlay and then Mr. Hoover used the 
spare hours of a busy professional career to set down on 
paper the findings of men in whom a technical training 
was joined to the examination, appraisal, and manage- 
ment of large mines operating under conditions suffi- 
ciently diverse to prevent the production of unfounded 
generalizations. The members of the American mining 
profession ought to be able to do much more in this di- 
rection. For a long time they were inarticulate ; twenty 
years ago the standard books oh mining and metallurgy 
were mostly'' the product of English' writers,- for example, 
Le Neve Foster on 'Stone and : Ore Mining';, Henry' Loufe 
on 'Stamp-Milling 7 'Rose on 'Gold', '■ Roberts-Austen's 
' Introduction to' Metallurgy 3 , ■ Collins on 'Silver and 
Lead', Brbugh-'s "'Surveying'. ' Since then -the technology 
of 'mining' has' been 'greatly- enriched by American 1 writ- 
ers, particularly in the field df economic geology, in 
which Lindgren's 'Mineral Deposits' leads ; a long list df 
valuable books. The point we wish to make is that th'e 
American practitioner, not the savant, the professor, dr 
the'professional writer, has become articulate and there- 
hy produced treatises more timely and more useful than 

any published previously. 

January 15, 1921 



Washington B. Vanderlip 

The Editor: 

Sir — Mr. Vanderlip, to whom you jocosely refer in 
your editorial note on page 859, has recently attracted 
world-wide attention, even as did the star Novae Aquiln<\ 
which burst into blazing glory some months ago. This 
sudden prominence is due to his obtaining a concession 
for Kamchatka and north-eastern Siberia, an area of 
400,000 square miles. 

As the public knows so little about him, and as you 
have mentioned him in your columns, it seems worth 
while to give a little authentic information. In the first 
place, his name is "Washington B. (not D.) Vanderlip. 
Those who wish to know more of him should read his 
book, 'In Search of a Siberian Klondike', published by 
the Century Company in 1903. The frontispiece gives a 
picture of him that I took in 1900 at Indian Point, on 
Bering Sea. At that time we were fellow-passengers on 
the steamer 'Progress', which, under my charge, made a 
voyage from Vladivostok to East Cape, thence to Gejiga, 
at the head of the Okhotsk Sea and back to Vladivostok. 
We left Vladivostok in May and returned in October; 
since then I have met Mr. Vanderlip in New York, where 
he had an office for a time, being engaged in mining 
ventures; I have also met him in San Francisco and 
Tonopah. From these meetings I learned that he was 
busy looking for mines and devising inventions of many 
varieties ; one improvement on a concentrator, I under- 
stand, proved profitable to him. 

I Mr. Vanderlip is an active man, perhaps a little below 
(average height; he is of excellent. physique, a fast runner, 
«. good, horseman, a good shot; he is bold, enterprising, 
<and inured to hardship. He has that excellent power of 
•making capitalists see things. 1 ias he' sees them; this was 
•shown by his being able to interest London capitalists in 
'financing the Gejiga expedition and has been more strik- 
ingly shown, in his- dealings with Lenin. He has a con- 
siderable: knowledge of mining and is specially well-in- 
-fbrmed about north-eastern, Siberia and Kamchatka. 
.'(Not much. is. known. about the mineral resources of the 
concession. Gold is found in Kamchatka, and along the 
•shores of Bering Sea, but whether there are valuable de- 
posits has not been, revealed. Excellent steam-coal c-'.is'ts 
•within a-.few yards of the sea at Ugolnoi Bay. The most 
tangible , and immediately available wealth is the fisheries. 
:Salmon run up every river in incredible numbers. 

Just what sort of a title Lenin can give to a .concession 
in a region where his authority is not recognized is a 
puzzle; but if the capitalists who are back of Mr. Vander- 

lip will continue to support him they have a fighting 
chance of making a profit. 

The concession, if finally found valid, should naturally 
come under the consortium that has been entered into re- 
cently by Great Britain, Japan, the United States, and 
other powers. w R Shockley 

Palo, Aho, December 23, 1920. 

The Broad Lode Hypothesis 

The Editor: 

Sir — The reading of the excellent editorial on this 
subject in your issue of January 8 impelled me to re- 
read the comment, presumably written by the editor, 
Mr. J. E. Spurr, in the 'Engineering and Mining Jour- 
nal' of November 18, in which he takes exception in no 
undecided way to the definition of a lode or vein as ad- 
vocated by the geologists testifying for the Utah Con- 
solidated company in the recent litigation with the Utah 
Apex company at Bingham, namely: "mineralized rock 
or rocks which contain such indications of valuable min- 
erals as to justify development with the expectation of 
finding ore. As soon as quartzite over a considerable 
distance becomes mineralized it becomes a lode. Just as 
soon as either of the rocks can produce and do produce 
ore, or contain indications which lead the experienced 
miner or prospector of judgment to develop it with the 
expectation of finding ore, then it becomes a lode." In. 
his criticism Mr. Spurr uses his editorial prerogative^ 
he has almost appropriated poetic license — to exaggerate 
in order to emphasize his exceptions. You agtee that 
the definition is "so inclusive as to be unreasonable" and 
that it would be ridiculous were it not for the' seriousness 
of the litigation that centred about it. An effort to con- 
struct an unassailable definition of anything is hazard- 
ous; in this" instance it is particularly so because of the 
conflict of ideas between miners, geologists, and the 
courts, each of which contemplates a lode from' a some- 
what different' point of view. However,' the attempt is 
interesting' even if futile,, and I shall suggest, sundry 
modifications whereby the definition quoted can be al- 
tered so as'to avoid sdme of the criticism launched against 
it, and at the same time reconcile; diverging views of the 
judge, the scientist, arid' the miner himself , ■ The : courts, 
following the 'intent of the ' mining statute, regarded 
'ledge', 'lode', and 'vein' as being- synonymous and' in- 
terchangeable terms. -The "practical miner, hovrevei;, 
drew an arbitrary distinction to the effect that a narrow 
vein was a 'vein', while a wide' vein' was 1 a Tdde"'; fr'e- 



January 15, 1921 

quently his lode was comprised of more than one vein. 
This, of course, was neither precise nor scientific. 

Geologists consider the genetic and structural fea- 
tures of a deposit in framing their definitions, but 
unanimity is lacking even among them. However, the 
term 'lode' has been accepted extensively as a more com- 
prehensive term applying to ore deposits that cannot 
consistently be described as veins. As a matter of dis- 
tinction the courts have frequently classified such de- 
posits as 'broad lodes'. The courts have held that a 
broad lode need not have determinable walls. In the 
Bunker Hill v. Empire State suit is was decreed that in 
the absence of defined walls "the legal width is deter- 
mined by the lines beyond which indications sufficient to 
encourage its' further exploitation with the hope [italics 
mine] of profit, do not appear". The word "hope" 
should not be overlooked. This I believe you have done, 
in effect, in your editorial where you say "it does not 
become a 'lode' unless the mineralization is synonymous 
with ore; in other words, the mineralization must have 
been so intense as to result in a concentration of economic 
value, that is, one yielding a profit to the miner". I am 
sure you will agree that thousands of deposits, indis- 
putably classed as lodes, have been mined for years at a 
continual financial loss, simply because of the hope that 
a shoot might be found that would recoup the owners 
for all of their losses. Sometimes the ore has been found, 
but quite as often the mine has been allowed to fill with 
water. Shall we say there was no lode where abandon- 
ment has resulted? Somewhere between the presence of 
mere mineralization (in which term, we allude, of course, 
to those minerals that, if found in sufficiently concen- 
trated form, can be profitably marketed) and the pres- 
ence of assured ore, there must be a point at which there 
is just enough mineral present to warrant the miner to 
continue his digging. Then he is 'on the lode', but not 
necessarily 'in ore'. 

There is, however, another essential condition; it is 
that there be something to follow; there must be some 
distinctive characteristic in the constitution of the lode 
that indicates the direction in which mining ought to 
proceed. With the vein or lode, in its more restricted 
sense, the vein-matter is of a different composition and is 
distinguishable from the country-rock, and, except for 
pinching and faulting, may be followed continuously. 
If satisfactory indications of ore are found in one place, 
there is reasonable expectation of getting ore by follow- 
ing the vein. A bedded deposit often presents a different 
problem. In the Richmond-Eureka suit, to which you 
allude, the court declared in reference to the limestone 
bed under dispute : ' ' Examining the features of the zone 
which separate and distinguish it from the surrounding 
country, we experience little difficulty in determining its 
character. . . . The broken, crushed, and fissured con- 
dition of the limestone gives it a specific individual char- 
acter by which it may be identified and separated from 
all other limestone in the vicinity. ' ' Mineral was found 
in small fissures throughout this bed of limestone ; when 
the miner found ore at one point he had a reasonable 

hope of finding it by advancing in this distinctive and, 
broadly speaking, homogeneous bed. There was every 
evidence that the mineralization throughout the stratum 
was from the same source, that the ore deposits were 
genetically identical. The idea of sameness, of oneness, 
is an essential element in the definition of a lode and it 
is in this respect that the Utah Consolidated definition 
loses validity, and lays itself open to the pleasantries of 
editorial comment. Of course, the second sentence in the 
definition taken by itself cannot stand because "min- 
eralized" requires further qualification; the degree of 
mineralization is the vital part. I suggest then the fol- 
lowing definition: "A lode is a zone or belt of mineral- 
ized rock or rocks in place, uniformly characterized by 
qualities that distinguish it from surrounding masses of 
rock; deriving its mineralization throughout from the 
same source or sources; and sufficiently mineralized to 
warrant mining operations with reasonable expectation 
of finding ore." 

This definition I submit with the hope that it may 
elicit interesting criticism; also with every expectation 
of having it torn to pieces by the readers of the 'Press' 
should you see fit to publish it. 

A. G. Ologist. 

San Francisco, January 8. 

Mr. Hoover and Single-Jacking 

The Editor: 

Sir — On reading Mr. West's letter in your issue of 
December 18 I thought it might be interesting to him, 
and possibly others, to know that we were single-jacking 
in Western Australia before the advent of Mr. Hoover. 
I single-jacked while working for wages at Bullin Bullen, 
16 miles from Coolgardie. in the year 1895 for E. R. 
Clifford on some properties he had bonded there from a 
Mr. Hurly. I single-jacked when working on wages for 
the Lady Shenton company at Menzies On their Florence 
property in the year 1896. C. H. Beaumont was super- 
intendent and a Mr. Frye was foreman. I also single- 
jacked on the Florence 0. Driscoll estate at Menzies in 
the same year. A Mr. James was superintendent and 
All Parker was foreman. Also single-jacked at Niagara 
and other places in W. A. nearly 10 years previous to 
this. I single-jacked in the Barrier Broken Hill country 
about 2J miles from the Proprietary mine out near 
Round Hill at a mine called the Potosi owned by Pell 
and McCabe of Broken Hill. A noted character named 
Billy O'Rourke (dubbed the Prince of Brefney) was 
foreman. This was in 1887 and 1888. I also single- 
jacked in many places through Queensland and N. S. W. 
before going to W. A. 

While I am not in a position to know whether the 
Cornishman first introduced single-hand methods into 
mining or not, one thing I do know and that is that the 
Cornishman knew what a single-jack was long before 
the time of Mr. Hoover's first arrival in Western 

Michael Merrick:. • 
Wickenburg, Arizona, December 20, 1920. 


January 15, 1921 



The Greenawalt Sintering Process 

By William E. Greenawalt 

Introduction. The Greenawalt sintering process, the 
invention of John E. Greenawalt. is an intermittent 
operation. The basic idea of the apparatus and process 
is briefly and best described in the words of the original 
patents, as follows: "In a furnace for treating ore or 
other material, the combination of a porous bed or hearth. 
and means for passing air or gas downwardly through 
material and the hearth upon which it rests." And for 
the process: "The process of treating ores or other ma- 
terial upon a porous bed, subjecting the material to heat, 
and passing air or other gases down through the layer 
and the porous bed."* 

The Greenawalt process, as practically developed, is in- 
termittent in operation. A charge of the material to be 
sintered is placed in a pan-shaped furnace and subjected 
to a down-draft blast of air; the upper surface of the 
charge is ignited and the sintering action proceeds 
through the charge from the top downward. After sin- 
tering, the charge is dumped from the pan and the op- 
eration repeated. 

The apparatus for carrying out this simple operation 
has been developed to a high state of efficiency. It is 
simple in operation and rugged -in construction. The 
capacity in present operating plants ranges from 20 to 
1000 tons of sinter per day. Pig. 2 shows the general 
arrangement of a Greenawalt sintering plant of medium 

A complete Greenawalt sintering installation consists 
essentially of the furnace in which the charge is sintered ; 
an exhauster which creates a blast of air downward 
through the charge ; a mixer ; a charge-car ; and an 
igniter. The mixer, the charge-car, and the igniter, may 
serve from one to ten or more sintering-pans. 

Mixing the Charge. This is an important prelim- 
inary step to sintering. A properly mixed and propor- 
tioned charge sinters readily and the resulting sinter is 
usually in large chunks. A poorly mixed, or poorly pro- 
portioned, charge is likely to give inferior results, in 
which a considerable portion of the charge has to be re- 
turned for re-sintering, whereas, in a properly mixed 
charge the entire mass may frequently be sintered into 
one large cake. The charge to be sintered should have 
about 10%. moisture. The mixing may be done in a 
rotary drum like a concrete-mixer, in a rotary cylinder, 
or in a pug-mill. With thorough mixing, the charge be- 
comes uniform in moisture and the combustible content 
is evenly distributed through the charge. 

The combustible content of the charge is important. 
It is practically impossible to get a good sinter from a 
concentrated sulphide material, or from iron-ore fine, 

*U. S. patents, No. 839,064 and 839,065, December 18, 

containing an excessive amount of coke. The sulphur 
content in sintering lead or copper ores may vary from 
5% to 15% sulphur. In sintering iron-ore flue-dust or 
magnetic concentrate the coke content may vary from 
3% to 10% carbon. A good sinter may be made on some 
charges with as little as 2% carbon. Ordinarily, from 
4% to 6% carbon, in the sintering of iron-ore flue-dust, 
will give the best results. In the sintering of copper- 
ore fine or flue-dust, from 5% to 10% sulphur will give 
uniformly good results. In sintering iron-ore fine, low 
in sulphur, the sulphur can be removed almost entirely. 
On the other hand, when it is desired to retain a high 
percentage of sulphur in the sinter, as in sintering cop- 
per-ore fine for the blast-furnace, this may be done by 
stopping the operation after the material has been sin- 
tered and before the sulphur is all removed. In cases 
where the material to be sintered contains too much com- 
bustible, such as coke or sulphur, the best method to 
adjust it is to dilute it with other fine material desired 
in the blast-furnace charge, such as any fine having a 
low combustible content. In sintering copper-sulphide 
concentrate the sulphur content can usually be adjusted 
to the desired amount by mixing flue-dust or fine crude 
ore with the sinter charge. In cases where such mix- 
tures cannot well be made, as in galena concentrate, the 
material may be pre-roasted to bring the sulphur down 
to about 12% or 15%. Pre-roasted material sinters 
readily. The moisture in the charge, to get the best re- 
sults, may vary somewhat with different material, but 
10% moisture will be found a fair average. The best 
amount of moisture for any particular material is best 
determined by experiment. Usually the moisture con- 
tent should be such that when a handful of the mixed 
material is compressed, it will retain its shape without 
being soggy. 

In small installations, a small concrete-mixer or a small 
pug-mill will ordinarily be used. Hand-mixing may be 
done, but this is not recommended, even in the smallest 
plants, except for experimental purposes or as a tem- 
porary expedient. 

TnE Sintering-Pan. Fig. 2 shows a typical medium- 
sized Greenawalt sintering-pan. It consists, essentially, 
of a pan-shaped sintering-furnace, mounted on hollow 
trunnions, and divided into an upper and a lower portion 
by the grates. The upper portion receives the charge for 
sintering, and the lower portion communicates, through 
the hollow trunnions, with the exhauster, which creates a 
suction in the lower portion, or chamber, and causes a 
flow of air downward through the charge and through 
the hollow trunnions and exhauster into the stack. The 
grates are secured to the pan and interlocked. They are 
easily inserted and easily removed. 



January 15, 1921 

The sintering-pans are made in sizes to correspond 
with the utltimate capacity of the plant. The usual 
sizes are, 6 by 8 ft., 8 by 12 ft., 9 by 16 ft., and 10 by 24 
ft. The depth of the charge is the same for all the pans 
and varies from 8 to 10 or more inches, depending on 
the material to be sintered. The 6 by 8-ft. pan repre- 
sents the smallest commercial unit and has a capacity, 
under ordinary conditions, of about one ton of sinter per 
charge. The 10 by 24-ft. pan is the unit for the larger 
installations, and has a capacity of from 150 to 250 tons 
per day of 24 hours. These larger pans are arranged to 
dump directly into standard railroad cars. A sintering 
plant usually contains from one to ten or more pans. 

The pans are made of cast-steel and are practically in- 
destructible. They are rotated on hollow trunnions by 
means of a special mechanism. When the sintering is 
completed the pans are rotated to dump the sinter and 
rotated back into position for a new charge. The small 
pans may be dumped without any special rotating mech- 
anism. Connection is made with the exhauster by means 
of a stuffing-box at the ends of the hollow trunnions. 

Exhauster. The exhauster is usually of the regular 
fan type. It is rotated at a high speed and has to be well 
made and the exhaust-wheel well balanced. A suction of 
from 30 to 35 in. of water is easily obtainable in the 
sintering-pans by this means. This is due largely to the 
fact that in the stationary charge there is no leakage 
and all the air and gases have to pass through the charge 
to get at the chamber below and through the hollow 
trunnions to the exhauster. There is an advantage in 
using a high suction. The sintering is more uniform, 
there is less unsintered fine, and the sinter is firmer and 
in larger chunks. In sintering iron-ore flue-dust, if the 
coke content is a little high, water is sometimes showered 
on the charge to cool it during the sintering. The tem- 
perature on such occasions may rise so high as to liquefy 
portions of the charge. The best way, however, to avoid 
this condition, is to work with a lower combustible con- 
tent. It is, of course, desirable to sinter a charge at as 
high a temperature as practicable to get a firm sinter 
and as large chunks as possible, for the reason that the 
firm hard chunks add considerable to the desirability of 
the sinter in the operation of the blast-furnace. 

The Charge-Car. The charge-car receives the mixed 
material and delivers it to the pan. In charging the pan, 
the car spreads a porous bed, or layer, of non-sinterable 
material over the grates, delivers the charge on top of 
the permeable layer, and levels the charge even with the 
top rim of the pan. This is all done in a few seconds — 
while the car travels with moderate speed over the pan. 
The charge-car is usually motor-driven, but may be 
moved in any other convenient way. In small units the 
pans may be charged with hand-labor by simply spread- 
ing a permeable layer over the grates and shoveling in the 
charge and leveling it. This adds somewhat to the cost 
of sintering, but saves a little in the cost of installation. 
It may also do as a temporary expedient. The porous 
bed, or permeable layer of non-sinterable material, which 
usually varies from J to J in. thick, serves several impor- 


January 15, 1921 




taut purposes: it prevents the fine 
material of the charge from passing 
through the grate; it serves to dis- 
tribute uniformly the air passing 
through the charge; and it prevents 
the charge from being sintered to the 
grates. If the charge were placed di- 
rectly on the grates and the sintering 
completed, the charge would be sin- 
tered to the grates and the removal of 
the sinter would be difficult and ex- 
pensive ; besides the grates would be 
quickly destroyed. This porous bed 
acts as a buffer between the grates and 
the charge, so that when the pans are 
inverted the entire charge drops out 
and leaves the grate clean. The porous 
bed may be any comparatively non- 
sinterable material, such as fine sinter, 
crushed limestone, or crushed silieious 
or oxidized ore. 

The Igniter. The ignition is one of 
the most important steps in sintering. 
Unless the ignition is uniform, the sin- 
tering will be uneven and some of the 
charge will remain unsintered. If the 
ignition is uniform the sinter will al- 
ways be good on a suitable charge, and 
little fine will have to be returned. 
Manifestly, the quick and uniform ig- 
nition of the entire surface of the 
charge presented something of a prob- 
lem, especially in connection with the 
10 by 24-ft. pans. This problem was 
thoroughly solved by the ignition-hood, 
or igniter, which temporarily covers 
the charge while the ignition-fuel is 
projected over the entire surface of the 
charge. The air for the combustion is 
sucked through the numerous perfora- 
tions in the hood. 

The ignition-fuel may be oil or gas. 
Both are being used successfully. Crude 
oil is satisfactory. Distillate, or kero- 
sene, is a good ignition-fuel if cheaply 
obtainable. Gas is usually cheaper than 
oil. Either natural gas, blast-furnace 
gas, or producer-gas may be used and 
are giving excellent results. The com- 
bustion should be complete. A sooty 
flame is not as good as a flame which 
does not show any uneonsumed carbon. 
The oil or gas is so finely atomized and 
so intimately mixed with the inrushing 
air through the perforations in the 
hood that there is little or no difficulty 
in getting a clear flame. When the 
combustion is complete the temperature 
in the igniter is intense. The ignition 
can usually be made in a minute. The 



January 15, 1921 

igniter, itself, does not become very hot ; this is due to 
the cool inrushing air and to the momentary time re- 
quired for ignition. 

In the operation of a commercial plant the igniter 
is mounted on wheels and- runs on the same tracks as the 
charge-car. The hood, or igniter, is normally about half 
an inch above the upper rim of the pan, so that it can be 
freely moved over all the pans. When ignition is to be 
made the hood is temporarily lowered, and makes a close 
connection with the pan, so as to give a uniform ignition 
over the entire surface of the charge, and especially 
around .the edges. If it were not for this, the inrushing 
air around the perimeter of the pan would divert the 
flame, and result in incomplete ignition. When the ig- 
nition is made, the hood is raised, and the igniter is 
ready for another pan. 

After the ignition has been made the sintering of the 
charge proceeds without the igniter. The igniter is 
usually motor-driven, the same as the charge-car. For 
the smaller pans the igniter may simply be pushed from 
one pan to the other. If oil is used for ignition, it will 
usually take from 0.75 to 1.0 gallon per ton of sinter. 
In a small plant, in Mexico, sintering copper concentrate 
and flue-dust, the oil consumption was materially reduced 
by sprinkling a little waste coke or charcoal dust over 
the top of the charge. It was found, in this connection, 
that if fine coke or charcoal were mixed with the sinter 
charge of copper concentrate and flue-dust, that much of 
the carbon would remain unconsumed and fixed in the 
sinter so as to make it available in the blast-furnace. 

Sintering the Charge. The sintering of a charge may 
be briefly described as follows: The mixed material, as 
also the porous bed, is delivered to the charge-car; the 
car is then run over the pan, and in passing over it, the 
porous bedding is uniformily spread over the grates by 
the distributor at the front of the car, and the charge 
immediately placed upon the bedding and levelled off 
with the top rim of the pan. This usually takes less than 
a minute, even for the 10 by 24-ft. pans. The exhauster 
is then started, or switched on to the pan. This creates 
a strong downward draft of air through the charge. The 
igniter is then run over the pan and the ignition-fuel, 
under a high pressure, is atomized over the charge and 
ignited. The flame and hot products of combustion are 
sucked down through the charge and completely ignite 
the surface, usually in less than a minute. The igniter 
may then be removed and used for another charge. The 
sintering proceeds until the entire charge is sintered. 
The time of sintering may vary from 15 to 60 minutes, 
depending on the nature of the material and the results 
desired. The suction may vary from 10 to 35 in. of 
water. It is usually more at the beginning than at the 
end of the operation, for the reason that at the beginning 
the mass is not as permeable. With a high suction, there 
is not so much danger of short circuits of the air through 
the charge ; when a short circuit occurs, the temperature 
at that point becomes so intense as to cause fusion, which 
automatically has a tendency to close the larger air- 
passages through the partly sintered charge, and make 

the sintering more intense at other portions. When the 
sintering is complete, the exhaust is shut-off, the pan 
mechanically rotated, and the sinter dumped. The pan 
is then rotated back to its normal position, and the cycle 
repeated. In some of the large plants the cycle is com- 
pleted in about 20 minutes. 

The power required for sintering depends somewhat on 
the nature of the material to be sintered. Ordinarily it 
will be from 5 to 6.5 kw-hr. per ton of sinter. The re- 
pairs are small and consist principally of the replace- 
ment of grates. 

Flexibility op the Plants. The plants are exceed- 
ingly flexible, both in installation and operation. It will 
be noted that the charge-car and the igniter are used only 
a few minutes for each charge. Similarly, in the first 
unit, the mixing, conveying, and elevating machinery, 
will usually be far in excess of the requirements, or can 
be cheaply made so. The capacity of a one-pan plant can 
therefore be doubled at any time and at small expense, 
by simply adding another pan. It may be trebled by 
adding two pans, etc. 

The plants may be operated as desired ; each pan may 
be operated independently of the others, and one, or all, 
of the pans may be operated for one or three shifts, since 
each cycle of sintering in each pan is complete in itself. 
This makes it possible to start with a small installation, 
and later, if desired, the capacity can be increased as 
needed. Or, in a plant normally operating a number of 
pans for 24 hours, any of the pans can be cut out at any 
time and the working force reduced to one shift without 
materially affecting the operation, so far as the apparatus 
is concerned. 

Preliminary Sintering-Tests and Apparatus. The 
sintering results on any material can readily be de- 
termined by the Greenawalt process with a small labora- 
tory equipment, as shown in Fig. 1, made by the Colorado 
Iron Works Co. of Denver. Any good mechanic can set 
it up at the works ready to operate, in a few hours. This 
equipment represents a unit of all the working pans. 
The suction is obtained by connecting the Schutte-Koert- 
ing ejector to a steam-boiler. It has been found by years 
of experimentation and testing with such an equipment 
as this, that the results obtained in this small pan are 
absolutely reliable, and can be duplicated in the com- 
mercial installations. There never has been a single dis- 
appointment when commercial plants were installed on 
the basis of the results obtained with this miniature 
Greenawalt sintering plant, which, it must be remember- 
ed, represents a full-sized section of all the pans. A water- 
gauge records the suction, and the suction may be varied 
as desired for different charges. This small pan holds 
about one cubic foot of the material to be sintered. It 
offers a cheap and convenient apparatus for trying out 
the sintering qualities of different mixtures and with 
various suctions. 

Operating Greenawalt Plants. There are a large 
number of Greenawalt plants in operation in different 
parts of the world, sintering various materials, and vary- 
ing in capacity from 20 tons to 1000 tons per day. There 


January 15, 1921 



have been two 1000-ton plants in operation for some time; 
one sintering magnetic! concentrate, and the other sinter- 
ing iron-ore flue-dust Both are now being enlarged to a 
rapacity of 2000 tons per day. The 10 by 24-ft. pans are 
used iii these plants. The sinter is dumped directly into 
a train of railroad cars and shifted to the blast-furnaces. 
Smaller plants are in operation sintering lead ore, cop- 
per concentrate, iron ore. and copper fine and flue-dust. 

Sintering v. Drying of Table and Flotation Con- 
centrate Several interesting problems arise in refer- 
ence to sintering by the present method. One is the 
possibility of sintering concentrate for shipping instead 
of drying. Sintering requires about 10% moisture. Dry- 
ing of the concentrate, if sintering is contemplated, would 
therefore be unnecessary and could be eliminated. Con- 
centrates contain their own fuel for sintering, as opposed 
to extraneous fuel which has to be purchased for drying. 
The sinter would be ready for smelting, and the shipping 
weight would be reduced to from 15% to 20% from the 
ordinary dry-shipping weight. This reduction in weight 
is due to the replacement of the sulphur with the lighter 
oxygen, to the elimination of the water of hydration, to 
the elimination of other volatile elements, and to the 
evaporation of the uncombined moisture, which in ordi- 
nary drying is never complete. A reduction of from 
15% to 20%. in the shipping and smelting weight will 
ordinarily much more than pay for the sintering. If the 
sulphur content in the concentrate is too high for sinter- 
ing, the charge can almost always be diluted with fine 
shipping ore low in sulphur, and this would tend to give 
a greater porosity to the sinter charge, especially in the 
sintering of flotation concentrate. The following ad- 
vantages would, therefore, be gained by sintering instead 
of drying : First, drying would be entirely avoided, since 
the moisture is necessary in the mixed sinter-charge. 
Second, the concentrates furnish their own fuel for sin- 
tering (except the ignition-fuel) as opposed to the fuel 
which has to be purchased for drying. Third, reduction 
in weight both for shipping and smelting of from 15% 
to 20%. Fourth, the saving in sacking, where the fine 
concentrates are sacked to prevent excessive loss. A 
sinter-pan for this work could be cheaply installed. The 
sinter would, of course, be more desirable for the smelter 
than the raw concentrate, but while this might be of 
interest to the smelter, it would be of no interest to the 
shipper, unless some small allowance should be made for 
the better character of the material. 

Sintering and Blast-Furnace Smelting v. Roasting 
and Beverberatory Smelting. The sintering of fine ore 
and concentrate brings up the very interesting problem, 
in copper smelting, as to the relative merits of blast and 
reverberatory smelting. The pendulum, which swung 
from the blast-furnace to the reverberatory, may swing 
back again. The roasting of sulphides preparatory to 
smelting, may be somewhat cheaper than sintering, but 
the difference is not serious. The dust, in roasting of 
fine sulphide, is considerably more of a problem than in 
sintering the same material, for sintering produces only 
a small amount of dust as compared with ordinary roast- 

ing. The sintering of sulphide, such as flotation concen- 
trate, presents a difficult but not insurmountable prob- 
lem. It also presents a problem inordinary roasting. In 
reduction-works, smelting both mine ore and concentrate, 
the conditions are different. The elimination of the fine 
material from the blast-furnace greatly increases its ca- 
pacity, and the sintering can usually be made a method 
of satisfactory fluxing. In one installation, under the 
writer's general direction, the capacity of the blast- 
furnace was increased from 85 tons per day to 250 tons 
per day on a test-run of the Greenawalt equipment. This 
increased capacity was primarily due: First, to the sin- 
tering of sulphide concentrate, high in iron as well as in 
gold and copper; the product was used as a flux, which 
was lacking in previous operations. Second, to the elim- 
ination of a large portion of the fine material from the 
blast-furnace charge by mixing with the concentrate to 
form the sinter. Third, to some changes in the design 
of the furnace. In the previous operations 25% lime- 
stone was added as a flux ; this was in whole or in part 
replaced by the high-iron sinter in the test-runs. A 
higher-grade matte was also obtained. It was highly 
profitable to replace the barren limestone flux, with a 
high-iron sinter, having from $20 to $25 in gold and cop- 
per per ton. The concentrate was from mine-ore too low 
in grade to smelt direct. The dilution of, say, a $10 
smelting ore, with 25% barren limestone as a flux, would 
make a furnace-charge worth about $7.50 per ton ; the en- 
riching of the $10 ore, by fluxing with a high-iron sinter 
having, say, $20 in gold and copper, would give a fur- 
nace-charge worth $15 per ton. as eomoared with $7.50 
The cost of smelting a ton of $15 mixed charge would not 
be any more than for smelting a ton of the $7.50 mixture, 
either for fuel or labor. It would probably be less. In 
the particular instance cited, it was considerably less. 

There are many conditions, however, to be considered 
in blast and reverberatory smelting. The fuel available 
will probably be the determining factor in most cases 
where both methods are applicable. 

A recent issue of the 'Journal du Four Electrique' 
contains a description of the process introduced by 
Gustav Laval and worked by the Norsk Elektrisk Metal 
Industri, at Sandlokken, Norway, for the electro-thermic 
distillation of zinc by direct treatment of the ore. The 
plant comprises a series of electric furnaces having a 
daily capacity of from 3 to 5 tons of zinc each. This 
method is said to result in a considerable saving of labor 
and fuel. At present 15,000 tons of ore per annum is 
treated at the works, and the company is completing a 
new hydro-electric plant on the west coast of Norway, 
with a capacity of 30,000 hp., for applying the Laval 
process on a larger scale. 

From July 1 to September 30, 1920, inclusive, 2045 
flasks of quicksilver, of 75 lb. net, was produced in the 
United States. If the present rapid decline continues, 
as now appears probable, the total for the year will be 
less than 12,000 flasks, 9000 flasks less than for 1919. 



January 15, 1921 

Engineering Foundation: Its Work and Needs 

By ALFRED D. FLINN, Secretary 

Engineers and scientists have created modern civiliza- 
tion. They have founded it upon facts, won by research 
from the inexhaustible storehouse of Truth. Simultane- 
ously they have put into the hands of the enemies of 
civilization the weapons of destruction. That American 
engineers in many ways aided in averting the recently 
threatened catastrophe, is generally acknowledged; but 
one of their instrumentalities is known to few even among 
engineers. To this instrumentality the world war was no 
more than a great event in its childhood ; it looks forward 
to unmeasured years of service in peace and progress. If, 
however, war should again become inevitable, again will 
this instrumentality be one of the readiest factors in 

In 1914, Ambrose Swasey, of Cleveland, Ohio, a past- 
president of the American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers, gave to the United Engineering Society the sum 
of $200,000 as the nucleus of a trust fund, the income 
from which should be used "for the furtherance of re- 
search in science and engineering, or for the advance- 
ment in any other manner of the profession of engineer- 
ing and the good of mankind". The United Engineering 
Society, as the incorporated board of trustees holding 
joint properties for the American societies of civil, min- 
ing, mechanical, and electrical engineers, organized the 
Engineering Foundation Board to administer the in- 
come from the trust-fund. The Foundation was allotted 
offices in the Engineering Societies bunlding, New York. 
In September 1918, Mr. Swasey gave an additional 

. In April 1916, the National Academy of Sciences offer- 
ed to President Wilson its services in organizing the 
scientific resources of the country in preparation for the 
evidently unavoidable participation in war. In response 
to a request from the President, the Academy, with the 
co-operation of the national scientific and engineering 
societies, organized the National Research Council. No 
fund and no home having been provided, Engineering 
Foundation offered its offices, its financial resources, and 
the service of its secretary for one year from September 
1916. Thus, as its first work, the Foundation succored 
the Research Council until greater provision from private 
and governmental sources could be made. Through the 
Foundation and the national societies the engineers co- 
operated with the Council during the "War and in the 
period of reconstruction ; they have a permanent place in 
its peace organization and projects. National Research 
Council now has an endowment of a few millions and a 
fund for the erection of a suitable building at Wash- 

The Engineering Foundation is a response to the need 
for research, other than that of the Government and of 
large corporations, beyond the means of individual engi- 

neers, small companies, and separate societies. The 
Foundation has an endowment of $300,000, an organiza- 
tion based on the national engineering societies, and 
means for publicity. It can receive and administer 
funds; support researches by individuals or organiza- 
tions ; establish and operate laboratories ; aid in applying 
the results of research; stimulate interest among engi- 
neers, and enlist support for these purposes. 

For the engineering societies, Engineering Foundation 
is their joint agency for research, and a liaison with scien- 
tists through the National Research Council. With Na- 
tional Research Council, the Foundation co-operates in 
stimulating and co-ordinating research by governmental, 
educational, industrial, and private agencies. 

The Council has a Division of Engineering, the pur- 
pose of which is: "To promote research and the applica- 
tion of the sciences to engineering." Engineering 
Foundation may use its funds "in any manner, for the 
furtherance of research in science and engineering". 
Therefore, Engineering Foundation may undertake any 
kind of work that the Division may undertake, and others 
besides. Confusion is avoided through the intimate rela- 
tion between the Foundation and the Council and fre- 
quent communication between the offices of the Founda- 
tion and the Division. Even in their common field there 
is work enough for both; and by agreement upon pro- 
gram from time to time, interferences will be escaped. 
The peculiar value of the Division arises from its being 
an integral part of the National Research Council, the 
national federation of scientists and engineers for pro- 
motion of research, and therefore being in a position to 
place before scientists the engineering problems that re- 
quire scientific research, and to inform engineers of the 
activities of scientists that may affect engineering. En- 
gineering Foundation can contribute to the support of 
the Division, can share in its deliberations through inter- 
locking membership, can benefit from its work, and can 
have its advice as to researches that may profitably be 
supported by the Foundation. Independently, the 
Foundation may establish and maintain laboratories, sup- 
port or conduct researches, and contribute results to the 
engineering societies. The Foundation and the Division 
each is essential to the engineering profession for pur- 
poses of research, but the activities of the two must al- 
ways harmonize. 

With the scientific bureaus of the Government, the 
Foundation can exchange information ; make more avail- 
able to engineers results of researches by the bureaus; 
suggest to the bureaus how to make their researches more 
helpful. To the Engineering Societies Library, the 
Foundation can extend aid in making this library the 
repository of all information about research relative to 

January l">. 1921 


"What needs can the Engineering Foundation supply 
better than any other organisation .' Direction and sup 
port of research relative t>> engineering, of such nature 
as not to be undertaken by an industrial corporation, the 
Government, or a university; collection and publication 
of information about research of particular interest to 
engineers, utilizing engineering journals. 

Should Engineering Foundation establish an Engi- 
neering Research Institute and Laboratory t Some 
thoughtful men believe that it should, to supplement the 
university training of promising researchers: to provide 
place and means for research by engineers and inventors, 
and for limited co-operative research for industries. The 
laboratory might be made partly self-sustaining. For 
some kinds of work or training, charges might be made, 
particularly for those not of general interest, and for 
those from which a profit will be realized. An establish- 
ment under Engineering Foundation would have an inde- 
pendence and celerity of action not feasible in a govern- 
mental laboratory and would be able to conduct re- 
searches on a scale and in an atmosphere of practical re- 
quirements not possible in a university. In the course of 
years, there might be more than one laboratory, each sit- 
uated where it would have the best conditions and be most 

By conserving for a few years a large part of its 
meagre income Engineering Foundation was able, in May 
1919, to appropriate $30,000 for the support of an ex- 
tensive research in the fatigue phenomena of metals. 
This expenditure will be spread through two years. The 
tests are being made at the Engineering Experiment Sta- 
tion of the University of Illinois under the general 
auspices of National Research Council. The University 
contributes certain services, equipment, and facilities, 
and provides the working-space, estimated as equivalent 
to $12,000. Some manufacturers are furnishing speci- 
mens. Recently the General Electric Company, one of 
the largest industrial corporations in our country, asked 
to have the program of tests broadened, at its expense, to 
an amount equal to that provided by the Foundation. 
The purpose of all these investigations is to obtain fur- 
ther knowledge about the behavior of parts of machines 
and structures subjected to many repetitions and varia- 
tions of stress. These tests are in active progress under 
the direction of H. F. Moore, assisted by J. B. Kommers, 
of the University of Wisconsin. The expenditure will 
probably total $75,000. 

From fifty or more suggestions received from many 
sources, the Foundation Board selected from time to time 
for investigation a few that demanded only small ex- 
penditures. A study of the wear of gears begun in 1916 
was interrupted by the "War, but was resumed in the sum- 
mer of 1920. It is being conducted at Stanford Uni- 
versity, by Guido H. Marx and Lawrence E. Cutter. To 
aid in solving the problem of protecting ships from at- 
tacks by submarines, Engineering Foundation, in Novem- 
ber 1917, joined with the New York committee on sub- 
marine defence in making, under the direction of H. P. 
Quick, experiments on concealment by means of spray 
from special nozzles disposed at suitable points on the 

ship. The U. S. Navy lent a barge and ov.. equipment. 
A number of tests made in New York harbor led to the 
conclusion that the method was not practicable. Founda- 
tion made a small appropriation for a special study, at 
Columbia University, of some features of the secret 
directive control of wireless communication. 

Many experiments have been made upon weirs as a 
means for measuring flowing water and other liquids. 
Several elements of the problem remain unsolved, and 
others have not been satisfactorily solved. In December 

1918, an appropriation not to exceed $2500 was made for 
an investigation to be conducted under the direction of 
Clemens Herschel, hydraulic engineer, in collaboration 
with the hydraulic laboratory of the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology. This investigation resulted in an im- 
proved form of weir for gaging the flow of liquids in open 
channels. Mr. Herschel presented his report in the form 
of a paper at the spring meeting of the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers, at St. Louis, in May 1920. 

In December 1918, Julius Alsberg, consulting hy- 
draulic engineer, suggested the establishment of a test- 
ing-station for large water-wheels and other hydraulic 
equipment. Silas H. Woodard, H. Hobart Porter, and 
Calvert Townley were appointed a committee to inquire 
into this subject. This committee reported in May 1919, 
that such a testing-station was not practicable, that it is 
not advisable to establish a testing-flume for small models 
because existing flumes meet all requirements, but that 
testing of water-wheels now in place would be useful and 

In February 1919, the Foundation authorized R. E. 
Southard, director of the Massachusetts State Psychiatric 
Institute, to make a preliminary investigation as to the 
part played by mental abnormalities in industry. Upon 
the presentation of a report in May, showing satisfactory 
preliminary results, for which an expenditure of $300 
had been made, $2500 was appropriated for a research 
in mental hygiene of industry to be made under Dr. 
Southard's direction during the year beginning June 1, 

1919. "W. F. M. Goss, J. Parke Channing, E. "W. Rice, 
Jr., and Thomas T. Read were appointed an advisory 
committee. The objects of this research are to develop 
or discover methods for adapting psychopathic individ- 
uals to usefulness in industry and to prevent them from 
becoming sources of disturbance, in so far as these ends 
may prove attainable. Dr. Southard died suddenly on 
February 8, 1920, leaving much of his work unfinished. 

The Foundation Board realized, however, that the re- 
search in mental hygiene of industry dealt with only one 
of many elements of the industrial personnel problem. 
Therefore, in June 1919, the Board addressed to the 
National Research Council a letter proposing a co-ordi- 
nated broad research in problems of industrial personnel. 
In response, the Council appointed a committee consist- 
ing of representatives of its divisions of Anthropology 
and Psychology, Educational Relations, Engineering, Re- 
search Extension, and Medicinal Sciences, the secretary 
of Engineering Foundation, and the chairman of the 
National Research Council, to consider means of further- 
ing the study of the problems of industrial employment. 



January 15, 1921 

Storage-Bin With Louvred 


Difficulty is frequently experienced in preventing 
'hang-ups' in storage-bins. Delays are caused which are 
expensive not only because of the additional work re- 
quired to get the material again into motion, but because 
of the time lost in subsequent operations due to the in- 
terruption of service. 

Most bins have closed or continuous sides and this rule 
generally applies to the gates, the feeders, 
and the hoppers. A tight bin is some- 
times necessary, but not often. Barring 
tightly packed material with a long rod 
from above the bin is a tiresome and ex- 
pensive operation. Hammering the sides 
of the hoppers with heavy sledges is in- 
advisable, and yet it is a common practice 
when bins for custom ore must be thor- 
oughly cleaned before the next charge is 

The discharge opening of a bin can be 
made to retain the material, no matter 
how finely it is ground, by placing open- 
ings or 'louvres' over the gate-opening, 
that is, 'flash-boards' placed at an angle 
but in vertical line with space between 
them. The spacing of the boards is ar- 
ranged according to the angle of repose 
of the particular material. This idea can 
be applied to the sides and hoppers of 
storage-bins, which, for the want of a 
more appropriate name, can be termed a 
louvred bin. 

In its design, a louvred bin of wooden construction is 
framed in much the same manner as a plain bin. In the 
accompanying sketch the wooden bin has a double sloping 
bottom with central-discharge openings. The first two 
boards over the diagonal beams of the framework are 
laid as they would be in a plain bin. Above this first 
course and on the diagonal beams of the frame, wedge- 
shaped cleats of the width of the beams are laid with 
their points upward, and over these cleats the next course 
of two boards is placed so that there is a vertical opening 
between the top of the first and the bottom of the second 
course. Succeeding courses above are placed in the same 
manner with a louvre-opening between. These courses 
should be 24 or 30 in. wide with a 4-in. louvre between 
each course. 

At the corners of the bin, where the sloping bottom 
meets the vertical sides, another louvre-opening should 
be provided by extending the bottom out and beyond the 
vertical siding so as to leave a 4-in. vertical opening at 
the junction of the two sides. 

The load within a plain bin tends to pack as it descends 
toward the discharge-gate opening. Usually no means 
are provided to relieve this tendency to pack. The sides 

of the bin are so formed that the weight and convergence 
of the load accumulates its pressures to an extent that 
causes that part of the load next to the bin sides to stick, 
and if the ore is not dry, the centre of the load moves 
and causes a 'piping' of the outer part. 

In a louvred bin the load descends as in a plain bin, 
but at each louvre-opening the friction against the side 
is decreased and the accumulation of pressure relieved. 
When the load does stick it can be prodded through the 
louvre-opening from the outside. The louvred bin serves 
two distinct purposes : it can be designed to maintain the 
mobility of any granular load, and it exposes the load 


so that it can be barred or prodded from the outside at 
the most advantageous point. 

The principle of the louvre-opening can also be utilized 
at the gate-opening. Bins are frequently constructed 
with the discharge-gates in the side of the bin as if the 
first object of the gate was to close the opening perfectly 
tight, and yet a louvred gate would give better service. 
Placing the gate a short distance away from the bin and 
leaving a space between the gate and the bin open at the 
top not only removes the gate from much of the direct 
pressure of the load, but allows the load to assume an 
angle of repose before reaching the gate. 

Milling plants throughout the country too frequently 
have bins that are of needlessly tight construction ; their 
loads are inaccessible, whereas an open construction 
would give better service. Bin-gates are made of complex 
design when all that is required is a simple gate pro- 
portioned to the size of the material. Designs incorporat- 
ing the louvre are not new and their practicability has 
long been demonstrated. A liberated load brought to 
its natural repose ceases its movement and localizes its 
zone of action. The application of this principle is illus- 
trated in the design described in this article. 

January 15, 1921 



A Defence of Minerals Separation 

By Alfred A. Cook 

•I wish thai I could haw had the opportunity of fa- 
miliarizing myself with the papers read by Mr. Nye and 
Mr. Montague before they were read. 1 might then have 
had the privilege of presenting to yon in written form 
such views as I thought might be germane to the dis- 
cussion and helpful. I say "helpful", because I think 
that anything which affects the mining industry, should 
prompt anyone interested in any of its component parts, 
to do his share in the work of usefulness and co-opera- 
tion. I could then have eliminated all things which were 
not controversial, and could have reduced a discussion 
of differences to fundamentals and the facts. 

What did the American Mining Congress do? Instead 
of coming to us or even writing to us through its secre- 
tory, it filed allegations and charges, and impressed the 
Federal Trade Commission with the fact that the Min- 
erals Separation Companies are Gernian-owoied and Ger- 
man-controlled. A year ago at St. Louis, an address was 
read by Mr. Nye, page after page of which charged Min- 
erals Separation with functioning in this country as a 
German-owned and German-controlled concern. Now, to 
my mind unless the facts substantiate a charge of that 
kind, that is going not only far afield but is hitting, if I 
may say it, below the belt. 

In this article the assertion was made that two gentle- 
men residing in England were in effect secret German 
agents and through their ownership or control of a ma- 
jority of the shares, arrangements were made so that 
Minerals Separation could function in this country as a 
German-owned and German-controlled company. Who 
were these two? If any of you have some of these re- 
prints I refer to, you can see mention of the names of 
Kindersley and Pusch. Who were they ? Kindersley is 
Sir Robert Kindersley, a director of the Bank of Eng- 
land, Governor of the Hudson Bay Co., and throughout 
the war the head of the War Savings and Victory Loan 
movement of England, recently knighted and given by 
his King the honors that fall to honest and deserving 
patriots. And who was Puseh ? A Russian who came to 
England years ago, a naturalized Englishman who lost 
two of his sons, officers in the English cavalry in the war, 
and when England sent a commission to Russia during 
the war he was either one of the members or the Head of 
that commission. 

Now, of course I know the force and effect of propa- 
ganda. I know that a rumor here and a rumor there 
grows and grows and forces itself throughout any in- 
I dustry, throughout any community, and even gets to the 
ears of the Government, and so, practically at the insti- 
gation of the American Mining Congress, we had visited 
I upon us for weeks and months the Alien Property Cus- 

•Bxtracts (by the Editor) from a speech delivered before 
the American Mining Congress on November 17, 1920. 

todian, who goes through our affairs from beginning t<i 
end to determine whether this charge of German owner- 
ship and German control is correct. "And the Bureau of 
Mines comes, and the Federal Trade Commission comes, 
and every conceivable Government agency. You heard 
this morning the reading of the articles from the Cana- 
dian press. Away back in 1917 the Canadian govern- 
ment examined us. You heard the charge made, that if 
in Canada royalties are unreasonable, the patent is for- 
feited ; and yet after all that investigation by the Cana- 
dian government, Minerals Separation cleared itself com- 
pletely. Now, there must be some reason and some ele- 
ment of justice in the decision. Of course, you may very 
properly say: "Well, this charge of being German-owned 
and controlled is an old thing," and so forth and so on. 
I am speaking of it to you, because I never believe in 
fighting a fight through newspapers, or periodicals, or 
other journals, when there are properly constituted 
tribunals before which to wage the fight. So far as the 
two gentlemen whose names were mentioned are con- 
cerned, I did call the attention of the Mining Congress 
to the great injustice that it had done them, and to its 
credit be it said that an apology was forthcoming. 

Let me take up another matter. Recently there ap- 
peared in the 'Engineering and Mining Journal' an 
article headed: 'Western Hearings of Minerals Separa- 
tion Companies by Federal Trade Commission', and 
there were quotations in that article, or attempetd quo- 
tations, as there were quotations this morning. I have 
not had the opportunity to read the quotations in the 
article read this morning, so I do not know whether 
everything was there or whether the cross-examination 
affecting the various matters was there, or whether 
there were eliminations and the usual stars to denote 
eliminations. Just let me however call your attention 
to this particular quotation appearing in the article 
just mentioned. This statement is made : ' ' One licensee 
who testified that his relations vrith Minei'als Sep- 
aration had been pleasant said : The royalty is too 
high * * * We regard it as entirely too high * * * It 
becomes a very burdensome charge. ' ' Now, those words 
were used, but they were used in connection with other 
words, and my only thought on the subject, as long as 
we are going to have a fight, if it must be and I hope it 
need not be, let us be fair with each other and play the 
game. This is what was testified to by the witness: "I 
do not say I regard it as too high under those conditions. 
I say, under present conditions we regard it as entirely 
too high. When I am not making any money at all, it 
becomes a very burdensome charge." Whether that is 
helpful to the Mining Congress or not, we were entitled 
at any rate to have quoted what was said. 

You heard this morning in, I think, Mr. Nye's address, 



January 15, 1921 

something about Mr. Nutter using the language "sinning 
against some one ' ' or other, and yet, Mr. Nutter was not 
responsible for that. Mr. Nye might have told you that 
Mr. Hawkins, representing the Federal Trade Commis- 
sion, when he put the question said: "What were Mr. 
H's sins, what was his infringement, how was he sin- 
ning?" And that Mr. Nutter then answered as quoted. 
Now, in the article that I refer to, in order no doubt to 
impress the representatives of the American Mining Con- 
gress that Mr. Nutter did not know what the infringe- 
ments were, and that he simply charge infringement 
without any knowledge of the facts and that adjustments 
and settlements were made by reason of power or co- 
ercion, or call it whatever you please, Mr. Nutter was 
quoted as saying "I don't know". This however is what 
is omitted: "He admitted that he was infringing, so I 
did not go back of his statement to me." Now, take an- 
other instance referred to, that about the Evergreen Min- 
ing Co., where, Mr. Hollister, I believe, was asked: "If 
you do not fear the litigation by the Minerals Separation 
Company, with the price of copper as it is now, would 
you reopen your mill or not?" and he answered "Very 
probably we would." If however you examine the testi- 
mony of Mr. Hollister, you will find that he said that 
they had troubles at the mill with their machinery and it 
was on that account that it was closed. It is very short 
so I will read the testimony. 

"Q. Did you sell your concentrates prior to 1917? 
A. Yes sir. 

Q. "What do you mean by operating on a commercial 
basis? Operating on a profit ? 

A. No, we were in such bad shape up there that our 
mill was closed down most of the time, and it was entirely 
experimental and not satisfactory as an experiment by 
any means. 

Q. What do you mean by 'bad shape' of your mill? 
A. Well, our machinery was not adapted, our grinding 
machinery was not adapted to the work we wanted to do. 
Q. Did Hyde have anything to do with your grinding 
machinery ? 

A. I beg pardon? 

Q. Did Hyde have anything to do with your grinding 
machinery ? 

A. No, he did not." 

And there you will find it, if you want the reason why 
the mill was closed down and shut. It was not because of 
Minerals Separation. g» 

Let me call your attention to one other thing. When I 
asked Mr. Hollister on cross-examination what oil he 
was using, and whether he was using less than 20 lb. of 
oil to the ton of ore treated, he declined to answer, he 
declined to answer that question, as many other of the 
witnesses declined to answer the same question. Now, 
gentlemen, either there was infringement or there was not. 
If this matter is to be handled in a big broad open fair 
and honest way, a man does not mind the question as to 
the amount of oil he is using. If he is not infringing, he 
does not care. I want to say for some, that with courage 
and fearlessness they mentioned what they were doing 

and what they were using. Even though Mr. Hollister 
was told that no testimony that he would give would be 
used against him in any proceeding in the future, he de- 
clined to answer and yet we are told that when we have 
Mr. Henry D. Williams write a letter to the Evergreen 
Mining Co. and others to stop infringing, we are threat- 
ening them, we are coercing them, we are abusing them, 
and we are doing things which the law condemns. If we 
did all these things, here was the chance and the oppor- 
tunity on the part of Mr. Hollister at least to prove be- 
yond doubt that at any rate, so far as our letter to him 
was concerned, it should not have been written. Why 
was it written? Because the Patent Law says, as I un- 
derstand it, that if you learn of infringement you ought 
to give notice of some kind to the infringer of your 

I am somewhat limited in what I can or want to say. 
As Mr. Montague put it this morning, pointing to the 
many volumes of testimony, "there is only a part of the 
record and more is to come". Our side has not yet been 
heard from, and I cannot tell you everything. I can try 
to tell you a few things. There is one situation how- 
ever I will not be able to discuss, and that is the patent 
situation. I am not a patent lawyer, nor do I think that 
arguments pro and con between the lawyers on each side, 
or the submission of patent questions to the Mining Con- 
gress, can bring forth anything useful unless it be with 
a view to determine first what each claims. I shall not 
speak of patent law, if for no other reason than that the 
various matters are before the courts, and so far as I 
am concerned, they are in the hands of patent counsel, 
and I do not think it would be correct or proper for me 
professionally, to discuss a situation which, as lawyers 
put it, is sub judice. 

I do want however to make one comment, subject to 
correction by my company or the patent lawyers, should 
I be wrong. I speak of it now because I notice it inter- 
ested Dr. Cottrell, as it very properly should. I under- 
stood Mr. Montague to say that if any particular com- 
pany is using the oil patent, 835,120, that when that pat- 
ent expires in 1923, and a licensee of Minerals Separation 
uses no other of its patents, that, nevertheless, beyond 
1923, the expiration date of the patent, Minerals Sep- 
aration claims the right to continue to exact royalties 
from its licensees, until the crack of doom, or as he more 
nicely put it, as he always does: "Until the end of time." 
I may be wrong, and the question as to whether I am 
right or wrong can properly be determined and easily 
upon inquiry, and will be determined. That is not my 
understanding. In other words, if when 1923 comes, 
and a licensee does not use any of the Minerals Separa- 
tion patents at all, I do not understand that he must 
pay any royalty to Minerals Separation. If, when the 
1923 patent has expired, and he uses any other patent, 
let us say the soluble frothing agent patent, then his 
royalty continues. If he ceases using it, . he pays no 
royalty. No licensee is called upon to pay any royalty 
unless he uses a Minerals Separation patent within the 
period allowed by law. Please let it be known by the 



January 15, i:»l'1 



members of tin- Mining Congress that it is my under- 
standing, subject to correction by Minerals Separation 
or iis patent attorneys, that when the 1923 patent ex- 
pires and a licensee usee do other patent, he pays no 
royalty. If he uses our 1927 patent, or any cither. 
then, being a licensee, and using our patent, he must pay 
royalty. It' when 1927 comes and lie does not use any 
of our patents, why then, of course, as I understand it. 

and Subject to net inn as 1 have stated, we Cannot 

exaet or ask or claim any royally from our licensee. I 
say that because I feel that when the patent expires and 
it is not protected any more, it is open, and T cannot con- 
ceive, or better, I cannot understand how the contention 
arose. When I say I cannot understand, it may be, and 
it is possible, that my understanding on this patent mat- 
ter is entirely wrong. Whether I am right or whether I 
am wrong however the Mining Congress and the public, 
are entitled to know what our attitude as to that is. I 
have stated to you what I understand it to be, subject to 

You listened patiently, as I did, this morning, to the 
reading of a great many extracts from a license agree- 
ment ; and yet, gentlemen, why the old license agreement 
of Minerals Separation, abandoned in December 1917 , 
should furnish the gravamen of charges made against us, 
is absolutely beyond me. There is no justification for 
referring to our old license agreement when we have a 
new one which has eliminated from it a great many fea- 
tures which were cricitized in one of the addresses of 
this morning. I will discuss with you why the pro- 
visions were in the old license agreement as they were, 
because there was some reason for it. Since December 
1917, however, there has never been a time under our 
license agreement, when a manufacturer of a flotation 
machine could not sell his flotation machine to any 
licensee of Minerals Separation Company. All we re- 
quire is that the licensee should ask our consent to its 
purchase. You may say: "Well, you didn't have to 
give your consent if you didn't want to." Our new 
license agreement specifically says we must give our con- 
sent. That eliminates from the situation the question 
whether any maker of a flotation machine can sell his 
machine to any licensee of Minerals Separation. In 
other words, if the John Jones Mining Company wanted 
to install the Ruth machine or the Grouch machine, or 
the K & K or the Janney machine, or the Callow cell — 
the John Jones Mining Company need only ask us and 
we are obligated to give our consent. We merely state that 
we do not hold ourselves responsible for anything that 
may happen by reason of the use of somebody else's 
machine. Let me show you the way that works. A little 
while ago there was sent by the Pneumatic Process Flo- 
tation Co. — I believe that is Mr. Callow — to the mining 
fraternity, a statement that the company were owners 
of a certain machine, and so forth, and controlled cer- 
tain patents, and that anybody using that machine and 
so forth, infringed the patent, and they were going to 
hold such a one liable for such damages as were allow- 
able by law for infringement. We received a letter from 

a licensee in Boston, sending us a copy of this particular 
Btatement telling us that it was not going to pay any 
more royalty, anil that we were called upon, Under our 

license agreement, to defend against any suit that the 
Pneumatic I'm, ess flotation Co. might bring. Now 
that is why. when our consent is given, we say we will 
not be responsible for anything that may happen by 
reason of the use of somebody else's machine. 

I am not trying to sell or advertise the standard ma- 
chine of the Minerals Separation. Whether you have it 
or not is a matter of indifference to me. I do want to 
state this, that if a mining company had been using a 
Minerals Separation standard machine, we would then 
have defended our licensee against a suit brought against 
our licensee by the Pneumatic Process Flotation Co. if 
the charge was made that our machine infringed upon 
the process or machine claimed to have been owned by 
the Pneumatic Process company. 

Reference was made to the license agreement. I think 
it is Section 3, and it was stated we had demanded or 
claimed or insisted that the employees of all of the 
licensees had to assign and transfer to Minerals Sep- 
aration whatever they invented. Now, gentlemen, that 
is also the old license agreement ; that clause is not in 
the new license agreement. I will read from the license 
agreement. The third article reads as follows: "Li- 
censees, shall, during the continuance of this license" — 
and I do not say that so far as the licensees are con- 
cerned that the licensees are not obligated to transfer 
their patents — that is quite correct — but I am discussing 
the question of their employees, and I will tell you why 
later, why the licensees are called upon and the em- 
ployees not — "Licensees shall, during the continuance 
of this license, promptly communicate and explain to 
licensors every invention or discovery made or used by 
them which may be an improvement, modification or 
addition to any of the inventions specified in the letters 
patent within this license, or may be useful in carrying 
out any of the processes thereby perfected, or any addi- 
tions thereto, or modifications thereof, whether patent- 
able or not." It then reads that the licensees will use 
their good offices to induce their officers, agents, and em- 
ployees, to assign or transfer to the licensors any inven- 
tions made by such inventors upon terms mutually satis- 
factory to said licensors and said inventors. As I said 
before, the officers, agents and employees of the licensees 
who invent or discover, are not obligated to turn over to 
Minerals Separation their discoveries, if made as indi- 
viduals ; and to prove to you that this has not borne 
heavily on the mining industry, I should state that there 
has not been one single patent of Minerals Separation 
ever obtained from any licensee. There were two or 
three patents, it was testified to before the Federal Trade 
Commission, which were obtained from employees of 

They were purchased however by the Minerals Sep- 
aration Company, and in one instance where one of the 
employees demanded of Minerals Separation a price in 
excess of that which Minerals Separation thought proper 



January 15, 1921 

or fair the employee sold his patent to somebody else. 
That is the length and breadth of this story. Now, do 
not misunderstand me. We were asked quite recently 
by an intending licensee who, incidently, was a witness 
against us in the Federal Trade Commission proceedings, 
but who listened to the testimony and evidently had his 
mind disabused of some of the things that had lingered 
in it, for an interpretation of this clause of our license 
agreement. This was written to him and may be re- 
garded as having been written to you. 

"In compliance with your request we are pleased to 
confirm what we said to you the other day at our con- 
ference with respect to our interpretation of those por- 
tions of section three of the license issued by us which, 
assuming the licensee to be a corporation, you thought 
conflicting. The first part of section three seeks to cover 
patents acquired by such corporations, or of which the 
corporation becomes the outright or beneficial owner. 
The latter part of Section 3, namely, that referring to 
officers, agents and employees, applies to them as indi- 
viduals, and what they do as individuals, as separate and 
distinct from what they do as officers, agents or em- 
ployees of the corporation. What the officers, agents and 
employees invent or discover as individuals, and not as 
officers, agents or empolyees of the corporation, is their 
own property, unless it be that by agreement with the 
corporation they are obliged to turn over to the corpora- 
tion that which they, as such individuals, invent or dis- 
cover. All agreements, and the conduct of the parties 
thereunder, must be measured by good faith, and where 
good faith actuates the parties there ought to be little 
opportunity for controversy." 

Now, I mention to you that we are now obliged to give 
our consent to the installation of any machine to work 
the flotation process. At the very foot of Section 3, 
from which I read are the following words : 

"On written request, consent will be given by the 
licensor who, however, assumes no responsibility or obli- 
gation whatever by reason thereof." 

At one of the proceedings here in Denver last sum- 
mer, and it was almost as warm then as it is getting to 
be in this room, Mr. Ruth took the stand, and he com- 
plained, of course, that we interfered with him and said 
the things that you heard mentioned this morning. I 
asked him: "Mr. Ruth, don't you know that you can 
sell your machine and could sell your machine at all 
times subsequent to December 1917, nearly three years 
ago, to any licensee of Minerals Separation?" And he 
said, he didn't know anything about it. Strange, with 
our license agreement out, with this article of the Min- 
ing Congress written last year and extensively dis- 
tributed, that he didn't even know he was free to sell his 
machine to whomsoever he wanted. 

There is always one question involved, and I want to 
explain it. if I can, because it has been explained to me 
by the patent lawyers, and I will say that such examina- 
tion as I have made of that particular matter confirmed 
the advice given. We are criticized because we were 
hesitant, up to a certain time, about giving our consent 

to the use of, or permitting our licensees to use the K & 
K machine, or the Janney, and also because in the con- 
tracts we were negotiating, let us say with the Stimpson 
Equipment Co., or any of the others, we insisted that 
they should not sell their machine to any but licensees, 
and that they could not sell their machines to infringers 
of our process under penalty of, I believe, ten thousand 
dollars. Let me explain to you. It has been stated time 
and again that if a machine is sold by the owner or in- 
ventor to some one else, for the purpose if you please, of 
working a certain process which the machine is designed 
to work, and which process is covered by a patent which 
belongs to some one else, the inventor of the machine 
which is used to infringe the process becomes a con- 
tributory infringer. Now, that is as clear as can be, and 
that is why Minerals Separation, in view of the long 
extensive and expensive patent litigation it has had in 
this country, steadily since 1911, had to protect and 
guard itself, and it could not agree that a manufacturer 
of a machine designed to work its process could sell his 
machine to an infringer, and Minerals Separation was 
advised at that time to protect itself accordingly. Also, 
when Minerals Separation first came over here people 
did not cotton to its process with the regard and affection 
that a parent bestows upon a child. A number of people 
used it without success. We were rather anxious to make 
a success of the process in this country. Failure of our 
process meant failure to us, and we naturally husbanded 
and kept together everything that we had which we 
knew would work the process so that we could get and 
deserve the name and the reputation of being able to 
save from waste, metal values which theretofore had 
gone to waste. When, however, our reputation was ; 
finally established, and not the reputation, if you please, 
you gentlemen of the Mining Congress have sought to 
give us, but the reputation of having been responsible 
in a great measure for much of the success of the Ana- 
conda Copper, the Inspiration, the Calumet & Hecla and 
others — when it was known we had something worth 
while to take under the license or to steal by infringing, 
when we had established the value of that which we 
claimed we had, we withdrew many of the restrictions 
that theretofore we had used and employed. Now, I do 
not think it of moment or important at all from the view- 
point of the present or from the viewpoint of the future, 
to discuss or argue with you gentlemen, or with your 
counsel, whether some of the restrictions that we had in 
the past were improper, or vicious or grievous, or any 
of the other adjectives used against us by counsel, in the 
Federal Trade Commission proceeding — these restric- 
tive covenants are over the dam. If the Federal Trade 
Commission want to bring them in as proof of methods 
or conduct on our part in the past, strength to their 
elbow, say I, but I am here talking to the members of 
the American Mining Congress today of the situation as 
of today, and if anything that I say, can clear up or 
explain in your mind doubts which exist, doubts as to 
the policy pursued, doubts as to what your rights are, of 
course, I will be glad. I will certainly try to. I say to 


Jauuiiry 15, U'L'l 



Be members of the American Mining Congress in con- 
taction with our license agreement, in connection with 

our patents, and iii inection with anything we have, 

that the doors of the Minerals Separation have been 
■pen and are open to any member of the Mining Con- 
ferees or the mining industry, or, for that matter, to 
anyone else, entering its doors in good faith whether 
to become a licensee or to get information respecting 
the license agreement or with respect to anything else. 
I know we have made various enemies in the past. 
Wherever I have been in the West 1 have seldom 
heard anything said pleasantly or kindly. There have 
been times when I have had the opportunity to talk over 
or explain our situation, and the reasons pro and con, 
where we have made a friend, and some of the witnesses, 
as I said to you before, who testified against us in this 
Federal Trade Commission hearing, seeing the light of 
day and having had explained to them the situation in 
plain, simple Anglo-Saxon, as to what was what, have 
honored us by coming to us and desiring to become 
licensees. I say "honored" because when you can make 
a friend of an enemy, when the method you pursue turns 
an enemy into a friend, because he believes you are right, 
I think it is something of a privilege. 

For six hours the representative of the Alien Property 
Custodian and I went through the files almost as ominous 
looking as the blue records on the table. "When he spoke 
and said something about the "oppression of the mining 
industry" I said that I would like some governmental 
agency properly functioning learn .there was nothing to 
this charge of "oppressing the mining industry", and I 
said, as I say to you, "I have heard this until I am 

Fortunately, Mr. John Ballot put in writing the 
answer to that question two years ago and with your per- 
mission, because it is in evidence in the Federal Trade 
Commission proceedings, I would like to read what he 
said as showing "the attitude of Minerals Separation to- 
wards the mining industry". It is dated the 28th of 
September, 1918, before the institution by the Federal 
Trade Commission of its proceedings and written more 
than two years ago. 

"In response to Mr. Kresel's verbal request for a short 
statement giving our side of the case, stating that he had 
so far heard only the representatives of the other side, I 
will endeavor to give a brief summary of the actual facts, 
which may help him in the investigation of the charge 
of the alleged 'oppression of the mining industry', which; 
you tell me he has advised you he has been requested to 
make. I begin with a short historical sketch. 

"Leaving out the question of title for the moment, it 
is an indisputed fact that we were the first to introduce 
the air-flotation process in this country. 

"Air-froth flotation and its practical application were 
totally unknown before we introduced it. 

"The gravity method, or what is commonly called the 
method of concentration by water, was the only commer- 
cial process in general use for dressing or concentrating 
the values from certain low-grade ores, until the intro- 
duction of the flotation process. 

"In March or April lull, one James .M. Hyde, an 
engineer, who had been in our employ until February 
1911. and who. during his employment with us. had been 
specially instructed in the practice and application of 
the air-froth flotation process, approached the Butte & 
Superior management and induced them to adopt the use 
of our flotation process and take the risk of dispul ing tin- 
validity of our patent in the courts. It would take too 
mm li space to go into the detail here of Hyde's record 
in this connection. We therefore refer Mr. Kresel for a 
full account of it to the Butte & Superior Supreme Court 
record. From the foregoing it will be seen that Mr. 
Hyde, a former trusted servant, was responsible for our 
first lawsuit. 

"Lest it should appear that the management of the 
Butte & Superior Co. entered into an arrangement with 
Hyde in ignorance of the facts, and unmindful of the 
consequences of the unlicensed use of our flotation pro- 
cess, it should be said at once that we gave the Butte & 
Superior management due and timely notice of the true 
position and of our claims to the process and expressed 
our desire to meet the management in every reasonable 
way with a view to negotiating a satisfactory arrange- 
ment for the licensed use of the process. They, however, 
questioned our rights, refused to negotiate with us,- and 
proceeded to use the process without license. Their 
adoption of this attitude forced us to seek relief in the 
only direction possible, and it also injured us in several 
ways : 

"First, because of their inexperience, the process 
when installed and put in operation in their mill worked 
with indifferent success for a considerable time. The re- 
ports of their bad results were disseminated abroad with 
the consequence that other mine owners were deterred 
from adopting the process. For corroboration of the 
foregoing statement, we refer to the evidence given by 
Frank G. Janney, chief metallurgist for the Butte & 
Superior Co. in the Miami case. (Citations and refer- 
ences to Record and Exhibits omitted.) 

"In time, we were successful in inducing ex-Senator 
W. A. Clark and Mr. M. N. Atwater to take licenses from 
us, erect plants and operate them under our supervision. 
The results were highly satisfactory and demonstrated 
that the best economical results obtainable by the process 
depended in great part on the installation of suitable 
plants and on proper operation by men acquainted with 
the process. 

"Secondly, the fact that a most important group of 
mining interests, known as the Jaekling-Hayden Stone 
interests, who besides controlling the Butte & Superior, 
also control or manage, among others, the well known 
great mines of the Utah Copper. Ray Consolidated, 
C'hino Copper, and Nevada Consolidated companies, was 
disputing our title to the flotation patents made it well- 
nigh impossible for us at first, and for a considerable 
time to induce any of the outside mine owners in North 
America to adopt our processes under the license on any 
terms. I need not enter here into the history, duration, 
and cost of this Hyde-Butte & Superior and other liti- 
gations. Suffice it to say that two of the suits are still 



January 15, 1921 

sub judice. The present status, as I stated to Mr. Kresel, 
is that in the Butte & Superior ease we have applied to 
the Supreme Court for a writ of certiorari for the pur- 
pose of getting a final adjudication as to the extent of 
our rights to air-froth flotation, on a patent already de- 
clared valid by that court. ' ' 

I turn now to the complaints said to have been made 
by anonymous people that we are hampering the mining 
industry and preventing the output of metals. We feel 
at a disadvantage, which must be at once recognized, be- 
cause of the difficulty to meet a vague undefined indict- 
ment of which no particulars are given us and no specific 
charges indicated ; nor do we know the accuser, who ap- 
pears to be hiding behind the veil of anonymity, appar- 
ently unwilling to come forward and make the charge 

While anxious to meet any -charge and give all in- 
formation, we are, of necessity, unable to give any 
definite reply or make any answer except in a general 
way ; but we give the assurance that if our accusers will 
formulate definite charges we will undertake to reply in 
detail to every point raised or every charge made. 

In the first place, we think we may safely put the so- 
called Jackling-Hayden Stone and Miami groups out of 
the discussion. They have no right of complaint. They 
and their shareholders have received large profits in dis- 
tributions of proceeds earned for them by their infring- 
ing use of our process. By their own election they have 
brought it about that their action and their companies' 
interests are being dealt with by the courts of the land 
and until final adjudication nothing more need be said 
about them. 

Even in their case, in which we have been most 
wronged, if the one pertinent question were asked: 
Whether we had in the past, or pending proceedings for 
final adjudication, done anything to restrain or hamper 
their production of metal, we could decidedly and with- 
out fear of contradiction declare that we have not done 
so either directly or indirectly. 

We might have acted otherwise. We might have taken 
full advantage of our right, and legal position to issue 
injunctions and compel them to cease the unlawful use of 
our process or close down their plants unless they com- 
plied with our rights. We have, however, done no such 
thing. They have been left free to operate their plants 
as they would, so as to insure their securing the best re- 
sults and largest output of metal, without any interfer- 
ence from us, and they have not been slow in distributing 
and so dissipating the enormous profits derived by them 
from the illegal use of our patents. 

Now, as to the remaining mining interests, we have 
already stated that the other important mining groups 
are our licensees, together with many other smaller min- 
ing companies, numbering some 103 active and prospec- 
tive producers. Those operating are doing so with great 
profit to themselves, and are using the process under best 
conditions to yield the fullest advantage without any 
hamperings or hindrances whatever. 

There, then, remains to be considered such mine own- 

ers as have been using our process without license, and 
others who have not adopted flotation at all. We believe 
there are some 450 such unlicensed users, and to many of 
those we have sent notices with schedules of rates of 
royalty (reference to exhibits omitted), informing them 
that we are prepared to grant them licenses at any time, 
upon their making adjustments for past unlicensed use 
of the process. Some have responded to our notices and 
have compromised for their past unlicensed use of the 
process and have taken out licenses, and so far as we 
know they are well satisfied. Others of the 450 un- 
licensed users have disregarded our notices and invita- 
tion. We have, however, so far done nothing to hamper 
their operations and profitable use of our processes, al- 
though they have arbitrarily taken our property and 
used it because its use brings them great profit out of 
what had been waste and loss before. 

As we understand it, we are bound legally, to protect 
our rights, and were advised that it was our duty to 
send the formal notices to unlicensed users. Beyond 
sending these we have so far done nothing to restrain or 
reduce their output of metal. Even though legally we 
have the right to issue injunctions we have in no case 
taken such a course, although common justice demands 
that the unfair use of our property and unfair compe- 
tition with our licenses ought not to be permitted to go 
on indefinitely. 

Those who have so far not adopted flotation can at any 
time obtain a license from us, on request. It has been 
and continues to be our policy to meet every case fairly 
and squarely, taking into consideration the special con- 
ditions which obtain in each case. We have spent much 
time and thought in developing various schedules of 
royalty to meet general as well as special eases and 
classes of ores and metals, and we are always willing to 
discuss or consider special cases or suggestions. 

I was asked what I thought should be done, and I will 
tell it to you. I think, perhaps, if the American Mining 
Congress undertook through its directorte, to appoint 
a committee of men in the mining profession, men of 
character — and you have so many — unbiased and judi- 
cially minded, and told them to take up with us, and we 
are always ready to take up and discuss and explain the 
various problems that they think are oppressive to the 
mining industry, we will be very glad to sit down with 
them, and we will be very glad to confer with them ; and 
it may very well be that much in the way of misunder- 
standing and delusion will be dissipated. Go ahead with 
all your proceedings at the same time, if you want, I 
don't care, but I am thinking of something bigger and 
broader than litigation; I am thinking of something 
bigger and broader than success, either success for me, or 
success for the Mining Congress. I am thinking of the 
mining industry, which means much to Minerals Sep- 
aration, and to which Minerals Separation means much. 
I am thinking that we should once and for all sit down 
in a calm, judicial, dispassionate way, determine what is 
right, and what is fair, and if that is done, truly the 
mining congress is an American Mining Congress. 

January 15, 1921 



The Geology of the Portland Canal District 

By Victor H. Wilhelm 

The Portland Canal mining district covers a portion 
of the Coast range extending from the head of Portland 
Canal up the Salmon and Bear rivers. The district is 
bounded on the west by the granitic uplift of the Coast 
range. The oldest formation in the Salmon River dis- 
trirt consists of a series of volcanic tuffs and breccias, 
called, by R. 6. McConnell, the Dominion Geologist, the 
Bear River series. This series is overlain by the Nass 
series of argillites and tuffaeeous conglomerates, and is 
intruded by large sills and tongues of quartz-porphyry, 
which are intermingled with volcanic agglomerate. Dur- 
ing the Jurassic period occurred the granitic uplift of 
the Coast range, coincident with and subsequent to which 
the whole area was intruded by a series of granitic and 
borphyritic rocks, in stocks and dikes, as spurs and off- 
shoots of the granitic magma. Subsequently, during a 
period of readjustment, probably during the Tertiary 
period, the area of quartz-porphyry and breccia was 
sheared and mineralized by ascending solutions from 
the dying batholith. Subsequent to this primary min- 
eralization, the entire district was intruded by small 
irregular dioritic dikes, which cut but do not interfere 
with the continuity of the mineralized shear-zones. The 
quartz-porphyry has been altered and silicified and has a 
marked sehistosity, the direction of which governs the 
ore-zones. These consist of a shattered area filled with 
reticulating quartz veins and stringers. The metallic 
sulphides are disseminated through the quartz-porphyry 
as well as the quartz veins. Erosion throughout this 
area has been very great, and the primary sulphide's out- 
crop on the surface, presenting the appearance of len- 
ticular lenses or blankets of truncated orebodies. 

The Premier mine, situated 14 miles north of Hyder, 
Alaska, in the Salmon River valley, is the only large de- 
veloped property in this entire district. The orebody 
consists of a shear-zone in quartz-porphyry trending N. 
80° E. and S. 80° W., with secondary mineralization 
along the fault-planes or step-faults bearing NE. and 
SW. High-grade ore occurs along this secondary Assur- 
ing and at the intersections of the shear-zone. The main 
orebody consists of irregular lenses within the highly 
silicified quartz-porphyry, and averages 1000 ft. in length 
and 80 ft. in width. A considerable amount of high- 
grade shipping ore, consisting mainly of argentite, has 
been found along the hanging- wall side of the shear-zone. 
Besides the shipping ore, the mine contains a large body 
■of low-grade complex sulphide milling-ore contained 
mainly between the step-faults. 

The Missouri group of claims, situated 17 miles north 
of the head of Portland Canal, in the Salmon River basin, 
eonsists of an immense residual sulphide orebody cover- 
ing a surface of over 40 acres, being over 1600 ft. long, 
-and in places over a thousand feet wide. The formation 

consists of volcanic tuffs and scattered fragments of slate 
deposits, intruded by large masses of schistose quartz- 
porphyry. Numerous large dikes of fresh quartz-por- 
phyry and granite coming from the large batholith of 
granite, which lies a few miles to the west, cross the area 

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and seem to have considerable influence on the orebodies. 
Diamond-drilling has shown this primary sulphide ore- 
body to be a residual surface sulphide zone. The fol- 
lowing is an analysis of an average sample of this ore : 
gold, 0.03 oz. ; silver, 2.3 oz., lead, 2.5%; zinc, 5.2%; 
copper, 0.6% ; iron, 14% ; insoluble, 59%. This indicates 
galena 2.5%, blende 7.6%, chalcopyrite 1.55%, and pyrite 
29.3%. Simple concentration gives the ratio of 2.7 : 1. 




January 15, 1921 

On a slide, adjacent to the Salmon Kiver glacier, on 
this property, there is over a million tons of ore of the 
above grade already broken. This property would not 
need depth to make a mine because of its large surface 
area. On the E Pluribus and Laura claims, north-east 
of the primary low-grade sulphide orebody, there exist 
some high-grade surface showings. These orebodies occur 
in lenses along step-faults at right-angles to the general 
trend of the shear-zone. The Joker claims on the east 
show the same characteristic high-grade surface ore- 
lenses dying out at a shallow depth. 

The Spider group, under bond to the Algunican De- 
velopment Co. of Brussels, Belgium, situated three miles 
north-east of the Missouri group, consists of a shear-zone 
in which small high-grade veins intersect an older group 
of large low-grade quartz veins in an intrusive mass of 
augite-porphyry. Over 700 ft. of lateral development 
along one of the small veins has exposed several shoots of 
shipping ore, and considerable enrichment is looked for 
at the intersection of the shear-zone with the large low- 
grade quartz veins. The ore consists of a complex sul- 
phide, analysis of which is as follows: zinc 9.37%, silica 
62.25%, copper 2.92%, lead 5.2%, silver 1.98%, iron 
F.2%, aluminum and sulphur 13.68%. The orebodies 
seem to have considerable persistence in depth, and will 
probably develop into a small mine. This property will 
ship 500 tons of high-grade silver ore this winter. 

The Bear River valley in this district was the scene of 
a boom about ten years ago, and several properties of 
decided merit were developed in the slate area. At that 
time the district was more or less discredited by the ex- 
ploitation of a few properties of doubtful merit. The 
orebodies consist of large irregular complex sulphide ore- 
bodies in lenses or shear-zones in slate. The development 
of ore-reserves in ground of this character is very diffi- 
cult. At the present time there is considerable mining 
activity in the breccia and tuff area of the Upper Bear 
River valley. The orebodies consist mainly as large 
lenses of chalcopyrite containing gold and silver. The 
surface exposures are large, and with continuity in depth 
the properties would be able to develop immense ore- 
reserves at slight cost. The Comet, Rufus, and George 
Copper are the principal properties. The Red Top in 
this district has a large outcrop of galena in the same 
formation. The properties are fairly accessible, owing 
to the fact that the dilapidated line of the Canadian 
North-Eastern railroad runs up the Bear River line for 
a distance of 14 miles. 

Provided that a considerable tonnage is developed, the 
Portland Canal district offers no great difficulties to suc- 
cessful mine operation. The mineralized area is from 12 
to 20 miles from tide-water, and railroad construction 
would not be difficult. The area below the 2500-ft. line 
of elevation is densely timbered, and summer water- 
power can easily be developed for from five to seven 
months, but storage-basins for the development of winter 
power are scarce. The rich ores can be smelted, but the 
low-grade ores will require considerable experimentation 
before a successful milling process is developed. 

Permissible Explosives 

An explosive is called a permissible explosive when it 
is similar in all respects to the sample that passed a cer- 
tain test by the Bureau of Mines, and when it is used in 
accordance with the conditions prescribed by the Bureau. 
But even the explosives that have passed these tests and 
are named in this list as permissible are to be considered 
permissible explosives only when used under the fol- 
lowing conditions: 

1. That the explosive is in all respects similar to the 
sample submitted by the manufacturer for test. 

2. That detonators — preferably electric detonators — 
used are not less efficient than those prescribed, namely, 
those consisting by weight of 90 parts of mercury ful- 
minate and 10 parts of potassium chlorate (or their 
equivalents) . 

3. That the explosive, if frozen, shall be thoroughly 
thawed in a safe and suitable manner before use. 

4. That the quantity used for a shot does not exceed 
14 lb., and that it is properly tamped with clay or other 
non-combustible stemming. 

After an explosive has passed the required tests and its 
brand name has been published in a list of permissible 
explosives, it is not a permissible explosive if one or more 
of any of the following conditions prevail : 

1. If kept in a moist place until it undergoes a change 
in character. 

2. If used in a frozen or partly frozen condition. 

3. If used in excess of 1\ pounds per shot. 

4. If the diameter of the cartridge is less than that 
designated 'smallest permissible diameter'. 

5. If fired with a detonator or electric detonator of 
less efficiency than that prescribed. 

6. If fired without stemming. 

7. If fired with combustible stemming. 

Moreover, even when all of the prescribed conditions 
have been met, no explosive on the permissible list should 
necessarily be considered as being permanently a per- 
missible explosive, for the Bureau reserves the right, on 
fuller information concerning the conditions that lead to 
safety, to revise this list ; but any permissible explosive 
when used under the prescribed conditions may properly 
continue to be considered a permissible explosive until 
notice of its withdrawal or removal from the list has been 
officially published, or until its name is omitted from a 
later list published by the Bureau of Mines. 

No gold was produced from quartz or placer mines in 
North Carolina in 1919, and at only one deep mine, that 
of the Rich Cog Mining Co., at Eldorado, Montgomery 
count}', was any development work done. The value of 
the gold produced in North Carolina during the period 
1799 to 1918 was $23,628,413. In 1915 the recovery of 
gold amounted to $172,001, but in 1918 it decreased to 
$1631, which, with 17 oz. of silver, was derived from 
placer mines or old mill clean-ups. Increased costs of 
mining and milling the low-grade gold ores and gravelfl 
have made operations unprofitable. 

January 15, 1921 



California's Metal Output in 1920 

•The outstanding and unprecedented feature of metal 
mining in California in 1920 was the closing down of a 
great number of the largest gold and copper mines, and 
the conditions generally have been decidedly adverse, 
particularly in the Mother Lode region, where some of 
the mines that were once among the largest in the State 
have stopped work, several of them permanently. Both 
the Kennedy and the Argonaut mine, at Jackson, Ama- 
dor county, were closed, mainly on account of trouble 
with fire and water. Other lode mines that stopped work 
were the Keystone, Utica, Gold Cliff, Eagle-Shawmut, 
and Tightner. The smelters of the Mammoth Copper, 
Mountain Copper, and Penn Mining Co., usually among 
the largest producers of copper in the State, remained 
shut-down during 1920, and the Walker Copper Co. 
closed late in the year. The Afterthought Copper mine, 
in Shasta county, was active for the first two months, 
when both mine and plant were closed. Another feature 
of the year was the restriction of the supply of power by 
hydro-electrie companies in the fall, which affected the 
deep mines of all classes as well as the dredging com- 
panies. For lack of this usual power some mines had to 
close altogether and others were compelled to restrict 
operations. When the first fall rains commenced, in 
October, the supply of power was at once restored. The 
hardships suffered by the gold miners in the foothill and 
mountain counties have partly depopulated towns and 
camps and even counties. Numerous mines are being 
allowed to fill with water, and some reduction plants 
have been virtually abandoned. 

The labor available in the mining regions of the State 
is reported to be still unsatisfactory, and its high cost 
and inefficiency have been the principal causes of the 
closing down of many large mines and of the curtailment 
of operations in others, although other high costs have 
contributed to reduce production. Prospecting has been 
almost stopped in the older mining regions, and very few 
large mining enterprises have been started. In fact, it 
is difficult or almost impossible to obtain capital for gold 
mining, as few miners are making a profit. Some large 
producers are unwilling to push production and develop- 
ment and pay the consequent war income tax, so they 
are only keeping the mines running. The force of men 
engaged in all kinds of mining work has been cut down. 
The cost of producing gold has been steadily rising for 
several years, until it nearly prohibits all profit. 

Without the dredging industry of California, gold 
mining in the State would be at low ebb, for the adverse 
conditions have more strongly aifected lode mining than 
placer mining. Of the total gold produced in the State 
in 1920, 52% was obtained from deep or lode mines and 
48%, from placers. The dredges are producing 96% of 
the placer gold, or 46% of the gold output of the State. 

♦Advance estimates by Charles G. Yale, San Francisco 
office of the U. S. G. S. 

There seems to be a small continuous decrease in the per- 
centage of gold produced by the deep mines and a corre- 
sponding increase in the percentage produced by the 
placers. Of the gold produced by deep mines the larger 
proportion is derived from silicious ore, but some is de- 
rived from copper, lead, and zinc ores. The dredges have 
been increasing their proportion of the total output of 
gold, but the hydraulic, drift, and sluicing mines are 
steadily decreasing their proportion. Since the dredges 
began work in California, in 1898, they have dug out 
about $120,000,000. Though some of the smaller and 
more isolated placer fields have been worked out, new 
placers have been found, and the larger fields, except 
that at Oroville, are showing an increased output an- 
nually. About 45 dredges, some of the very largest size. 
are now in operation in California. 

Although gold has been mined in California for more 
than 70 years, it is still produced by 32 of the 59 counties 
of the State. Yuba county, in the early days famous for 
its hydraulic mining and afterward abandoned for more 
than 30 years as a mining field, is now the leading gold- 
producing county of the State, its output exceeding by 
over a million dollars per year that of the most produc- 
tive deep-mine county. This revival and increase of 
production is due entirely to dredging, which produces 
99% of the gold output of the county. The ground now 
worked by the dredges is not only covered with debris 
from former hydraulic mining, but is too low and carries 
too little gold to be mined profitably on a large scale by 
any other system than dredging. A few new dredges 
were set to work in 1920 on fields in California outside 
of Yuba county, and several stopped work. One of the 
new operations is that of the Yankee Hill Dredging Co., 
in Stanislaus county, between Oakdale and Knights 
Ferry. Another, operated on a new plan — a dry-land' 
dredge — is in the Noce placer holdings, in the eastern 
part of Calaveras county. 

The output of silver from mines in California was 
about 1,538,660 oz. in 1920, an increase of 431,471. oz. 
over that in 1919. This increase is somewhat surprising 
in view of the fact that the largest copper smelters id 
the State were closed down during the year, for a con- 
siderable part of the silver produced is usually obtained 
from copper ores. But there was an increase in the out- 
put of lead and lead-silver ores in southern California, 
with consequent increase in silver from, those sources. 
Moreover, the California Rand mine, in San Bernardino 
county, continued to ship high-grade ore during the 
year, making a material increase over its normal output. 

The estimated output of copper in California in 1920 
was 12,934,900 lb., as compared with 21,732,507 in 1919. 
a decrease of 8,797,607 lb. The Mammoth Copper Co. 
and the Mountain Copper Co., of Shasta county, and the 
Penn Mining Co., of Calaveras county, kept their smelt- 
ers closed throughout the year, and the Walker 1 Mining 




January 15, 1921 

Co., of Plumas county, stopped production for several 
months. These facts account for the decrease in the 
output of copper in 1920 in California, for the mines 
mentioned are among the most productive in the State. 
Smaller properties throughout the mining region also 
stopped producing copper ores, owing to the low price 
of the metal and adverse general conditions. 

The estimated output of lead in 1920 is 5,071,600 lb., 
an increase of 1,503,333 lb. over the output in 1919. 
This increase is due entirely to the production of one 
mine in southern California that reported no output in 
1919. Moreover, a number of lead and lead-silver prop- 
erties, mainly in San Bernardino and Inyo counties, be- 
gan or increased production in 1920. Nevertheless the 
output of lead in California is still far below the nor- 
mal, as that in 1918 was over 13,000,000 pounds. 

The zinc output of California in 1920 is estimated at 
1,522,500 lb., or 1,099,029 lb. more than in 1919. Zinc 
was produced at only a few mines in the State, all in 
Inyo county. 

Among the newer operations in hydraulic mining in 
California is the completion of the debris-restraining 
dam of the Elephant hydraulic mine, near Volcano, 
Amador county. This dam is 30 ft. high and 425 ft. 
long. Not many new dams of this kind were built in 
California in 1919, as few hydraulic mines have been 
opened and equipped. The old Curtz Consolidated mine, 
at Markleeville, Alpine county, has been sold, and the 
new owners are repairing the old workings and arrang- 
ing to resume operations. The Monitor, also in Alpine 
county, has been shipping some ore. A new 10-stamp 
unit has been added to the milling plant of the Carson 
Gold Mining Co., in Calaveras county, giving it a ca- 
pacity of 15,000 tons per month. The old Cherokee mine, 
near Oroville, Butte county, once a famous hydraulic 
property, is to be re-opened. The channel of this mine 
runs under Table mountain. The El Dorado Explora- 
tion Co., Eldorado county, has discarded its steam-power 
plant at both mine and mill and has installed an electric 
plant. The North Star Mines Co., at Grass Valley, has 
stopped the use of its costly, tramway and uses an electric 
locomotive and self-dumping cars to remove mill tailing 
to a new storage basin, built to receive it. The old 
Delhi Mining Co., which owns extensive water-rights on 
the middle fork of the Yuba river, has put in a new 
hydro-electric power-plant, partly for its own use but 
partly to. supply power to the Pacific Gas & Electric Co. 
for general use. At Meadow Lake, Nevada county, a 
mining camp that was virtually abandoned for 25 years, 
a cyanide plant has been put into the Excelsior mine, 
and some of the other old mines will be re-opened. The 
California Rand silver mine, in San Bernardino county, 
the most productive silver property in California, con- 
tinued during 1920 to make shipments of high-grade ore 
to the smelter on San Francisco bay. The Globe and 
Chloride-Bailey mines, near Dedrick, Trinity county, 
have been purchased by New York men and are being re- 
opened. The Balaklala Copper Co.'s smelter at Coram 
has been torn down, and some of the steel and other ma- 

terial obtained from it is being used in the new plant of 
the Shasta Zinc & Copper Co. at Winthrop, in the Bully 
Hill region. The Mountain Copper Co. has built a 600- 
ton plant for crushing pyritic ores from the Hornet 
mine. Although the smelter of this company has been 
closed throughout the year, development work has been 
continued in the mines. The Twenty-One Mining Co., at 
Alleghany, Sierra county, has sold its mining property to 
the Sixteen-to-One Mining Co., thus ending a long liti- 
gation. The Harvard mine, Tuolumne county, long 
owned by Boston men, has been sold to John Ferguson 
and associates, of Berkeley. 

Copper in 1920 

The smelter production of copper from domestic ores 
during the year 1920 is estimated by H. A. C. Jensen, of 
the U. S. Geological Survey, to be about 1,235,000,000 
lb., compared with 1,286,000,000 lb. for 1919. The pro- 
duction of refined copper from foreign and domestic 
ores for the year was about 1,573,000,000 lb., which is 
approximately 195,000,000 lb. less than for the year 
1919. The apparent domestic consumption was about 
910,000,000 lb. ; in 1919 it was 877,000,000 lb. The stocks 
of raw and refined copper at the end of 1920 were about 
874,000,000 lb., which represents a decrease of 30,000,000 
lb. from those held at the end of 1919. The total im- 
ports of raw and refined copper for the ten months 
ending October 30, 1920, according to the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce, were 407,437,515 lb. 
Exports of copper for the same period were 543,695,851 
lb., compared with 516,627,775 lb. for the entire year 
1919. The continued decreased production, the large 
stocks, and the low domestic consumption were due en- 
tirely to the generally depressed conditions of industry 
throughout the world, which did not permit the absorp- 
tion of as great quantities of copper as had been hoped 
for. Low exchange and the great stocks of scrap and 
secondary copper available both in the United States 
and abroad also decreased the demand for new copper. 
The salient features of the copper industry during 1920 
were a small hesitating demand, decreased production, 
continued small exports, particularly during the last half 
of the year, and labor troubles. 

The total value of the mineral production of Alaska 
increased from $19,620,000 in 1919 to $22,070,000 in 
1920, according to estimates by Alfred H. Brooks of the 
U. S. G. S., just made public. This brings the value of 
the total mineral production of the Territory up to $460,- 
000,000, over half of which is to be credited to the last 
decade. The apparent prosperity of the Alaska mining 
industry during the year is due solely to the increase in 
the output of copper from 47,220,000 lb., valued at 
$8,783,000, in 1919, to about 71,000,000 lb., valued at 
$12,400,000, in 1920. Alaska has now produced 616,- 
200,000 lb. of copper, worth $127,000,000. As in past 
years, the only mines that made a large output of copper 
were those controlled by the Kennecott Copper Corpora- 
tion, the total production of ore being 330,000 tons. 

January 15, 1921 





iiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiii iiiiimiiimiimiiiimijiiitimimiiiii n 


Aspen. — Samples of ore from the Park tunnel (said to 
be polybasite) have attracted much attention. The ore 
assayed 13,092 oz. silver. The vein is four to six feet 
Jlide and, aside from the rich streak, samples 241 oz. 
silver per ton. The strike was made in the Best Friend 
incline on Sam Houston ground and is developed through 
the Jenny Lind tunnel. Development of the new ore- 
body in the Hope tunnel continues and. with the com- 
pressor connected with a motor recently secured, cross- 
cutting to the hanging wall and foot-wall of the vein 
will be completed and the width of the shoot proved. 
Supplies for the winter and spring have been taken into 
the Hurricane company's camp, where work on the lower 
tunnel of the Etcetera claim is being pushed. The tun- 
nel will cut the orebody where ore was discovered before 
the miners were driven out by water. Connection will 
be made by a raise and the shaft workings drained. 

Breckenridge. — Last year's recovery of gold by the 
dredges, which totaled $500,000, will be exceeded this 
year if plans of the dredging companies are carried 
through. More properties are active than for many years 
past, and among these are the Dunkin and Price mines 
on Nigger hill ; Quandary Queen, Mount Helen ; Iron 
Mask. Missouri, Brooks Snider, and Deep Shaft, Shock 
hill ; Standard, Gibson hill ; June Bug, Gibson gulch ; 
"Warriors Mark, Maximus, Laurium, and Molly B. on 
Yuba Dam flat; Billie Junior, and Wellington. The 
milk of this company closed down in November, due to 
low zinc prices, but development continues. During 
1920 the Wellington stockholders were paid $100,000 in 
dividends, a total to date of $2,000,000. 

Central City. — The Midwest Mining & Milling Co. 
is making progress with mill construction at Black Hawk 
and the Iron City mill of the company is operating at 
profit and turning out high-grade concentrate. Work 
continues in the Midwest tunnel and a 12-in. streak of 
smelting-grade ore has been opened in the Peru. Work 
has been resumed on the National mine by E. S. Moulton 
and associates and ores containing gold, silver, and cop- 
per are shipped to and treated at the Rocky Mountain 
concentrator at Black Hawk. Machinery at the Coeur 
D'Alene and Isabel mines has been overhauled prepara- 
tory to the resumption of work by the National Finance 
& Holding Company. 

Cripple Creek. — Eight sets of lessees on the property 

of the Mary McKinney company, three in the main shaft, 
three in the Anaconda, and two sets in the Howard-shaft 
workings are mining and shipping medium-grade ore to 
Golden Cycle mi ll at Colorado Springs. No work is 
being done on company account. Cresson is maintaining 
production at 8000 tons monthly and building up its 
treasury reserve. Two shifts are employed and 120 
miners are kept on the payroll. 

The El Paso Extension Corporation is installing an 
electric hoist at the Rittenhouse shaft, Gold Hill, and 
has laid and connected an air-line with its compressor at 
the Index shaft, preparatory to development of the low- 
grade ore on the property. 

Durango. — Ore from the Rico Wellington mine, av- 
eraging $20 per ton, is being shipped at a profit to the 
Durango smelter as the result of a low freight-rate of 
$2.50 per ton, recently put in effect. A new orebody 
sampling 18 oz. silver and 7 to 10% lead was recently 
entered and is now under development. The company 
last month also shipped to the smelter 500 tons of pyrite 
that averaged 42.5% iron. 

Idaho Springs. — The Gem company has installed a 
75-hp. electric hoist, at the Freighter shaft, and develop- 
ment is under way. Machinery formerly in use at the 
Carr mine in Gilpin county has been purchased by the 
Fraction management and is being removed for installa- 
tion at the Clear Creek property. A new orebody has 
been opened and shipments will start as soon as the hoist 
is in operation. The Roosevelt company at Alice is in- 
stalling a new stamp-battery, while miners are breaking 
ore in two headings of the tunnel. A tram from the 
tunnel to the mill is under construction. 



Houghton. — The mines of the Lake Superior copper 
region are now paying their 1920 taxes. The tax roll 
in Houghton county for 1920 is $1,910,351, and it is es- 
timated that 85% of this will be paid by the mining com- 
panies. The tax burden is considerable at this time 
owing to the drain on treasuries at a time of depressed 
metal market. The tax is based on an assessed valuation 
of $91,878,050. There has been a heavy increase in mine 
taxes since 1916 in keeping with advancing costs, and 
from $200,000 to $300,000 has been added each year. 
The tax cost is particularly burdensome to companies 



January 15, 1921 

only in an exploratory stage. As an illustration, May- 
flower has just paid approximately $22,000 in taxes, and 
yet it has not produced a pound of copper. The tax 
account actually is equivalent to an operating expense of 
four months. Other mines that are not operating, but 
whose shares have remained comparatively high, also 
are hard hit. In determining the valuation of mines, 
the market price of the stock is the basis and the average 
price of the shares for the year is taken as the figure. The 
quotation at the close of the market every Monday for 
the 52 weeks of the year is totaled and the mean is the 
average value. The method often has been criticized, 
but as a matter of fact no better system has been devised 
and it has been upheld by the Supreme Court of Michi- 
gan. It is considered out of the question to assess a mine 
according to its physical valuation. Under this method, 
while the mines have been hard hit in 1920 taxes, assessed 
valuations will be considerably lower this year, as they 
will be based on the relatively lower market for all shares 
in 1920. 

Removal of shaft pillars in No. 4, Wolverine, is yield- 
ing ore averaging 17 lb. of refined copper per ton. The 
'rock' is selected, only that rich enough to stamp being 
mined. The pillars that are being taken out from the 
bottom of the mine upward to the 28th level, are fairly 
rich and uniform in copper content. The work of re- 
moving pillars has not yet started in No. 3, in which a 
considerable amount of ground remains to be stoped out 
in the old workings in the upper levels. Both drifts and 
stopes will be widened. There are wide stoping areas 
on practically every upper level that will yield rich 
ground and require a number of years to exhaust. "Wol- 
verine is hoisting 900 tons of rock daily and employing 
as many men as it can handle underground. Present 
costs, exclusive of taxes, are 15c. per pound. 

Mohawk, which has been adding underground men 
from time to time, now has an efficient force, and pro- 
duction has reached 2350 tons per day. In No. 1 shaft, 
two drifts are being pushed south from the 23rd and 
24th levels to connect with No. 4 shaft. The 23rd level 
is 500 ft. from No. 4 and the 24th is 1100 ft. The pur- 
pose of these connections is to extend the electric tram- 
ming system to No. 1 shaft, which will result in a reduc- 
tion of tramming costs. Electric tramming is now in use 
only in No. 4. Considerable ground remains to be 
worked out of No. 2 and 3 shafts, both of which were 
abandoned some years ago, but this work will not be 
undertaken until all of the working shafts reach their 
limit in depth. There are stopes to be widened out, 
arches and supports to be cut away, and levels to be 
driven to the foot and hanging walls before the final op- 
eration of removing the shaft-pillars. The same process 
ultimately will follow in No. 1, 4, 5, and 6. Four heads 
are now in operation at the Mohawk mill and two in the 
Wolverine. With the new electric pump in service at 
the mills, a saving of 25% in fuel costs has been effected. 
The pumps, which supply the water for the mills, are 
operated by a turbine which is driven by exhaust steam 
from the stamp-heads. 



Ely. — The Consolidated Coppermines company has 
discharged the 60 men employed and has stopped operat- 
ing, supposedly because of the low price of copper and 
general conditions. Last summer this company had de- 
cided to build a 2500-ton smelter and concentrator, but 
this work has been indefinitely postponed. There is esti- 
mated to be 20,000,000 tons of 1.33% porphyry ore, 
200,000 tons of 3% heavy-sulphide ore, and 500,000 tons 
of 7% oxidized ore in the various workings. The Ward 
lead-silver mine, 12 miles south of here, has been closed 
because of the low price of lead. The 30 miners em- 
ployed have been discharged and no further attempt 
will be made to operate the mine until the metal market 
improves. Shipments had been made for several years 
at a rate of 250 to 500 tons monthly and it was an- 
nounced recently that the rate was to be increased to 
1500 tons and then to 3000. 

Tonopah. — The Clifford silver-gold mine, credited 
with a production of $500,000 since it was discovered 15 
years ago, has been bonded by the Clifford estate to New 
York interests. The mine is 40 miles north-east of Tono- 
pah, and during the years it has been worked by the 
Cliffords it has produced remarkably rich ore, most of 
which was treated in a small mill on the ground. In re- 
cent years little work has been done because of a disagree- 
ment among the heirs. The mine consists of 14 claims, 
developed through two 200-ft. shafts. Settlement sheets 
from the Selby smelter show, among others, the follow- 
ing shipments: 426 lb. concentrate assaying 7569.16 oz. 
silver and 38.84 oz. gold per ton; 1640 lb. ore of a net 
value of $1742.76, figuring silver at 59c. ; 400 lb. concen- 
trate of a net value of $1435.30, with silver at 48Jc. ; 142£ 
lb. concentrate assaying 14,228.37 oz. silver and 226.12 
oz. gold per ton. There are exposed many good shoots of 
medium-grade ore, including a 3-ft. width of $38.90 ore 
and a 9-ft. width of $22.40 ore. There is said to be 
enough $20 to $30 ore exposed to warrant the erection of 
a mill, and the holders of the bond plan to develop the 
mine on a good scale. Among other improvements it is 
planned to lay five miles of 6-in. water-pipe. The ore is 

Divide. — The Rosetta, in the extreme southern part of 
the district, has officially reported an important find of 
$20 to $60 ore in a cross-cut driven east at a depth of 300 
ft. Ore of this grade, the average value being unknown, 
has been penetrated for 12 ft. There have been no new 
developments on the 800 or 1000-ft. levels of the Tonopah 
Divide, where drifts are being continued south-east to 
reach under ore-shoots on the upper levels. A pipe-line 
has been completed from the Gold Reef shaft and water 
will soon be pumped from this source at an estimated 
saving of $5000 yearly over the cost of hauling from 
Tonopah. The Gold Zone continues shipping from the 
700-ft. level at a rate of 500 to 600 tons per month. This 
ore is coming from a stope and from this work is to be 
done to determine definitely whether the ore on the 700- 


January 15, 1921 



ft. level is in a fissure parallel to the main Tonopnh Di- 
vide vein or is in that vein, displaced by faulting. Winn 
this has been determined it is planned to sink a winze 

from the 700-ft. level in tb •.••shoot, which is 25 Et. 

long ami 4 ft. wide in a vein 20 it. wide. 

Manhattan. — A 6-ft. width of ore has been entered 
350 ft. from the shaft in the west cross-cut on the 800-ft. 
level of the White Caps. This ore is far east of where 
the main orebody should be entered at this depth. The 
cross-cut is being continued by two shifts of miners work- 
ing under contract. In addition to this work two cross- 
cuts are being driven on the 500-ft. level. 

Hamilton. — Ed. Wilson and Ole Johnson, working the 
Great Valley silver-lead mine under lease, are hauling a 
carload of ore to Kimberley on the Nevada Northern rail- 
road for shipment in the spring. Wilson and Johnson 
have worked the mine for the last four years, making 
occasional shipments to the smelter at Midvale, Utah. 

Pioneer. — The Mayflower mill, in which many altera- 
tions and improvements have been made since it and the 
mine were taken over by the Tobin management, is being 
tested on low-grade ore from the main workings and the 
Starlight, into which a cross-cut is being driven with 
three shifts of miners. 

Stonewall. — Gordon M. Bettles. manager of the Yel- 
low Tiger, estimates that after the improvements now 
being made have been completed at the mine and at 
Ralston station on the Tonopah & Tidewater railroad a 
saving of 40% in previous costs will be made. The com- 
pany is building at the station an'oil-tank that will hold 
a carload. This should result in a saving of seven cents 
per gallon and give a uniform grade of oil. Work will 
be resumed soon in the Sterlag tunnel. 



Salt Lake City. — Ernest Bamberger, general man- 
ager for the Ontario Silver Mining Co., W. Mont. Ferry, 
managing director for the Silver King Coalition Mines 
Co., and Imer Pett, general manager for the Bingham 
Mines Co., were representatives of Utah lead producers 
at the meeting of the Ways and Means Committee of 
Congress on January 12, 13, and 14 when the question 
of a tariff on lead was argued. The Utah delegation pre- 
sented data to substantiate the claim that lead producers 
in this State cannot continue to operate unless a pro- 
tective tariff is imposed on the metal. During 1920, the 
lead output of the State was about 134,000,000 lb., with 
an estimated value of $10,939,000, so that local lead pro- 
ducers are naturally anxious to see the industry pro- 
tected. The value of the gold, silver, copper, lead, and 
zinc produced in Utah during 1920 is estimated at about 
$46,000,000 by Victor C. Heikes, of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, as compared with a value of $45,169,328 for 
1919. The output of gold and copper decreased consid- 
erably, while that of lead and zinc increased, with the 
silver production practically the same for both years. 

Pabk Crry.— During 1920, ore shipments from this 
t totaled 99,864 tons, as compared with 75.623 tons 
for 1919. The increase was due to the high prices of sil- 
ver and lead prevailing during the early months of 1920, 
and to the opening up of several high-grade Btopes in 
various mines. Had it not been for the slump in the 
price of lead during the latter months of the year, ship- 
ments would have been larger. The Judge electrolytic 
smelter produced 2323 tons of premium spelter during 
1920, as compared with 3667 tons during 1919. The 
plant was closed down on November 1, due to the unsatis- 
factory condition of the zinc market and the increase in 
electric-power rate. 

Preparations are under way for the installation of a 
large electric pump on the 2000-ft. level of the Ontario 

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mine, and it is estimated that about tw : o months time will 
be required to complete the work. The capacity of the 
new pump will be 15,000 gal. per minute. The pumps 
now in use on the lower levels will not be disturbed, and 
they will be kept in operation when necessary. The man- 
agement states that there is no intention at present to 
sink from the 2000-ft. level. 

Eureka. — Ore shipments from this district for the 
year 1920 totaled 7397 cars, or approximately 296,000 
tons, as compared with 6921 cars, or 276,000 tons, for 
1919. As was the case with other silver-lead camps, pro- 
duction was pushed to the limit during the early months 
of the year, but during the latter months, owing to the 
decline in metal quotations and increased freight-rates, 
shipments were curtailed. During April and May, owing 
to the switchmen's strike, production was curtailed at 
all of the leading properties, owing to embargoes placed 
on shipments by the Salt Lake Valley smelters. 

The concreting of No. 2 shaft at the Chief Consolidated 
mine was completed December 31. Drifting has been 
started on the lowest level at the property — the 1900. 
The shaft is the first in this State to be concreted, and 
while the expense has been heavy, the management feels 



January 15, 1921 

that the cost of repairs will be moderate as compared 
with a timber-lined shaft. During 1920, the Chief Con- 
solidated established a new high record in the matter of 
production ; 1948 ears of ore were shipped, as against 
1299 cars for 1919. 

It is reported that work will be resumed by the Knight 
interests at the Tintic Drain Tunnel property early in 
the new year. The tunnel is now in a distance of over a 
mile, and work was suspended owing to the financial 
stringency, some months ago. It is stated that a raise 
will be driven through to the surface, at a point near the 
face of the tunnel, and that following the completion of 
this work, regular driving operations will be resumed. 
The raise to the surface will be for ventilation purposes. 

The work of enlarging and re-timbering the shaft at 
the Eureka-Standard property in the eastern part of the 
district is under way; the old single compartment shaft 
will be enlarged to standard size, and heavier equipment 
will be installed to permit further sinking. The bottom 
of the shaft is now at 550 feet. 

Stoping has been started at the Eureka Mines prop- 
erty from a 10-ft. face of ore, which is a continuation of 
the stope mined in the Gemini property, from which ship- 
ments were made averaging 30 to 35 oz. silver and from 
20 to 40% lead. At the Eureka Mines, the ore is being 
taken from just below the 940-ft. level, according to 
Jackson McChrystal, manager. 

Alta. — Four snowslides occurred upon the properties 
of the Emma Silver Mines Co. and the Michigan-Utah 
Mining Co. on January 5. One of the slides passed over 
several bunkhouses of the Emma company, doing but 
little damage. Another slide carried away the loading- 
station of the Miehigan-Utah company, and damaged the 
trestle. No one was injured. Development work at the 
Columbus-Rexall property is proving that the mineraliza- 
tion in the two main fissure systems is persistent and rich, 
according to C. M. Evans, superintendent. Exploration 
work is being confined to the No. 8 and No. 10 fissure- 
systems. A drift has been run along fissure No. 8 for 
about 100 ft. At the top of the drift, five feet of high- 
grade ore has been cut. Both of the fissure systems make 
into virgin territory, and the prospect is good. 

Big Cottonwood. — The main working adit at the Big 
Cottonwood mine is now in a distance of 3268 ft. and for 
the last 100 ft. has been driven through a favorable 
formation, according to C. E. Robertson, secretary-treas- 
urer. Stringers of sulphides and carbonates have been 
passed through. The objective of the adit is the Copper 
King fissure, estimated to be about 400 ft. distant. It is 
possible that the fissure has taken a slight dip in the 
direction of the tunnel, in which event the distance will 
be even less. 



December witnessed the utter demoralization of the 
zinc-mining industry of south-west Wisconsin. In Decem- 
ber there were no official zinc-ore quotations. When the 

State Railroad Commission granted the petition of the 
Interstate Light & Power Co. to advance power-rates 
31% some of the larger producers immediately decided 
to shut-down. The Mineral Point Zinc Co. ordered its 
entire list of producers in the field, including the famous 
Coker, Hoskins, Penna-Benton, and Black-Jack mines, 
shut-down, throwing 600 men out of employment. At 
the company's plant, in the city of Mineral Point, work- 
ing schedules were reduced from seven days weekly to 
five days. A supply of raw-zinc concentrate on hand 
when the mines shut-down enabled the magnetic-separat- 
ing plants and the sulphuric-acid works to continue, but 
as soon as this supply of raw ore, which furnishes the 
base for the manufacture of acid, has been treated the 
entire works will suspend. A few other mines have fol- 
lowed the example of Mineral Point. 

On the other hand, at Platteville the Block-House 
Mining Co. operated steadily all month, selling but three 
cars of high-grade separator blende. It is said no shut- 
down is contemplated here. The two mines of the Fron- 
tier Mining Co., of Indianapolis, the Middie and Bull 
Moose, ran steadily on full-time schedules and by the 
close of the month had a reserve of 6500 tons of zinc con- 
centrate, costing $115,000. The Rodhams mine, a neigh- 
bor of the Frontier mines, observed the same program. 
The mines of the Wisconsin Zinc Co. were kept in opera- 
tion all month. The first part of December found the 
company marketing green concentrate with the Mineral 
Point Zinc Co., but this expedient was soon terminated 
and the company's big all-steel magnetic separating 
plant at New Diggings, idle since August 1, was again 
heated up and green ore was being brought up to stand- 
ard commercial premium-grade blende. The mines of 
the Steel & Tube Co. of America were all kept in op- 
erating shape through December, due to the fact that 
raw zinc ore is essential to the requirements of the com- 
pany's acid plant at Cuba City. 

In smelter circles depression was as much evident as 
in mining, for the Illinois Zinc Co., at Peru, closed down 
its zinc, acid, and sheet-mills as well as its coal mines, 
throwing 1000 men out of work. This smelter has been 
for many years one of the best buyers of Wisconsin zinc 
in the district. The Matthiesen & Hegeler Zinc Co., an- 
other large buying concern of Wisconsin zinc ore, sold 
its plant to the Schwab interests. It was said this trans- 
action was the aftermath of a clash between DuPont and 
Ford interests, in which the former sought to embarrass 
the automobile manufacturer and prevent the purchase 
of materials essential to Ford. At any rate, B. Lissinger 
& Co., of New York, come into control of the smelter at 
LaSalle, also a buyer of Wisconsin zinc ore since 1879. 
Zinc operators here regard the passing of the M. & H. 
Zinc Co.'s smelter into Schwab's hand as a good omen 
for the zinc industry, in that it will result in the stabil- 
izing of zinc-mine products. Whether they are correct 
remains to be seen, but it is known that representatives 
of the LaSalle smelter have intimated that they will re- 
quire Wisconsin zinc ore in quantity. 

Lead-ore offerings for December were stationary at 


January 15, 1921 



$47. "in per ton. Shipments were almost nil. less than 
100 tons going to ami Iters during the month. This came 

from the Benton district. There were no ship ats of 

iron pyrites, and only a small quantity of oarbonate-zinc 

are was marketed. The reserve of /ii re of all grades 

in the field at the close of December amounted to more 
man 15,000 tons; of lead ore 3000 tuns; iron pyrite, 
30,000 tons; and carbonate-zinc ore. .Jim ions. The gross 
ry of milled ore for the month amounted to 11,503 
short tons; net deliveries to smelters, 1533 tons, all of 
whi.h came from the National Zinc Ore Separators at 
Cuba City, except four cars which were shipped from the 

each succeeding year. The hulk of the gold production 
tiafa Columbia and Yukon Territory passes through 

this office. A telegraphic ssage from Alice Arm states 

that the Dolly Varden mine has been closed, and that the 

men had to walk the L8 miles from the mine to tide-water 
through deep snow. The cause for the (dosing is not 
known. It was the intention of the Taylor Alining Co. 
to have retained from 80 to 100 men on the payroll dur- 
ing the winter. It is supposed that some difficulty has 
arisen with the men. 

Stewart. — II. A. Guess, managing director of mines 
for the American S. & R. Co., has instructed the Riblet 


Block-House mine, in the Platteville district and sold to 
the American Metal Co. Where ordinarily 5000 miners 
find employment, less than 1000 men were engaged at 
the end of December. Prospect work with drills dwin- 
dled to the lowest level known to the field in years. 
Building operations were brought to an abrupt halt all 
along the line. 



Vancouver. — The Dominion government assay-office 
in this city reports that during 1920 the total number of 
deposits of precious metal received was 1348, valued at 
$2,499,229, against 1391 deposits, valued at $3,547,525, 
: in 1919, and 1358 deposits, valued at $4,099,595, in 1918. 
It will be noticed that the number of the deposits remains 
fairly even, but their value has shown a marked decrease 

Tramway Co., of Spokane, to make an investigation of 
the transportation conditions at the Premier property 
and prepare estimates for an aerial tramway between the 
mine and tide-water. The working tunnel is about 1400 
ft. above tide-water; 900 ft. of rise occurs in the last 
three miles to the mine. Since the heavy rains of last 
summer it has been found practically impossible to keep 
the load in repair, and, unless frosts harden the road 
considerably, it is feared that it will not be possible to 
ship the quantity of ore that was hoped during the 
winter. The ore is being culled more closely, and some 
700 tons of high-grade that is expected to average above 
$500 per ton is ready for shipment, wdiile a large amount 
of medium and low-grade ore awaits the completion of 
the combined concentration and cyaniding plant. Con- 
struction work on the mill is progressing as rapidly as 
material arrives at the mine. 



January 15, 1921 



Porcupine. — The available supply of electric power 
for the mines is about 4000 hp., and this limit is not "like- 
ly to be exceeded before spring. It is being allotted to 
those consumers who have contracts with the power com- 
pany. The Hollinger Consolidated receives about 2000 
hp., which, combined with 1400 or more generated by its 
auxiliary steam-plant, will enable the company to main- 
tain operations at a satisfactory rate. The Dome Mines 
will get upward of 1000 hp. and will have to curtail un- 
derground operations to some extent. The Mclntyre will 
reinforce a comparatively small supply of power from 
the power company by about 250 hp. from its auxiliary 
plant, enabling it to carry on operations at about two- 
thirds capacity. At the North Crown, which has been 
allotted 250 hp., the mill has been closed down and under- 
ground work on the 500-ft. level will be continued. The 
Porcupine mine managers will hold a conference with 
the power-company officials to settle disputes which have 
arisen as to priority of claims for power and as to the 
liability of the company for the extra cost entailed by 
the development of auxiliary steam-power. 

The Dome Lake has sold its machinery to the North 
Davidson. The buildings are being preserved with a 
view to the possibility of resuming work at some future 

Kirkland Lake. — Progress is being made with the 
proposed merger of the Teck-Hughes and Orr gold mines. 
The plan under consideration includes the organization 
of a new company capitalized at $5,000,000 in shares of 
the par value of $1, of which 2,500,000 shares will be 
assigned to the Teck-Hughes stockholders and 1,500,000 
shares to those of the Orr, leaving 1,000,000 in the 
treasury. The King Kirkland has ordered a mining 
plant and, following its installation, development will 
be started on a substantial ore-shoot outcropping on the 

Cobalt. — Power shortage is considerably curtailing 
production, without any prospect of an improvement in 
conditions until spring. The Beaver and McKinley- 
Darragh mines have closed down, but the underground 
workings of both mines are being kept clear of water, so 
as to enable operations to be resumed when power is 
available. The Kerr Lake dividend of 12|c. per share, 
payable January 15, will bring the total return to share- 
holders up to $8,860,000. Production has declined some- 
what during the past year, but the discovery of three 
new veins containing some high-grade ore gives promise 
of a satisfactory output during the coming season. At 
the Bailey a two-inch vein of high-grade ore has been 
discovered at the 240-ft. level which is reported to run 
4000 oz. per ton. The annual report of the Coniagas 
stated that 994.235 oz. of silver had been produced from 
97,624 tons of ore, as compared with 940,267 oz. the 
previous year. There had been a total distribution of 
$10,140,000 to shareholders in dividends and bonuses. 

Shipments of high-grade ore were only 5.6 tons, the com- 
pany being now dependent on the concentration of ores 
averaging about 10 oz. per ton, the re-grinding of sand 
tailing, and the cyanidation of slime. A considerable 
tonnage of low-grade milling rock has been developed. 



Monterrey. — Unless there is an early improvement in 
mining conditions in Mexico some of the smelters that 
are now in operation may have to close soon on account 
of shortage of ore. From all of the larger mining dis- 
tricts, with the exception of Guanajuato, come reports 
of the closing-down of mines and the contemplated 
suspension of work upon other properties. From San 
Luis Potosi comes the announcement of the closing of the 
rich mines of the Santa Maria de la Paz Mining Co. 
which was the largest producer of ore in that State. 
Rafael Bustamente and associates have ceased to operate 
their mines in the VelardeSa district of the State of 
Durango. Other mines in that district are also closed. 
In the Santa Eulalia, Santa Barbara, and Parral dis- 
tricts of the State of Chihuahua the closing of most of the 
big ore-producing properties has already taken place or 
is contemplated. Mining operations generally in the rich 
Pachuca district of the State of Hidalgo have been 
suspended with the result that the laboring element there 
is threatening trouble. 

The shortage of fuel, together with the low price of 
silver and copper, is given as the cause of the closing 
down of numerous mines. It is stated that the Govern- 
ment is seeking to remedy existing conditions. It is ex- 
pected that coal and coke will be available and equal to 
all demands within the next few weeks. The strike of 
coal miners in the State of Coahuila, where the principal 
fuel supply for the mines of all northern Mexico is ob- 
tained, has been settled but the mines were flooded during 
the prolonged shut-down and it will take some time to 
drain them and place them on a producing basis again. 

Agua Prieta. — Details of the recently announced plan 
of the Mexican government to remove export duty on 
silver are set forth in the following statement: "When 
silver is quoted on the New York stock exchange at 60c. 
or lower, exportation fees into the United States will be 
revoked. With prices ranging between 60 and 70c, one-, 
half of one per cent duty will be imposed ; when between 
70 and SOc. the fee will be one per cent ; between 80 and 
90e. one and one-half per cent. Ores and concentrates 
will be exported into the United States at an increased 
rate of one per cent, provided that the market is quoted 
at the low standard." Silver is now shown at Agua , 
Prieta, for customs-house purposes, at a value of 60c. 
per pound, and copper at 10c. The prices used in De- 
cember for customs-house purposes was SOc. for silver 
and 15c. for copper. During the past year customs- j 
house quotations were as high as $1.20 for silver and 20c. | 
for copper. The new figures will apply until there are 
changes in the actual market value of the metals. 

January 15, 1921 




In view of the fact that United States Smelting will show 
a final balance after depreciation, depletion, taxes, and in- 
ventory adjustments for 1920 of but $3.50 per share on the 
common stock, directors unquestionably were as liberal as 
could be expected in declaring a 50c. dividend for the final 
quarter. This makes a total of $5 paid during the year, the 
difference coming out of surplus. It goes without saying 
that last year was the poorest experienced by United States 
Smelting since 1914, when a balance of but $1.60 was re- 
turned for the junior shares. Last year the earnings were 
equivalent to over $14 and in 1916 to over $20 per share. 
In the first five months of this year alone net profits were 
only slightly less than the probable total for the full year. 
It is understood that all metals were marked down, in de- 
termining estimates of the showing for the year, to slightly 
below present market quotations, which means less than 
63c. for silver, less than 4}c. for lead, and less than 134c. for 
copper. The drop in silver has been the largest single factor 
in upsetting the splendid start which the company made in 
the spring. The price has been more than cut in two. This 
is of tremendous weight, since production has been climbing 
and will reach record-breaking figures this year. Purchase 
of a big lead and zinc property, the Cardonal, and of addi- 
tional silver mines, both in Mexico, have resulted in some 
reduction in net quick assets which last year were aug- 
mented $4,000,000 principally as a result of the sale of the 
interest in the Chrome, New Jersey, refinery. Net quick 
assets now total about $12,500,000 or more than the $12,- 
000,000 note issue. Incidentally, nearly $1,000,000 of these 
notes have been acquired by the company in the open market 
and are in the treasury. 


Miami. — Fire caused almost complete destruction last 
week of the blacksmith shop, the tool-sharpening room, and 
adjoining buildings of the Live Oak group of the Inspira- 
tion company. It is thought that the fire started from 
ignition by one of the furnaces of fuel-oil flowing from 

Bisbee. — Work of sinking the Junction shaft of the Calu- 
met & Arizona Co. from the 1800 to the 2300-ft. level is 
progressing satisfactorily; on January 1, 363 ft. had been 
sunk, and 157 ft. was left to sink. Two compartments are 
being sunk and the rest of the shaft will be raised. With 
concreting and the cutting of stations much work will be 
left when the two compartments have reached the 2300-ft. 
level. At the Campbell shaft of the Calumet & Arizona Co. 
there was left on January 1, 427 ft. to strip down to the 
1400-ft. level. This will be accomplished in about six 
weeks, after which it is probable that more sinking will be 


Death Valley Junction. — The mine and calcining plant of 
the Pacific Coast Borax Co. have been closed completely, 
throwing 150 men out of employment. High freight-rates 
are said to be the cause, as borax from the mines of the 
company in Asia Minor can be laid down at Atlantic Coast 
points cheaper than from Death Valley. 

Shasta County. — F. A. Zimmerman has sold a half inter- 

est in his quartz mine near the old town of Shasta to J. L. 
Anderson. They announce that they will spend $10,000 in 
equipment and betterments and erect a five-stamp mill on 
the claim in the spring. 

The new reduction works of the Shasta Zinc & Copper Co. 
at the Bully Hill mine will be completed by April 15 ac- 
cording to present calculations. Construction was inter- 
rupted for 25 days during the stormy weather in December, 
but all the buildings are under roof, so that there will be 
no further delays. The company is employing 220 men. 
When the plant is in operation it will require about 180 
men. The capacity at first will be 300 tons per day. Plans 
are made to double this later on. The buildings constructed, 
or under construction, are the reverberatory building, bag- 
house, crushing section, cooling chamber, bins, and ware- 
house, the last a building 90 by 200 ft. All buildings are of 
steel on cement foundations. At one stage of construction 
steel was bought in the East at $200 per ton. The same 
steel is purchased now in the same market for $130 per ton. 
Most of the steel used in the construction of the buildings 
was obtained by tearing down the Balaklala's smelter at 


Leadville. — Production of $6,535,577 in gold, silver, lead, 
copper, zinc, manganese, and sulphur is estimated for 1920, 
the figures being as follows: zinc, 19,754,4S2 lb., valued at 
$1,525,046; silver, 142,285 oz., $1,233,668; gold, 33,396 
oz., $690,283; lead, 9,328,234 lb., $419,771; copper, 1,043.- 
034 lb., $1,525,046; manganese, 5125 tons, $153,750; sul- 
phur, 8000 tons, $144,000. A decrease is shown as com- 
pared to the 1919 figures of $2,183,089, or 35.6%. 


Coeur d'Alene. — Dividends from the mines of the district 
for 1920 have been $5,063,509, compared with $2,663,500 
in 1919. This is chiefly due to the dividends of the Callahan 
Zinc and the Hercules companies. The latter is not a cor- 
poration but a close syndicate which gives no information of 
disbursement, the figures being estimates. The table of 
dividends during 1920, and the total, compared with the 
total of 1919, is as follows: 

Company 1920 1919 

Bunker Hill $1,962,000 $1,144,500 

Caledonia 20S.400 312,600 

Federal 719,271 450,000 

Hecla 650,000 600,000 

Hercules 900,000 

Callahan Zinc 756,000 

Tamarack & Custer 56,400 

Lessees 120,000 100,000 


Total $5,306,271 $2,663,500 

Important reductions on freight-rates on Coeur d'Alene 
ores have been granted. The reduction in freight-rates on 
ores to the smelters was vital to the district and the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission finally agreed to it on the urg- 
ing of the three railroad companies concerned — the O.-W. R. 
& N., the Northern Pacific, and the Great Northern. The 
reduction goes into effect on the O.-W. R. & N. and the Great 
Northern on February 1. These lines handle the ores of the 



January 15, 1921 

Hercules and Tamarack & Custer mines, which go to the 
smelter at Northport. The reduction went into effect on Jan- 
uary 1 on the Northern Pacific, which handles ores ot the 
district going to the smelter at East Helena, Montana. The 
reduced rates are said to he $3 per ton from the Coeur 
d'Alene to both Northport and Helena on ores of value not 
exceeding $50 per ton, with 25c. per ton added for each ad- 
ditional $10 per ton of value up to $4.75 per ton for $100 
ore, and $5 per ton for ore over $100 per ton in value. 

The following notice has been posted at Kellogg, by the 
Bunker Hill & Sullivan company: 

"Notice to all employees: The price of lead has fallen 
from 9c. per pound September last to a present price of 4J 
and 4Jc. per pound. This is the lowest price in over five 
years and no longer makes possible the further payment of 
the present bonus of $2.25 per shift. The bonus additions, 
50c. each, announced July 20, 1919, and February 16, 1920, 
are withdrawn." The wages paid under the above schedule 
will be $4.75 for miners and $4.50 for muckers. 

The general manager, Stanly A. Easton, said that it is 
planned that local operations will continue at their present 
full scale and that there will be no curtailment or layoff of 
men or reduction in the amount of new construction and 
current building. 


Elko County. — The Catlin Shale Products Co., said to be 
backed financially by the New Jersey Zinc Co., is developing 
a large deposit of oil-shale in the Elko field. The shaft is 
reported down 400 ft. in a shale stratum 9 ft. wide. The 
rock is said to yield approximately 50 gal. of high-grade 
oil per ton. 

Eureka County. — Work by the Ruby Hill Development 
Co. in the Locan shaft of the Richmond-Eureka mine has 
been resumed. On the result of operations in the Locan 
shaft will probably depend the operation of most of the other 
mines in the Eureka district next spring and summer, as the 
finding of large and valuable bodies of ore 5 00 ft. below the 
present lowest depth of the Ruby Hill mines would en- 
courage deep-level mining elsewhere in the district. 

During the last three weeks there were shipped from Eureka 
district, over the Eureka-Nevada railway, to the Utah smelt- 
ers eight cars of ore from the Eureka-Holly mine; ten cars 
of ore from the Eureka-Croesus mine, and 72 cars of speiss 
from the Richmond-Eureka smelters. 


Rio Do Janeiro. — The United States Steel Corporation has 
purchased the large manganese mines situated at Morra Da 
Mina, about 300 miles from Rio De Janeiro in the State of 
Minas Geraes. These mines contain large tonnages of good 
manganese ore and the purchase makes the Corporation in- 
dependent concerning its supply of manganese ore, which is 
essential in the manufacture of iron and steel. The com- 
pany has been receiving shipments from Morra Da Mina for 
several years. The price is reported as being approximately 


Plin Plon. — The Canadian government has made some im- 
portant modifications of the mining regulations in view of 
the development of the Flin Flon copper deposit. The rule 
providing that ores must be treated and refined in Canada 
has been relaxed so as to permit blister copper to be ex- 
ported for the final refining process, owing to the cost of 
sending it to the Trail smelter in British Columbia which is 
the only place in Canada where the electrolytic refining 
process is in operation. It is also provided that the product 
o£ the Flin Flon mines in which gross recoverable values 
average less than $10 per ton shall be exempted from the 
payment of royalties for a period of ten years from January 
1, 1921. 


The Editor invites members of the profession to send particulars of their 
work and appointments. The information is interesting to our readers. 

George Fairbaim has left London for Mexico. 

D. D. Moffat was at McGill, Nevada, last week. 

Frank T. A. Smith, of Burnet, Texas, is at Los Angeles. 

J. B. Davis has returned from Dutch Guiana to San Fran- 

N. C. de Bowne has moved from Berkeley to Socorro, New 

R. C. Gemmell, accompanied by C. B. Lakenan, is in San 


E. F. Davis has moved from Salt Lake City to Cheyenne, 

Charlos Billick has returned to Alturas, California, from 
La Paz, Bolivia. 

Edwin T. Hodge has moved from Vancouver, B. C, to 
Eugene, Oregon. 

Walter R. Vidler has returned to Denver from Long 
Beach, California. 

Gordon S. Duncan has joined the firm of Wilkens & 
Devereux, in London. 

R. A. Kent has moved from Leadville, Colorado, to Los 
Cerrillos, New Mexico. 

J. M. Callow is at Superior, Arizona, and expects to return 
to Salt Lake City next week. 

Bobert G. Davies, who has been at Guadalupe, Zacatecas, 
Mexico, is now at Berkeley, California. 

Alexander Anderson, of Edinburgh, Scotland, is in San 
Francisco. He was formerly at El Oro. 

Arthur W. Burgren, of Matehuala, San Luis Potosi, 
Mexico, is at Knight's Ferry, California. 

Imer Pett, general manager for the Bingham Mines Co. 
at Salt Lake City, is in Washington, D. C. 

George C. Mackenzie has been appointed secretary of the 
Canadian Institute of Mining & Metallurgy. 

Edmund A. Guggenheim, director of the Chile Copper Co., 
is now on his way to Chuguicamata to inspect the company's 

J. B. Elliott, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, president of the 
Three Kings Mining Co. at Park City, Utah, is on a holiday 
in southern California. 

F. M. Sylvester, formerly general manager for the Granby 
Consolidated, is now president of the Moore Group Mining 
Co., on Alice Arm, B. C. 

Mark R. Lamb sailed on January 1 from New York on one 
of his regular visits to the mines of South America for the 
New York Steel Exchange, Inc., for which he is purchasing 

R. P. McLaughlin has resigned as Oil and Gas Supervisor 
of California in order to resume practice as petroleum en- 
gineer and geologist with an office at 485 California St., San 

George W. Gray, who for several years has been chief 
mining engineer for the Dome Mines company, has been 
placed in full charge of mining operations for the Canadian 
Associated Goldfields. 

George E. Farish has resigned as managing director of 
the properties in Central America to which he has exclusive- 
ly devoted his time for the past two years and has resumed 
his general consulting practice at 25 Broad St., New York. 

January 15, 192] 




San Francisco, January 11 

Aluminum-dust, cents per pound 65 

Antimony, cents per pound 0.50 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound 14.00 — 14.50 

Lead, pig, cents per pound 5 — 6 

Platinum, pure, per ounce $73 

Platinum, 10' V iridium, per ounce 5105 

jpdcksilTer, per llask of 75 lb $50 

Spelter, cents per pound 8-25 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 12.50 — 15.00 


(By wire from New York) 

January 10. — Copper is more active and steady. Lead is livelier and 
stronger. Zinc is quiet and steady. 


Below are given official or ticker quotations lor silver in the open market 
as distingruiBhed from the fixed price obtainable (or metal produced, smelted, 
and refined exclusively within the United States. Under the terms of the 
Pittman Act such silver will be purchased by the United States Mint at $1 
per ounce, subject to certain small charges which vary slightly but amount 
to approximately three-eights of one cent. The equivalent of dollar silver 
(1000 fine) in British currency is 46.65 pence per ounce (025 fine), calcu- 
lated at the normal rate of exchange. 



New York 

4 65.87 

5 67.62 

6 68.6S 













Feb 85.70 

Mch 88.11 

Apr 05.35 

Hay 90.50 

June 99.50 


Monthly averages 

Average week ending 
29 73.72 


13 62.54 

20 63.77 

27 63.77 

3 65.40 

10 66.60 




July 99.62 

Aug 100.31 

Sent 101.12 

Oct 101.12 

Nov 101.12 

Dec 101.12 



77 73 


Prices ef electrolytic in New York, in cents per pound. 





6 12.75 

7 13.00 

8 13.00 

9 Sunday 

10 13.00 

Monthly averages 
















Feb 23.50 

Mch 23.50 

Apr 23.50 

May 23.50 

June 23.50 




July 26.00 

Aug 26.00 

Sept 26.00 

Oct 26 00 

Nov 26.00 

Dec 26.00 

20 45 

10 00 


Lead is quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. 



4 4.75 

5 4.-- 

t'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'... '■ ■■ ■ ■ ■ 



Average week ending 


9 Sunday 

10 4.80 

Monthly averages 

4 82 
4 48 


. 6.85 

. 7.70 

. 7.26 

. 6.99 

. 6.99 

June 7.59 






Nov 8.05 

Dec 6.90 

. 8.03 


PriceB in New York, in cents per pound. 

Monthly averages 








Wch. .. 

. . . 85 .00 



... 88.63 








July 93.00 

Aug 91.33 

Sept 80.40 

Oct 78.82 

Nov 73.67 

Dec 71.52 


54. R2 

Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands, New York delivery 

In cents per pound. 




9 Sunday 




Average week ending 




. . 6.00 

Monthly averages 
1919 1920 

13. .. 








The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco. California being 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according to 
quantity. Prices, in dollars per flask of 75 pounds. 

Pate I Dec. 28 50.00 

Dec. 14 55.00 Jan. 4 50 00 

21 50.00 I " 11 50.00 

Monthly averages 


Jan 128.06 

Feb 118 00 

Mch 113.00 

Apr 115.00 

May 110.00 

June 112.00 


100 00 


July 120.00 

Aug 120.00 

Sept 120.00 

Oct 120.00 

Nov 120.00 

Dec 115.00 









8 63 
8 08 
7 28 

44 43 


Aggregate gold holdings of banks of issue and governments of leading 
countries increased over S3. 000. 000, 000 since the year preceding the 
European war. 

In other words, central gold reserves of leading countries increased 
from S3. 181. 000. 000 in 1913. to SO. 256. 000. 000 in 1920. or about 97%. 
These figures take no account of Russian gold, because no recent figures 
are available. In 1913. the Russian state bank had $786,800,000. and in 
1917. $667,041,000. Records for subsequent years are missing. 

Government gold counted in this connection is confined to gold held as 
reserve against currency, and bank figures represent actual vault holdings, 
exclusive of gold held abroad and of foreign credits. 

This growth of gold reserve in central institutions represents in part the 
result of efforts by the governments to withdraw gold from general circula- 
tion and to concentrate it in banks of issue, where it supports fiduciary 
currency and also is available when international gold payments are to be 

The following table shows central gold reserves of leading countries at 
most recent dates in 1920, compared with reserves at end of 1913, divided 
as to allied countries. Central Powers, and neutral countries, according to a 
recent compilation of Federal Reserve Board. Figures are millions of 

Country 1920 

United States 2098 

England 738 

France 683 

Italy 204 

Belgium 51 


Canada 95 

Japan 451 

India 116 

Allied countries, total 4436 

Germany 260 

Austro-Hungary 45 

Central Powers, total 305 

Sweden 76 

Norway 39 

Denmark 61 

Netherlands 256 

Spain 474 

Switzerland 104 

Argentina 416 

Java 89 

Neutral countries, total 1515 

Total 6256 

Change between 

1913 and 1920 


Inc. Dec. 
















































Foreign quotations on January 11 are as follows: 
Sterling, dollars: Cable • • • ■} H^ 

Francs, cents: 

Lire, cents: 
Marks, cents 









January 15, 1921 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York, January 5. 

The new year commences with very little activity in any 
of the markets. There is a better tone evident in tin and 
lead but copper and zinc are stagnant and weak. For the 
two latter metals prices have declined while tor the former 
they have advanced slightly since a week ago. There is con- 
siderable optimism as to the future, however, and the opin- 
ion is expressed that the worst is over with 1920 and that 
1921 will be a satisfactory year. 


The country's pig-iron output fell off sharply last month, 
the total being 2,703,855 tons or 87,222 tons per day, com- 
pared with 2,934,908 tons in November, or 97,830 tons per 
day. Only 201 furnaces were in blast January 1. In De- 
cember, 56 blew-out and 5 blew-in, making a net loss of 51. 
The active capacity at the opening of the new year was 
76,540 tons per day, as against 90,040 tons per day for 252 
furnaces on December 1. 

With the beginning of the year independent producers an- 
nounce a reduction in standard steel pipe to the Industrial 
Board basis of March 1919. Another reduction made in the 
past week was in bar-iron. The new Chicago price at 2.68c. 
figures back to 2.30c, Pittsburgh, or $1 per ton below the 
market for steel bars. 

The November exports of iron and steel, totaling 434,297 
tons for pig-iron and rolled steel, make the 11 months ex- 
ports of rolled products alone amount to 357,000 tons per 
month, or over 15% of the country's 1920 production. As 
most of the exporting independent steel companies allocated 
only 10% for foreign shipment, the statistics are an indirect 
indication of the large volume of the Steel Corporation's 


There has been no improvement in buying. Prices, how- 
ever, have declined to some extent, but a real test of the 
market has not been experienced. A sale was made a few 
days ago of a small lot of electrolytic copper at 12.50c, pro- 
ducer's plant, but it was stipulated that the cash be paid 
before shipment. Later another sale was put through at 
12.75c, delivered, for forward shipment. In the absence of 
activity the market is generally quoted at 12.75 to 13c, 
either delivered or New York, depending on the seller, for 
electrolytic copper for early or fairly prompt delivery. This 
level will be met by some or. all the large producers. Lake 
copper is nominal at 13.75c, New York. 

According to the U. S. Geological Survey the 1920 esti- 
mates of production from domestic ores was 1,235,000,000 
lb. against 1,286,000,000 lb. in 1919; the output of refined 
copper, 1,573,000,000 lb. against 1,768,000,000 lb. in 1919; 
the apparent domestic consumption, 910,000,000 lb. last 
year as compared with 877,000,000 lb. in 1919 and the 
stocks of raw and refined copper on December 31, 1920, at 
874,000,000,000 as contrasted with 904,000,000,000 lb. at 
the end of 1919. 


The tone of this market is more optimistic although little 
business has been done thus far this year. Dealers are 
showing more interest than for some weeks but consumers 
have not yet displayed any desire to buy. There were no 
sales on the New York Metal Exchange the past week but 
about 200 tons of various lots, comprising metal for ship- 
ment from London and future shipment from the East, was 
sold. For the former £214 to £221 per ton was the price 
with an advance of two to three pounds per ton for the latter 
position, which was mostly January-February shipment. 
Spot Straits yesterday was quoted at 36c, New York, which 

is about 2jc. higher than a week ago, the tendency having 
been upward since then. The tone of the whole market is 
decidedly improved and the feeling is quite general that 
1921 will be a good year. London prices yesterday were 
£200 for spot standard and £210 10s. for future, with spot 
Straits at £215 10s., all higher than a week ago. Deliveries 
into consumption in December were 2580 tons with 2856 
tons in stocks and landing on December 31. Total imports 
for .1920 were 50,563 tons against 35,404 tons in 1919. 

There has been a fair inquiry and considerable business 
transacted. Most of this has probably been taken by the 
leading interest at 4.75c, which continues to be its quota- 
tion, both New York and St. Louis. Independent sellers are 
not inclined any longer to meet this price but are asking 5c. 
or higher in both localities. While those higher levels are 
not reported to have been realized yet, the market is quoted 
steady at 4.75c, New York and St. Louis. A better tone in 
London is a stabilizer here also. In general the market 
may be characterized as exceedingly firm, but not really 
strong, and opinion seems confident that the bottom in lead 
has been reached. 


The market opens the year with a decline in values and 
almost stagnation in demand. The only favorable feature 
is that the London market has advanced rendering less the 
possibility of further imports in competition with domestic 
metal in Eastern markets. For this metal about 5.85c, sea- 
board, is the quotation, duty free, but this is too high to 
compete with domestic prime Western at central consuming 
points. Domestic market quotations are easy at 5.50 to 
5.60c, St. Louis, and at 6 to 6.10c, New York, but there is 
a dearth of inquiry. Another favorable phase of the market 
is the large percentage of retorts out of use. 

The market is devoid of feature and lifeless at 5.20c. per 
lb., duty paid, New York, for wholesale lots for early 


Virgin metal, 9 8 to 99% pure, is quoted by the leading 
interest at 28.30c f.o.b. producer's plant, in wholesale lots 
for early delivery, while the same grade by other sellers is 
quoted at 22 to 23c, New York. 

Tungsten: Sellers are stiff er in their quotations this week 
than a week ago and prices are higher, nominally. The be- 
lief in, or at least hope for, a tariff may influence this senti- 
ment. Spot ore is held at $3.25 to $3.50 per unit. There is 
no change in the ferro-tungsten market. 

Molybdenum: No business or developments are noted and 
no quotations offered in the absence of demand. 

Manganese: Quotations are nominal, there being no de- 
mand, at 35 to 40c. per unit, seaboard. Imports continue 
very heavy, having been 74,477 gross tons in November, 
bringing the total to 542,189 tons to December 1, 1920, 
against 296,968 tons to December 1, 1919. 

Manganese-L-on Alloys: Ferro-manganese is quoted by 
British producers at $110, seaboard, and could probably be 
bought for less were business offered. Re-sale has sold in 
one case at $90. Imports were heavy in November at 7091 
tons, so that the total to December 1, 1920, was 53,830 tons 
or nearly twice the imports to December 1, 1919, of 29,595 
tons. Exports were 760 tons that month, which is fairly 
heavy. Spiegeleisen is inactive at around $45 or less. 

January 15. 1921 



Book Reviews 

The Technical Examination of Crode Petroleum, Petro- 
louni Products, and Natural Gas. By William Allan Hamor 
and Fred Warde Padgett. 572 pp., ill., index. McGraw- 
Hill Book Co.. Inc., New York. For sale by 'Mining and 
Scientific Press'. Price. $6. 

This is a manual of instructions for the chemical and 
physical analysis of petroleum, petroleum products, natural 
gas, and oil-shale. The book consists of two parts of almost 
equal length, the first, the book proper, containing theo- 
retical discussion and directions for making the required 
tests, while a so-called appendix contains mathematical 
tables, standard specifications, etc. The book will be useful 
to the petroleum engineer and chemist. 

Chemical Analysis of Special Steels, Steel-Making Alloys, 
Their Ores, and Graphites. By Charles Morris Johnson. 
Third edition. 541 pp., ill., index. John Wiley & Sons, 
Inc., New York. For sale by 'Mining and Scientific Press'. 
Price, $6. 

The author of this book is chief chemist of the Park 
Works of the Crucible Steel Co. of America. The sub-title 
shows the book to be particularly devoted to the rapid 
methods of analysis required in steel-works and other com- 
mercial metallurgical practice. The principal change in the 
third edition is the addition of a number of newly-developed 
methods of analysis for specific determinations. The book 
will be useful to the metallurgical chemist. 

The Engineering Draughtsman. By E. Rowarth. 237 
pp., ill., index. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. For sale by 
'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, $5. 

As the spelling of the title, as well as the use of the word 
'engineering', in place of 'mechanical', indicates, this is an 
English book, but, nevertheless, well-adapted to the needs 
of the American reader, particularly the student. It is in- 
tended primarily as a textbook for students already familiar 
with the elementary principles of mechanical drawing. It 
consists principally of a set of about one hundred exercises, 
each one comprising one or more line-drawings of a ma- 
chine-part, the work assigned to the student being to re- 
produce the drawings with different dimensions, to draw a 
different view of the part, or in some other way to use his 
head and show that he really understands what he is doing. 
This feature makes the treatise an excellent textbook. 

Compressed Air Plant. By Robert Peele. 506 pp., ill., 
index. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. For sale by 'Mining and 
Scientific Press'. Price, $4.50. 

This is the Fourth Edition of Mr. Robert Peele's admir- 
able and comprehensive treatise on the production and 
use of compressed air. The new material consists of a 
chapter on the 'Measurement of Air Consumption', in which 
data are given respecting the flow of air through orifices and 
short tubes, and sundry appliances for measuring air both 
at low and at high pressure are described and explained; and 
addenda to the chapter on pumping by the direct action of 
compressed air. This deals with some recent work in air- 
lift pumping in unwatering deep mines and is of special in- 
terest to mining engineers. The author has enjoyed the 
co-operation of the manufacturers of compressed-air ma- 
chinery, and in the first part of the book, which deals with 
the construction and operation of compressors, the theo- 
retical and practical side of the design and use of the ma- 
chines is thoroughly treated. Most of the second part, the 
sub-title of which is 'Transmission and Use of Compressed 
Air', is devoted to problems characteristic of mine-work. 

An idea of the scope of this section may be had from the 
chapter headings: Conveyance of Compressed Air in Pipes; 
Compressed-Air Engines; Freezing of Moisture Deposited 
from Compressed Air; Re-heatlng Compressed Air; Com- 
pressed-Air Rock-Drills; Hammer Drills; Coal-Cutting Ma- 
chines; Channeling Machines; Operation of Mine-Pumps by 
Compressed Air; Pumping by Direct Action of Compressed 
Air; Compressed-Air Haulage in Mines; and Measurement 
of Air Consumption. The author will be recognized at once 
as the editor-in-chief of the only complete handbook for the 
mining engineer — 'Peele'. This is sufficient to assure the 
high standard of the treatise on compressed air. 

Hand-Book of Mexican Properties and Securities, 1020- 
'21. Compiled by J. S. Curtiss & Co., El Paso, Texas. 390 
pp., index. For sale by 'Mining and Scientific Press'. 
Price, $5. 

This book is the result of ten years labor in the collection 
of data, primarily on the general subject of securities, re- 
lating to the Republic of Mexico. It lists alphabetically the 
names of all the Mexican States, banks. Government bond 
issues, national railroads, cotton plantations, oil companies 
and refineries, mines and mining companies, ranches and 
ranch-owners. In addition, it carries other valuable matter 
such as a translation of Mexican mining terms, list of Gov- 
ernment mining agents in each State, copy of the mining 
laws and their regulation, and a list of public utilities and 
industrial stocks. In view of the present bright prospects 
for a restoration of law, order, and security to investors in 
Mexico, this book has an interest which will be accentuated 
as time goes on. It will be valuable to anyone interested 
either as an investor or merchant, who has in contemplation 
opening up business relations in the territory south of the 
Rio Grande. 

Cost of Mining. By J. R. Finlay. 532 pp., ill., index. 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. For sale by 'Mining and 
Scientific Press'. Price, $6. 

Ten years ago Mr. Finlay's 'Cost of Mining' was received 
with enthusiasm by the members of the profession as being 
the most comprehensive as well as the most reliable (the 
difficulties in obtaining entirely reliable data are only too 
well known to most of us) compilation of information on 
the elements of cost in mining coal, iron, copper, and the 
other more important metals. His book, however, was more 
than a compilation, for Mr. Finlay had clothed the bare 
figures with his comment and analysis; his twenty years of 
varied experience had given him an unusual insight into the 
economic problems involved in mining different metals in 
different regions. In the present volume the reader familiar 
with the earlier edition will find it enriched by ten years of 
riper experience on the part of the author. Mr. Finlay, un- 
necessarily, we think, asks indulgence for interjecting ma- 
terial of a broader scope and some "generalizations on geo- 
logic history and processes" among the statistical matter. 
Indeed, the question was entertained of changing the name 
of the book; this was decided in the negative in spite of the 
fact that the name hardly does justice to the new edition. 
The winning of metals as an economic problem intricately 
connected with other industries is considered from sundry 
angles; the valuing of mines, the financing of them, and the 
marketing of their products are discussed from a broad 
standpoint. As the author says, mining is an industry with 
which 20,000,000 English-speaking people are directly con- 
cerned and in which a great many more are vitally inter- 
ested. It commands the interest of perhaps 20% of the 
people in the world. 'Cost of Mining' is an unusual book 
that may well be read with benefit by every thoughtful 
student of world conditions today; it is one that no mining 
engineer can afford to be without. A. B. P. 



January 15, 1921 


""" "'""""""» ' '""'inn ill iiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiii mum i 11 mm ,„, „ iiimiiiiiiiiiimiimiiimii uiiimmmi i 

in : nun i iiiiniii iiiimiiiii nun mn 

By F. D. Bich* 

Human nature plays an important part in getting service 
and longer life out of a belt. It is human nature to do things 
in what seems the easiest way, not always realizing it is 
often the most expensive and usually the most laborious, be- 
cause it necessitates doing the work over and over again. 
This applies particularly in the case of cutting belting and 
joining it. 

Cutting the ends of a belt to put it into service seems 
such a simple thing that often the belt-man does not give it 
the consideration necessary to ensure the best results, and 
much of the difficulty with otherwise good belts is due to 
their not being cut and joined accurately. 

When a belt runs wobbly or races back and forth across 

Fi s . 4 

1~ ~ 1 1 

O OiO 

oooo o 

Fig. S 

the pulleys, it is not giving its best service nor can it have 
its longest life. If you have a belt that is repeatedly jump- 
ing off the pulleys, you are paying about twice as much as 
you should for it, because its life is being shortened and you 
are paying for power that is lost and production that you 
don't get. You are also repeatedly paying for unnecessary 
time and labor in fixing things up. 

Provided that its ends ars cut square and it is joined with 
care, a belt can be made to run as straight as an arrow if the 
pulleys are lined-up true. 

Don't guess at cutting your belt-ends. Use a square — ■ 
always — and use it with care. If you do not use a square, 
one or both of the ends will be cut unevenly or irregularly, 

•Mr. Rich is sales manager for the Crescent Belt Fastener 

which prevents smooth running. Even the use of a straight- 
edge does not assure the perfect results obtained by using 
a square, for the slip of a fraction of an inch will bring the 
belt ends together at an angle, as shown in Fig. 1. 

This results in the belt 'shimmying' on the pulleys, which 
is bad for the belt and impairs its service, imposing shifting 
and irregular strains, which no belt can stand indefinitely. 

There is only one way to assure correct results. That is 
to use a belt-square and to keep it in place until you have 
cut all the way through the belt. Don't just scratch the 
surface and then hack through. Cutting to the square 
assures an even cut all the way through the belt and all the 
way across. It means that the belt ends can be brought 
together in a tight, even-running, flush joint. 

Be sure your knife is sharp. Wet the point of your knife 
occasionally, as it cuts more easily when the blade is wet. 

When a number of belts have to be cut, a good stunt is to 
drive two nails in a large block of wood, and against these 
set the edge of the belt and the edge of the square, as shown 
in Fig. 2. This prevents either the belt or the square slip- 
ping. Some men tack a slip of leather or a piece of old belt 
on the end of the block to protect the point of the knife as it 
comes through the belt. 

Wide belts are more difficult to square correctly, and the 
difficulty is often increased by slight variations in width, 
which throws the square out. To avoid this and assure per- 
fect results, the method described below has proved the best. 

At any point near where you are going to cut the belt, 
measure across and find the centre, as at 'A-A', Fig. 3. At 
any distance back of this, 2 or 3 ft., find the centre again, as 
at 'B-B'. Between these two centre points draw a clean 
sharp line. This marks the centre axis of the belt. 

Now, as in Fig. 4, using the square against the centre line, 
trim off the end of the belt, holding the square firmly in posi- 
tion while you cut all the way through. Two small nails 
driven in on the centre line will keep the square from slip- 

For cutting the other end of the belt, find the centre line, 
the same as just described. Then at any point on this line 
other than where your belt clamps will come, take a point 
'C as in Fig. 4. Then using the square as illustrated, draw 
a line 'D-C-E' at right angles to the axis, and all the way 
across from edge to edge. This line 'D-C-E' will constitute 
a 'base line' to measure from atter the belt is in the clamps. 
Do not cut on this line. 

You can determine exactly where you want to cut after 
the clamps have been put on and the belt brought into posi- 
tion. Then measure forward from the line 'D-E' an equal 
distance on each side of the belt to the cutting-point. You 
can use calipers and measure over the belt-clamp or run 
your ruler through the edges of the clamp. As a matter of 
convenience, always cut one end of the belt square and get 
it ready for making the joint before putting the belt into 
the clamp. 

Personally, the writer, who has had considerable experi- 
ence in working with belting manufacturers in solving the 
difficult problems of efficient belt joining, is very much op- 
posed to methods which punch holes in the belt or which in 

January 15, L923 



any way cut or weaken the lengthwise power-carrying fibres 
of the belt. 

It is no uncommon thing to see, in journeys through 
manufacturing plants, laced belts In which from 4 To to 
frequently more than 70 % of the cross-section of the belt 
is removed in punched holes. How in the name of common 
sense can such a belt-joint (see Fig. 6) be expected to give 
the full service of the belt? Many manufacturers are today 
running belts much heavier and more expensive than their 
requirements, in an attempt to get strength at the joint. 

Below is a table showing the qualifications of the perfect 
belt-joint, by which any engineer can check up the com- 
parative efficiency of his own methods. 

(1) Will maintain maximum strength of belt. 

(10) Is safe against accidents or breakdowns. 

(11) Must be easily and quickly made without special 

(12) Will last for the life of the belt. 

But regardless of what method of joining Is used, the 
belt should always be cut square, so that it may exert a 
straight-line pull and perform its function of power-trans- 
mission efficiently. 

The recent Gas show at Buffalo brought together men in 
all branches of the industry from every part of the country. 
In the course of informal discussion on oxy-acetylene weld- 
ing of oil pipe-lines a big Kansan questioned the strength of 

Welded Pipe. Break in Threads. 

Welded ripe. Break In Standard Cap. 

(2) Will avoid destruction or weakening of the length- 
wise power-carrying belt fibres. 

(3) Should prevent breaking the belt back o£ the joint. 

(4) Must not hammer on the pulleys. 

(5) Must not be subject to wear or to crystallization. 

(6) Will ensure continuous uninterrupted operation with- 
out supervision. 

(7) Hugs the pulleys tightly and ensures full transmis- 
sion of power. 

(8) Runs silently, same as endless. 

(9) Can be easily taken apart for removing or shorten- 
ing the belt. 

the welded line to hold up under the service pressures in his 
field. Of course there are abundant instances where welded 
lines are in service in oil districts, carrying pressures of 800 
to 900 lb.; but the skeptic was not entirely satisfied. What 
he wanted was a breaking-pressure test to determine just 
where the welded pipe would give way under breaking- 
strains. In his opinion the break would occur in the weld. 
The discussion took place, as it happened, in a stronghold 
of oxy-acetylene welding. One of the factories and machine 
shops of the Linde Air Products Co. is situated in Buffalo, 
and it is in its big Buffalo laboratory that the development 
department engineers of the company conducted its experi- 



January 15, 1921 

merits and tests in working out application problems tor 
tsers of oxygen and acetylene in welding and cutting. This 
circumstance led to a series of tests to finally settle the mat- 
ter in the minds of those concerned. 

A test was made with 4-in. pipe. Two short lengths were 
welded together, the ends threaded and two extra-heavy 
standard caps screwed on. In this test one of the cap-heads 
blew out at 4400 lb., which gave a total end-pressure on the 
cap of approximately 3 3 tons, proving that the broken cap 
was not in any respect defective. The weld was not im- 
paired at all. After this test it was suggested that an en- 
tirely new weld with other pipe lengths of the same diameter 
be tried. Accordingly, two more lengths of 4-in. pipe were 
welded, threaded, and sealed, this time with extra heavy 
steel caps made to withstand a working pressure of 3 000 lb. 
of air. The pressure was applied and the pipe gave way in 
the threads at 4200 lb. In all of the tests the welds held 

The gentleman from Kansas decided that if there is any- 
thing stronger than a good oxy-acetylene weld it is not 
needed in the oil-fields of the South-West. He examined a 
large number of welded-pipe specimens that had been sub- 
jected to hydrostatic breaking-tests, finding that in no in- 
stance had the pipe given way at a weld. He also inspected 
the shop welding and testing-equipment with unusual in- 
terest, from the familiar Oxweld blow-pipes to the big pumps 
that supply pressure for tests up to 10,000 lb. per square 

Any eligible employee may subscribe to an amount of this 
stock equivalent to not more than four times his monthly 
rate of salary or wages, but in no case to more than 20 
shares. The plan provides that the stock must be paid for 
within one year. Those who desire to have their stock re- 
deemed can do so under certain conditions. The stock will 
be redeemed by the company at $100 per share. 


E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. has announced a new 
plan for stock subscription by employees. The board of 
directors of the company has modified the former plan for 
stock subscription, which has been in effect since 1909, and 
has made important changes for the purpose of providing an 
opportunity for employees to invest their surplus earnings 
in such a way as to share in the profits of the company while 
enjoying the security afforded by the debenture stock. Em- 
ployees who become stockholders under this plan will re- 
ceive not only a fixed cumulative dividend on their stock, 
when declared, but also a participating payment at a rate 
increasing with the net earnings of the company and also a 
service payment based upon the length of service credited 
to them. 

The plan for the participating payments based on the net 
earnings of the company provides that if the net earnings 
were at a rate equal to or greater than 8 % but less than 
9 % per annum on the conjoined total invested capital, the 
participating payments will be at a rate of $1 per share per 

The payments increase as the earnings increase until, if 
the net earnings were at a rate equal to or greater than 
12%, the participating payments will be at the rate of $5 
per share per annum. The rate of service payments will be 
based on the years of continuous service with the company 
and will be made on the following basis: for length of ser- 
vice of one year and less than two years, $1 per share per 
annum; for a service of two years ana less than four years, 
$2 per share per annum; for a length of service of four years 
and less than seven years, $3 per share per annum; and for 
a length of service of seven years or over, $4 per share per 

Under this plan, therefore, if a participant has been in 
the service of the company for seven years or more, and if 
the company's net earnings for the preceding year were at 
a rate of 12 % or more on its combined total invested capital, 
subject to the declaration and payment of the regular cumu- 
lative 6% dividend, such employee will receive in all 15% 
or $15 for the following year on each share of this debenture 


The Mine & Smelter Supply Co. announces the appoint- 
ment of J. L. Harman as manager of its branch house at 
El Paso, Texas. 

Catalogue 'F', issued by the Ross Heater & Manufacturing 

Co., illustrates and describes the various types of heaters, 
condensers, expansion-joints, coolers, and 'Airjector-pumps' 
manufactured at the company's plant in Buffalo, New York. 

The Victory Engineering & Sales Co., Monadnock Bdg., 
San Francisco, has issued an attractive catalogue in which 
are listed a complete line of pipe-fittings, pump equipment, 
and pumps. The Victory oil-motor is a feature of the com- 
pany's products. 

Bulletin No. 14-C, recently issued by the National Tube 
Co., of Pittsburgh, discusses tubular steel poles, and outlines 
various uses in industrial plants, railroads, municipal con- 
struction, and elsewhere. Some valuable data are given re- 
garding the properties and specifications of pipe. 

The business heretofore carried on at Waldo, New Mexico, 
by Grubnau, Bryant & Grubnau, as manufacturers of oxide 
of zinc, has been acquired with all assets and liabilities by 
the Grubnau Chemical Co., incorporated under the laws of 
the State of New Mexico, and will be continued by this com- 
pany in the same way as heretofore. 

James R. Mougin, sales engineer for the Mine & Smelter 
Supply Co., has been transferred from New York to Chicago. 
His address is 45 5 5 Maiden St. Mr. Mougin will look after 
the sales for the company in the Central States territory, 
and all inquiries originating in this territory for Marcy ball- 
mills, Marcy roller-mills, Wilfley tables, and the company'B 
other specialties will be taken care of by Mr. Mougin. 

The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. announces the resigna- 
tion of H. L. Dean, formerly manager of the Division of 
Compressor and Engine Sales. The company also announces 
the appointment of J. F. Huvane as fiastern manager of 
Compressor and Engine Sales, with headquarters at 6 East 
44th street, New York, and G. C. VandenBoom as Western 
manager of Compressor and Engine Sales, with headquarters 
at 300 North Michigan Blvd., Chicago. 

The Oxweld Acetylene Co. announces the appointment of 
the Standard Supply & Equipment Co., of New York and 
Philadelphia, as Eastern sales agent for 'Eveready' welding 
and cutting-apparatus and supplies. The Standard Supply 
& Equipment Co. deals in shelf and heavy hardware, ma- 
chinery, mill and mine supplies, automobile accessories, etc., 
and has, besides its New York and Philadelphia establish- 
ments, branch houses at New Haven, Hartford, Springfield, 
Worcester, Pittsburgh, Trenton, and Altoona. 

C. E. Grunsky Company, consulting engineers and econom- 
ists, call the attention of their clients to the fact that they 
are prepared to assist them in their economic business prob- 
lems requiring technical analysis. These problems include 
valuation and business analysis as a basis for determining 
the proper depletion and depreciation factors for use in pre- 
paring income-tax returns and in making adjustments with 
the Internal Revenue Bureau. The establishment of proper 
methods of obtaining the present worth of all business hav- 
ing wasting assets, and the preparation of appraisals of 
plants and equipment for incorporation and other purposes 
are undertaken. The company's, office is at 57 Post street, 
San Francisco. 


A. B. Parsons, as»ociate Editor 


Member Audit Bureau of Circulations 
Member As»utUted Business Papers, Inc. 


Piibli*ttrtl at ito Market St., San FraneUto. 
by the Dowel/ Pubtithinff Company 

C.T. Hutchinson, manasen 




iimimmiimiiNiiii limn mi nniiii unit linn iiiiiiiiiiiull niimiiniiliiililliiimmmmts 

Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, January 22, 1921 

$4 per Year — -15 Cents per Copy 





. 113 


The fund for feeding the starving children of cen- 
tral and eastern Europe. Mr. Hoover and the 
Relief Council. Deplorable conditions and the ef- 
fort to relieve them by feeding 3,500,000 children. 


Comment on the article recounting the present 
status of litigation between Minerals Separation 
and the alleged infringers of its patents on flota- 
tion. Appointment of a committee by the Amer- 
ican Mining Congress to confer with representa- 
tives of Minerals Separation. The prospects of a 
settlement of the litigation. 


Action taken by the San Francisco section, criticiz- 
ing the expense increment in publishing and sug- 
gesting need for an investigation. The Institute 
magazine. The deficit. Suggestions for restraint 
in the use of printing, postage, and paper. 



By Donald C. Simpson 117 

The impracticability of sending returned soldiers 
to prospect for new mineral claims, 
fit them. 

Cannot bene- 


By F. G. Corning 117 

John Hays Hammond's connection with the North 
Star mines. 


By W. E. Simpson 118 

Experience at the Great Boulder mine in Western 
Australia. The Lake View Consols rejuvenated by 
deeper prospecting. 


By A Member i18 

Poor management. Need for a budget. 'Mining 

and Metallurgy' should be suppressed. A house- 
cleaning in New York. 



By T. A. Rickard 119 

The Butte & Superior case. The company is now 
using more than 20 lb. of oil per ton on the ore. 
Accounting pending. The conduct of the Miami 
defence. Pneumatic process as opposed to violent- 
agitation methods. The importance of preliminary 
agitation. Recent rulings favor the defendant. No 
decision as yet. The Nevada Consolidated suit, 
and soluble frothing agents. Magma Copper Co. 
suit will definitely establish the status of the Cal- 
low cell. 


By Courtenay De Kalb 125 

Production of copper in 1918. Stocking ore in 
leach-beds. Economic features of the enterprise. 
Geology of the district and of individual mines. 
Association of ore with basic and ultra-basic intru- 
sions. The copper follows the parting planes in 
the pyritic masses. 


By D. W. Brunton 130 

Brass for Solomon's temple was made from Huelva 
copper. The record traced up to the present time. 


The reasons why spontaneous combustion occurs 
in piles of stored coal. Sundry wrong notions cor- 


Record of production in a molybdenum mine in 
northern New Mexico. Geology of the deposit. 








Established May 24 I860, as The Scientific Press: name changed October 
20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific Press. r>.st« 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. cable 
address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 600 Fisher Bdr.: New York. 31 Nassau St.: 
London. 724 Salisbury House. E.C. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-clasB matter. Cable 
address: Pertusola. 



January 22, 1921 


THE Marcy Roller Mill represents a high development in grinding ma- 
•*■ chinery and in this respect is in the class with the Marcy Ball Mill. 

The open end feature, through which the conditions within the mill may be observed 
while running, brings about low cost of operation. 

Hods or rollers can be used in a tube mill but for the best results, bent and broken 
rods must be removed. 

High efficiency in the roller mill is obtained by the low pulp line as in the Marcy 
Ball Mill. 

Thirty six large size Marcy Roller Mills are now being manufactured for one of the 
large mining corporations of the Southwest. 

We will be glad to advise on your crushing problems 

Z>he Mine and Smelter Supply Co. 


NEW YOR.K OFFICE: 42 "Broadway 



Janimrv 22, 192] 




1 imiiiiiiinuiuiiiiiiiiiiiiii mmnimi niniitiii iiiniiiitiiiiHiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiniuiiiiiiiiiiiii 

mi I I i I iiiiiii mini imimiiiti'iilimiiiiiiiiiiini 

U'VIDENTLY there will be more Cabinet disappoint- 
-"-' merits than appointments and quite as evidently the 
final choice will indicate whether Mr. Harding's admin- 
istration is to be reactionary or progressive. Upon his 
choice will depend not only this cabinet but the one to 
be selected four years hence. It has been well said that 
the title of Secretary of the Interior would seem highly 
appropriate to our late Food Administrator; so would 
Secretary of the Department of Public "Works; but we 
have not departed from our notion that it would be a 
pity to spoil Mr. Hoover's career by putting him into a 
cabinet in which he is sure to be uncomfortable, and 
therefore probably ineffective. 

A S an example of the waste of public money, we men- 
■**■ tion a 100-page pamphlet received under the frank 
of Senator "W. L. Jones giving the testimony of our 
friend Mr. William Denman before the committee of the 
House on Shipping Board operations. This gives Mr. 
Denman 's personal views, including "an appreciation 
of General Goethals", with whom he had a regrettable 
public disagreement when he himself was chairman of 
the Shipping Board. We do not say that Mr. Denman 's 
views on these or other matters are not interesting, but 
we do say they are not of such interest or importance 
as to warrant the spending of public money in paper, 
printing, and postage. 

r PHE silver production of the United States last year 
-*• is estimated at 56,564,504 ounces, out of the world 's 
total output of 165,000,000 ounces. Thus our production 
of silver in 1920 was almost exactly equal to that of 1919, 
the difference of 17,941 ounces being within the limits of 
statistical error. Likewise the world's production of sil- 
ver decreased only slightly, the difference being estimated 
at ten million ounces. This shows how much the steadi- 
ness of the supply contrasted with the vagaries of demand, 
for the price of silver ranged between $1.38£ and 59£ 
cents during the past year. The world's consumption of 
silver in 1920 for coinage alone is estimated at 225 mil- 
lion ounces, which compares with 200 millions in 1919 
and 238 millions in 1918. To these totals may be added 
about 125 million ounces annually for industrial pur- 
poses. Evidently the production is considerably less than 
the consumption, but the re-melting of large quantities of 
silver in various forms and from diverse sources renders 

it impossible to make a direct and trustworthy compari- 
son. On the whole, however, the evidence of trade sta- 
tistics favors an optimistic view of the probable future 
course of market quotations. 

/CREDIT is due, and will have been given gladly, to 
^ President-elect Harding for his good sense in re- 
questing an abandonment of the plans for a costly cele- 
bration of his inauguration to the Chief Office in March. 
He sent a letter-telegram on the subject to the chairman 
of the Washington Inaugural Committee and it was 
couched in terms of simplicity and sincerity that must 
have made an effective appeal to all thoughtful citizens. 
The decision to make the ceremony "a wholesome ex- 
ample of economy and thrift" is well advised, but we 
fear that it may deceive the country into the belief that 
our national legislature is committed to the policy of 
stopping the waste of public money. 

TVTOMINATIONS for officers of the Institute have 
- 1 - ™ been made and the ballots issued to members. As 
only one ticket is in the field, it will be elected, of course. 
We note with pleasure that the next president will be 
Mr. Edwin Ludlow, now first vice-president. Mr. Ludlow 
has been identified chiefly with coal mining, in this coun- 
try and in Mexico, but he is a man of wide engineering 
experience and possesses an ample understanding of the 
metal-mining industry. He has been a keen supporter of 
the Institute and a regular attendant at its meetings for 
a long period, so that he is personally known, and liked, 
by a larger proportion of members than most of his prede- 
cessors. He has executive ability, keen intelligence, and 
an engaging personality ; therefore he ought to prove an 
excellent president. We wish him every success in his 
year of office. 

%V7E take pleasure in publishing an article on the 
" famous deposits of pyrite in the Huelva district of 
Spain, commonly identified with the mining operations 
of the Rio Tinto company. This article is contributed by 
Mr. Courtenay De Kalb, formerly Associate Editor of 
the 'Mining and Scientific Press'. Mr. De Kalb was en- 
gaged two years ago by the U. S. Department of Com- 
merce to make an investigation and report on the mining 
and metallurgical industries of Spain. This account of 
the Huelva deposits represents a part of the large mass 
of valuable data collected by him while in Europe. To 



January 22, 1921 

his article we append a timely and interesting summary 
of the history of the ancient mines of the Huelva district 
by Mr. D. W. Brunton, who was engaged several years 
ago by the Rio Tinto company to advise upon the best 
method of mining applicable to local conditions. We 
shall publish an interview with Mr. Brunton at an early 

44TT ERE are 20 stockholders of record of the Broken 
-*--*- Hills Silver Corporation selected on January 7, 
almost at random from a list of 1000 or more. ' ' This is 
quoted verbatim from a two-column advertisement that 
appeared recently in a San Francisco newspaper. There 
follows a pretentious list of bankers, office-holders, and 
others, headed by Mr. T. T. Ansberry, "Attorney for 
Governor J. M. Cox of Ohio" and Mr. Ed. Malley, State 
Treasurer for Nevada. That the ad-writer overlooked 
the fact that Mr. Cos became ex-Governor on January 1, 
indicates lack of discrimination, but that oversight is 
more than amended by the meticulous regard for the ex- 
act truth exhibited by qualifying "at random" with 
"almost". If 'almost' had been omitted the immutable 
laws of probability would have proved that no one of the 
fortunate thousand held a position less distinguished 
than that of director of a bank or warden of a State 
prison. But 'almost' leaves a substantial loop-hole ; there 
may even be some stockbrokers and bootleggers among 
the 980 who are not classified. Evidently "almost at 
random" leaves much to the imagination in describing 
a method of selection ; it is about as definite as the reply 
of the negro miner in Georgia who when asked how much 
ore remained in the bin replied, "Well there's right 
smart and yet not so very much either. ' ' 

HP HE other day we were talking to the superintendent 
-*- of a large and well-known concentrator in which 
flotation plays a part in the scheme of treatment; his 
views on the question of publicity with regard to the 
operations of his company are particularly interesting 
because of the contrast with the attitude taken by a great 
many users of flotation who are not licensees of Minerals 
Separation. We, of course* respect this attitude of 
reasonable reticence because we may not be aware of all 
the facts in a particular case. Our friend the superin- 
tendent said in substance, "I am confident that there is 
a man working in our mill today who, unknown to us, is 
keeping Minerals Separation apprized of everything done 
in our flotation department. Any good practical mill- 
man can get an accurate idea of what is being done with- 
out actually seeing the complete metallurgical reports. 
Moreover, if a suit is started, Minerals Separation simply 
goes into court and gets an order compelling us to pro- 
duce our records. A moving-van comes around to our 
office and they take every scrap of paper in the place to 
court, where they introduce whatever they want as evi- 
dence against us. For that reason I personally see no 
object in suppressing the publication of articles giving 
every detail of operation. There is even an advantage in 
that some other operator who prefers not to saddle him- 
self with one of Minerals Separation's 'generous' con- 

tracts may find something helpful. We condemn Min- 
erals Separation for withholding data regarding new 
developments and it seems to me inconsistent that we 
should do the same thing ourselves". Some of those who 
favor a policy of secrecy feel that if Minerals Separation 
learns of anything new or novel it will immediately take 
out a new patent and thereby add another tentacle to the 
sixty or seventy it already possesses. In this connection 
attention may well be called to a fact that is generally 
overlooked by those who have inventions, namely, that the 
publication, especially in a reputable technical periodical, 
of the details of a new device or process before it is pat- 
ented is one of the most effective ways of protecting the 
idea. Such publication definitely fixes a date prior to 
which the invention was developed, and if the journal is 
one of general circulation among the members of a par- 
ticular profession it furnishes strong presumptive evi- 
dence that a subsequent inventor derived his inspiration 
from reading the published description. A concrete ex- 
ample is the litigation over the process of vacuum-leaf 
filtration, wherein the publication, on our suggestion, by 
Mr. George Moore of an article describing his theory of 
filtration, through a porous leaf, of the liquid portion of 
a metallurgical slime, leaving the solid in the form of a 
cake on the surface, played an important part in estab- 
lishing the priority of his invention, as against Mr. 
Charles Butters. As we said before, we respect the wishes 
of those who do not desire to give publicity to their 
operations, and under some circumstances we can recog- 
nize a valid reason for their attitude, but, it is rarely 
justifiable, or even advantageous to them, and is always 
a drawback to the progress of the metallurgic art. 

A Noble Benefaction 

In our last issue we devoted one of our advertising 
pages — number 32 — to an appeal from the European 
Relief Council in behalf of the starving children of Eu- 
rope. Mr. Franklin K. Lane, formerly Secretary of the 
Interior, is treasurer of this fund, which is being admin- 
istered by Mr. Herbert C. Hoover. The devastation of 
war has left the populations of the belligerent countries 
of Central and Eastern Europe in a condition of pitiable 
destitution. For some of this they are themselves re- 
sponsible, but the 3,500,000 of innocent and helpless 
children, exposed to famine and misery, make an appeal 
that must overcome any of the ill feeling surviving from 
the days of war. The appeal is not for all the children 
but only for the 3,500,000 that are reported, on compe- 
tent American authority, to be in immediate danger of 
death by starvation. Ten dollars will provide for one 
child during this winter. The sum of thirty-three mil- 
lion dollars is asked. Mr. Hoover says that there are in 
Europe today from twelve to fourteen million children 
between the ages of three and sixteen that are "bereft 
of parents, home, comfort, and the opportunities which 
should be their heritage". For every American dollar 
that is contributed the governments and the citizens of 
the afflicted regions will give two dollars in transporta- 
tion and service. We can trust Mr. Hoover to make this 


January i"-'. 192] 



help practical and businesslike; he never wastes money 
and never asks for financial assistance without insisting 
upon supplementary contributions and co-operation from 
those most immediately related to the beneficiaries of his 
scientific charity. Of course, the amount of money asked 
for tlits noble purpose is small indeed if compared with 
the vast sums squandered by our people on luxurious 
living, for example, in candy. Christmas presents, and 
private automobiles. It will be raised without a doubt, 
and while it is being collected we may remind ourselves 
again of a part of our own responsibility for the uuhap- 
piness it will alleviate, since the failure of our Govern- 
ment to make peace with the governments of the coun- 
tries with which we have been at war is one of the causes 
of the deplorable condition of continental Europe, espe- 
cially the Central and Eastern regions. The poverty 
of the old world is the direct result of war and the prep- 
aration for war. Our own vast governmental expendi- 
ture is due mainly to the same causes; indeed, two-thirds 
of the money voted annually by Congress is absorbed in 
military and naval expenditures even during normal 
times. We hope Mr. Harding will carry out his promise 
to take the lead, in behalf of the United States, in a new 
effort to induce the disarmament of the nations and the 
creation of an association for preserving peace, and 
thereby save the world from untold pain and trouble. 

The Flotation Litigation 

In this issue we publish a comprehensive account of 
the present status of the litigation arising from the use 
and alleged infringement of various flotation patents 
in this country. The reading of this summary of the 
decisions and procedures of the courts will impress the 
members of our profession with the inadequacy of the 
tribunals before which such highly technical disputes 
have to be tried ; they will note the discrepant nature of 
the juridical logic, the contradictory character of the 
opinions, and the fortuitous conclusions that seem to 
mark an appeal to the law. No man can foretell what the 
outcome of a suit may be, however well informed he may 
he concerning the facts and the arguments; the psy- 
chology of the human element in the judges is beyond 
the shrewdest guess ; it is a gamble ! Most wise men know 
this and keep out of the courts. So far the patent-ex- 
ploiting corporation, Minerals Separation Ltd., with its 
American subsidiary, has had the best of it; but the de- 
fendants are not dismayed ; on the contrary, as we are 
informed, they feel cheerful over the probable outcome 
of the concluding stages of the litigation. In our role 
of observer we venture to say that the defendants are 
hotter served in the matter of legal talent than hereto- 
fore, wben they have suffered from mistakes that it did 
not require a lawyer to detect. However, the eventual 
result of all this legal wrangling is one that no man can 
predict, it is in the lap of the gods, that is, it is dependent 
upon the digestion of sundry fallible mortals. Mean- 
while a suggestion for a compromise and a settlement has 
heen made; we made it ourselves at the Flotation Con- 

ference of the American Mining Congress. Since then 
the president of the Congress. Mr. \V. J. Loring, has 
acted upon the offer, made by Mr. Alfred A. ( 'ook. counsel 
for Minerals Separation, to meet with a committee of the 
Mining Congress, with a view to discussing the remedies 
possible for meeting the difficulties and ameliorating the 
irritating conditions created by the methods, practices, 
and license agreements of Minerals Separation in their 
impact upon the mining industry. Mr. Loring has ap- 
pointed Messrs. Bulkeley Wells, J. Parke Charming, Gil- 
bert H. Montague, with himself, ex officio, as the com- 
mittee for this purpose. Mr. Wells was president of the 
Congress last year, he is the head of a number of im- 
portant mining enterprises, in Colorado, California, and 
Nevada; Mr. Channing is vice-president of the Miami 
Copper Company and is identified with the mining op- 
erations cf Adolph Lewisohn & Sons; Mr. Montague is a 
distinguished lawyer of New York and counsel for the 
Mining Congress in its complaint against Minerals Sep- 
aration before the Federal Trade Commission ; Mr. Lor- 
ing himself is a mining engineer of international repu- 
tation and is the manager of important mines in Nevada 
and California. The committee, therefore, is representa- 
tive and capable. In order that there may be no mis- 
apprehension as to the purpose and scope of the inquiry 
to be made, we quote from the final telegram sent by Mr. 
Loring to Mr. Cook, as follows: "American Mining Con- 
gress Committee does not ask Minerals Separation to ad- 
mit correctness of charges or criticisms before Federal 
Trade Commission. Committee does not desire to discuss 
with Minerals Separation these or any other charges or 
criticisms. Committee most earnestly desires to discuss 
constructively with Minerals Separation any specific 
measures for relieving present situation. You offered at 
Denver to take up with us the various problems we think 
are oppressive to the mining industry. This is the exact 
purpose for which the Committee understands the con- 
ference is to be held. ' ' Mr. Cook replied that he and his 
associates would be "most happy" to meet with the Com- 
mittee on the basis of this telegram. We hope that the 
outcome will inure to the benefit of the mining industry. 
It is not within the scope of this committee, so far as we 
can infer, to attempt to bring about a settlement of the 
main issue ; indeed, it may be beyond the power or good- 
will of anybody to do so, but evidently it would be greatly 
to the benefit of the mining industry if this miasma of 
inquisition, interference, and litigation could be lifted. 
As to that, any such consummation will be in the nature 
of a compromise, that is, on the one side, the Minerals 
Separation people will have to forego their claims for 
punitive damages from the alleged infringers of their 
patents, and, on the other side, those who have used 
flotation processes claimed to be patented by Minerals 
Separation will have to pay something rather than leave 
the ultimate decision to the courts. Whatever the out- 
come of the litigation, it is going to cost at least $250,000 
per annum for each side, and the final result is uncertain. 
The alleged infringers may escape some of the penalties 
imposed by the courts, but not all ; they may be mulcted 



January 22, 1921 

for millions of dollars. The Minerals Separation people 
have been trying for nine years to squeeze money out of 
the recalcitrant users of their patents and have failed to 
bring them to their knees ; the principal proprietors have 
seen their expected profit put out of their reach again 
and again, and meanwhile they must be aware of the fact 
that so long as the basic principles of flotation remain a 
matter of conjecture among physicists and chemists, so 
long will they be exposed to the danger of a discovery, to 
be converted into a patent, that may set aside and over- 
ride all the advantages they now hold. These are far- 
reaching considerations, and we doubt whether the com- 
mittee appointed by the Mining Congress will care to go 
into them. However, we cherish the hope that these and 
other matters pertinent to the controversy will be duly 
considered and that the meeting of representatives from 
the opposing camps will lead to a better understanding 
all round, preparing the way for an armistice, and pos- 
sibly for a peace, with reparations. 

The Institute as a Publisher 

The affairs of the American Institute of Mining and 
Metallurgical Engineers are the affairs of the American 
mining profession, so we need hardly apologize for dis- 
cussing them. We are prompted to do so by several pro- 
tests received by us against the recent "voluntary sub- 
scription", which is set down as one of three items on a 
bill for dues. "We publish one of the letters received by 
us; it is from a distinguished member of the Institute. 
This year, instead of a simple bill for the dues, namely 
$15, each member is debited with $2 for binding, whether 
he wishes volumes LXV and LXVI bound or not, and at 
the same time he is told that even volume LXIV has not 
been issued and cannot be issued until next year. The 
date of the circular is December 17. Next, he is put 
down for a "voluntary subscription" of $10, making $27 
altogether. At last week's meeting of the San Francisco 
section of the Institute this subject was debated. We 
were not present, but it is reported that a resolution was 
passed unanimously, by 50 or more, calling for the ap- 
pointment of a committee to. investigate the expenses of 
the Institute and devise plans for reducing them within 
the limits of income. Captain J. C. Bay, who said that 
he had been absent from all the meetings for three years 
and had only just returned from military service abroad, 
made the remark that there was much talk about the de- 
sirability of having engineers in the Government admin- 
istration because their training would enable them to 
introduce economy and efficiency ; yet the first thing he 
heard on his return was this request for a contribution 
of $10 to make good a deficit caused by the failure of 
the engineers to run a business that was entirely under 
their control. This seems to us a just remark, even if 
unpalatable to most of us, but in the long run it is wise 
to face unpleasant facts honestly. In a recent circular 
the Finance Committee explains that the funds of the 
Institute have been exhausted by its enlarged activities 
and the great increase in the cost of publishing, printing, 
supplies, and salaries. A tentative budget for 1921 in- 

dicates a deficit of about $20,000. The directors believe 
that the present high costs are temporary and they feel 
that the activities of the Institute should not be curtailed. 
This is not a cheerful story, nor is it by any means unique, 
for many other organizations are feeling the effect of high 
prices and possibly the results of their own extravagance 
during an expansive period. It has seemed to us often 
during recent years that the Institute has become too 
exuberant in its publishing activities. Its Transactions 
have been voluminous to excess; they exhibit a lack of 
revision ; if properly edited their bulk could be decreased 
30%, without loss to their value as technical literature ; 
when received a considerable proportion of them goes 
into our waste-paper basket almost of their own accord. 
It seems to us that the Institute has been publishing a 
good deal of half-baked material, swelling the Trans- 
actions into two and even three volumes per annum, in- 
stead of the one compact well-edited book we used to re- 
ceive when Dr. Raymond was editor and secretary. Not 
content with expansion in this direction, the Institute has 
seen fit to publish a monthly magazine, partly to serve as 
an official organ and partly to extend its commercial ac- 
tivities. Here it is proper to interject that the Institute 
magazine is in no sense the competitor of any technical 
journal, such as the 'Mining and Scientific Press' or the 
'Engineering and Mining Journal', and any criticism of 
it is without prejudice. For example, the January num- 
ber of the Magazine is just to hand, and we confess with 
regret that we can find nothing in it that is worth the 
price of paper, printing, and postage. The chief feature 
of the issue is an article on economic conditions by Mr. 
W. R. Ingalls. This is good, but most of us have already 
read Mr. Ingalls' views on the subject in 'The Annalist', 
the 'Mining and Scientific Press', and other periodicals. 
The account of the Engineering Council dinner is inter- 
esting to those who participated, but to few besides. This 
applies also to the chronicle of society activities, namely, 
those of local engineering organizations. Five pages are 
given to abstracts of papers to be presented ; not one of 
these is of any such immediate importance or general in- 
terest as to justify its being printed more than once, in 
pamphlet form for the meeting, and later in a bound 
volume. Six pages are devoted to abstracts of important 
papers in current periodicals. These also fail to justify 
the publication of a 100-page magazine. Then comes a 
list of new members and of additions to the Engineering 
Societies Library, with other odds and ends. The Maga- 
zine is not worth the price it costs ; everything in it that 
is essential could be sent to members in an 8-page folder ; 
it seems to serve as an editorial kindergarten for a num- 
ber of young men in the Secretary's office, thereby divert- 
ing energies that are badly needed for the Transactions. 
If the Institute is to remain solvent it had better curb 
its use of paper, printing, and postage, that is, cut down 
its effusiveness as a publisher. It is time for the directors 
to face facts and consider seriously what are, and what 
are not, the functions of a professional society such as 
the Institute. As to that there will be various opinions. 
We venture to express one of them. 

January Jl'. 192] 



D I 3 

Ex-Soldiers and Prospecting 
The Editor: 

Sir — In your issue of December 11. 1920, I notice a 
short editorial which commends Government assistance to 
returned soldiers in order to enable them to go prospect- 
ing for mi n erals. Such a scheme, which you say the 
Government of Western Australia reports as being suc- 
cessful there, is in operation also in British Columbia, 
but all reports of its success would be more complete and 
interesting if they stated for whom the prospecting was 

Those schemes, which have been quite widely boosted 
of late in nearly every mineral country in the northern 
half of America may be highly "successful" from the 
point of view of some mining engineers and the com- 
panies they represent, because they are interested in 
keeping the market continually flooded with vast num- 
bers of mineral prospects, so that a few of the best of 
them can be picked out and purchased for little, or noth- 
ing if possible, but they do not look quite so "successful" 
to the professional prospector who has spent the best 
years of his life and every dollar he could earn in the 
meantime in the hills looking for and developing pros- 
pective mines, nor will they appear very "successful" to 
the returned soldier prospector by the time he has ac- 
quired a tithe of the experience of the old professional 
prospector, who is usually altogether too inarticulate for 
his own good. 

Some of the reasons why prospecting for most minerals 
is likely to be very unsuccessful to the man who actually 
does the prospecting are as follows : 

Because there is no demand at present for any of the 
metals, excepting gold, and even that, unless the pros- 
pector is lucky enough to find it as a shallow alluvial 
deposit or as an absolutely free-milling quartz deposit, 
so that he can make it productive by his own efforts, will 
not do him much good, for the simple reason that other- 
wise he will be left with a white elephant on his hands, 
like the thousands of other claim-owners, many of whom 
have good likely-looking propositions near existing lines 
of transportation, which they are unable to work for 
themselves from lack of modern machinery or the means 
to buy it, and therefore must hold indefinitely or sell at 
their (the companies') figure to the mining companies 
that have the necessary capital and know it and take 
advantage accordingly, for every experienced mining 
man knows that hardly ever does a prospector who is 
fortunate enough to find a really good prospect, which 
soon develops into a mine, get enough for it to adequately 

repay him, for the risks he has taken, the time and money 
he has spent, the disappointments he has endured, and 
the sacrifices he has made in order to find it. 

As I pointed out to the British Columbia government 
over a year ago, if their intention was to benefit the re- 
turned soldier and incidentally mining, it would be much 
more sensible to develop a few of the best of our many 
thousands of already discovered but undeveloped pros- 
pects, many of which belong to returned soldiers, than to 
spend public money and the time of young soldiers look- 
ing for more mineral claims, raw and undeveloped, of 
which we have far too many already ; and I feel confident 
that true conditions are much alike in all the mining 

The fact is that no government or individual can con- 
scientiously recommend young soldiers or anyone else to 
prospect for minerals under present conditions, except- 
ing, of course, 'hootchite', which you so humorously de- 
scribed a few numbers back, as hootchite solution always 
is in demand at high figures wherever humans congregate. 

Donald C. Simpson. 
Smithers, B. C, January 5. 

The North Star Mines 

The Editor: 

Sir — In the interview about the North Star mine and 
mill of Grass Valley, California, in your issue of Decem- 
ber 25, 1920, you omitted, no doubt through oversight, 
to mention any of the details of John Hays Hammond 's 
connection with the property in the early days, and to 
whose efforts was due the resuscitation of the famous 
mine and making of the property a producer of promise, 
before James D. Hague and Arthur De Wint Foote be- 
came connected with the company. During that period, 
and when the mill was being constructed, I happened to 
examine the mine, in a general way, and recommended it 
to Hamilton Smith, then in ItnUon, for the Exploration 
Company of London, witn which he was prominently 

The mine had been shut down and was under water for 
about ten years, when it was brought to Hammond's at- 
tention by Alexander Stoddard, general agent of the 
New York Underwriters Agency. He and Hammond's 
friend, "W. B. Bourn, of San Francisco, owner of the- 
famous Empire mine near-by, became interested, on 
Hammond's recommendation, in supplying the money to 
re-open the property. At the time of the Hammond ex- 
amination, there was little or no ore visible in the ac- 
cessible workings down to about 1000 ft. on the incline. 



January 22, 1921 

The vein had been faulted and the surface plant removed. 
Under the Hammond regime, the workings were un- 
watered, the incline-shaft sunk, and drifting and cross- 
cutting carried on. New ore-ground was rapidly opened 
up, and an old stamp-mill was leased, about one mile 
away. The proceeds of this small plant soon enabled a 
more extensive development plan to be carried out, and a 
new 30-stamp mill was erected. About this time Ham- 
mond was general manager of the undertaking. At this 
stage in the company's affairs, Hague happened to be 
visiting Hammond at Grass Valley, and was enabled, 
through Hammond, to purchase the controlling interest 
in the company from Bourn and Stoddard, Hammond re- 
maining manager and consulting engineer, but later de- 
voting himself to the development of the Bunker Hill & 
Sullivan, in Idaho. The period in point was an interest- 
ing as well as critical chapter in the history of this great 
Grass Valley gold mine, and there was then call for some 
real mining courage and sagacity, to re-discover the mine, 
as it were, and put it on the way to future success. 

New York, January 4. F. G. Corning. 

[The main subject of the interview was Mr. Foote and 
his career, not the North Star mine. — Editor.] 

Rich and Poor Zones 

The Editor; 

Sir — The interesting and -inspiriting contribution of 
W. J. Loring relating, in your issue of November 27, his 
experience of finding poor zones and enrichments alter- 
nating with each other in the Plymouth Consolidated, 
brings to my recollection a remark, made to me person- 
ally, regarding the early history of the Great Boulder 
mine in Western Australia, by Richard Hamilton, the 
manager, who has, with such pronounced success, con- 
tinuously guided the fortunes of that famous property 
almost since its discovery some seven and twenty years 

"When we went below five hundred feet," said Mr. 
Hamilton, "I really believed that the bottom had drop- 
ped out of the mine and any fears continued until we 
reached the 1200-ft. level, where an orebody was dis- 
covered almost identical with that which we had been 
working above." And so, by operating on a sound policy 
of maintaining development work well ahead of milling 
requirements, rich zones continued to be disclosed in suffi- 
cient number to compensate, in a large measure, for what, 
by comparison in value, might appear to be disappoint- 
ments. The result is that the mine has flourished and, 
all these years, continued to furnish its fortunate share- 
holders with consistent dividends. 

Even the old Lake View Consols mine, of Westralia's 
ton-of-gold-per-month fame, which reached a depth of 
1950 ft. at the time when I was superintendent and which 
then disclosed no ore of payable grade below the 1750-ft. 
level, is, once again apparently, showing some signs of 
renewed hope and encouragement. Five winzes, each 
from 50 ft. to 150 ft. deep, have been sunk below the 
2100-ft. level, at present the bottom, and, according to 

latest report, assays as high as $20 per ton (not in pres- 
ent-day currency but in real old-time metallic money) 
have been obtained, attractive enough to cause a resump- 
tion of sinking the main shaft to 2300 feet. 

After all, a mine with a successful past must be con- 
sidered of greater value than the result of sampling its 
lowest poor level would really indicate. 

W. E. Simpson. 

Boston Creek, Ontario, January 6. 

Institute Affairs 

The Editor: 

Sir — At a time when an earnest effort is being made to 
persuade engineers to participate more actively in public 
affaire in order to ensure that public business shall be 
administered efficiently, it is particularly unfortunate 
for a great engineering society to be so mismanaged as to 
have its expenditures exceed its easily determinable in- 
come. One of the many sins which we charge up against 
the politician in his administration of public affairs is 
that he proceeds without any proper budget system. 

The first thing which the Institute should do is to see 
to it that its officers cut down expenses until they come 
within its income. The deficit has not been created by 
the membership. The responsibility rests with the di- 
rectors, who should be held personally responsible for the 
policy which they have pursued. The suggestion that $5 
should be considered as payment for the monthly publi- 
cation, 'Mining and Metallurgy', is particularly unwel- 
come, as there seems to be no excuse for this publication. 
The technical press has always served the profession to 
its great satisfaction. Any matter which the Institute 
wishes to put before the public could be equally well or 
better presented through the regular journals of the 

All that the rank and file want of the Institute is the 
regular publication of carefully edited technical papers. 
If the editorial and publishing function were wisely dis- 
charged, the number and size of papers could be kept 
within reasonable limits, the monthly magazine would be 
entirely suppressed, and no deficit need exist. 

Our profession should not be degraded to a condition 
of meeting expenses by passing the contribution-box, and 
our debasement is only added to when the Secretary asks 
for subscriptions which will, if paid equally by all mem- 
bers, amount to several times the amount necessary to be 

It is more than ever apparent that we need so thorough 
a house-cleaning in the New York office as will so com- 
pletely remove the beam from our own eye that we shall 
have a right to assist in removing the mote from the eye 
of public business. A Member . 

Palo Alto, California, January 14. 


Statistics show that exports of oil from Mexico for 
the month of October totaled 17,300,000 barrels as com- 
pared with 8,060,000 barrels in January 1920. These 
figures are striking in view of the fact that in 1901 
Mexico shipped out only 10,345 barrels. 

January 22, 1921 



The Present Status of Flotation Litigation 

By T. A. Rickard 

Introduction. In our issue (it' April 14. 1917, 1 told 
Be story of the litigation arising in the Federal Courts 
out of disputes over the validity and scope of the patents 
owned by Minerals Separation. Ltd. At that time the 
Kami ease had just been adjudicated by the Circuit 
Court of Appeals at Philadelphia, and the Supreme Court 
had disposed of the Hyde case. Since then the suit 
brought by Minerals Separation against the Butte & 
Superior Mining Co. has dragged its slow length through 
tin' three courts to final adjudication by the Supreme 
Court. This case may be regarded as a necessary sequel 
to the Hyde case. Meanwhile the Miami case has not yet 
gone to the Supreme Court; it is in the accounting stage, 
before a Master in Chancery, but it is expected that after 
the Master has reported finally, this ease eventually will 
be submitted to the Supreme Court. 

Two fresh suits have been started by Minerals Separa- 
tion, namely, against the Nevada Consolidated Copper 
Company and the Magma Copper Company, the first 
operating at McGill, in Nevada, and the other at Super- 
ior, in Arizona. 

Butte & Superior. This case was tried first before 
Judge Bourquin in the District Court of Montana and a 
decision was given on August 25. 1917. x The trial lasted 
from April 18 to May 15. The Court upheld the validity 
of patent No. 835.120 and the Butte & Superior Mining 
Co. was declared to have infringed this patent. It was 
found that throughout the period of infringement the de- 
fendant's process always involved the use of "a pyramid 
achine of seven cells in series, each cell containing a 
evolving perpendicular spindle and horizontal blades, 
d having two opposed spitzkasten". The result was 
iolent agitation. At certain points in the flow-sheet 
here were, it is true, Callow or pneumatic cells, but at all 
limes the pulp was first subjected to the rapid rotary 
igitation as described. 

As to whether, after January 7, 1917, the addition of 
petroleum oil. to bring the total mixture to more than 
1% of oil on the ore, took the defendant's operations out- 
iide the scope of the patent, the District Court decided 
hat the petroleum oil added in the mixture "if not inert 
s ineffective, wasted, and injurious to the process and re- 
mits", and that the pine-oil, used in substantially the 
■ame proportion as during the admitted infringement be- 
ore January 7, 1917, was performing the same function 
is before ; therefore, the substance of the patent having 
leen taken, the defendant could not escape the eonse- 
[uences of infringement. 

An injunction and accounting were ordered by the 
lieeree of the District Court, but the injunction was 

!The opinion was recorded in full in the 'M. & S. P.' of 
eptember 29, 1917. 

stayed pending an appeal. This appeal was argued at 
San Francisco, before the Circuit Court of Appeals, on 
March 8, 1918, - and a decision was given on May 13, 
1918. 3 The Court was not the same as that which had 
heard the Hyde case, for Judge Gilbert was absent, but 
Judge Ross, who wrote the opinion in the Butte & Super- 
ior case, was one of the three who had sat in the Hyde 
case. The chief question considered was the proportion 
of oil used in the process covered by the patent. The 
majority of the Court, Judges Ross and Hunt, appear to 
have been impressed by a colloquy 4 that took place be- 
tween W. H. Kenyon, of counsel for Minerals Separation, 
and Justice McReynolds of the Supreme Court during the 
argument of the Hyde case. In consequence they held 
that the Supreme Court intended to limit the patent to 
five-tenths of 1% of oil on the ore, that being, in their 
opinion, the critical proportion that the Supreme Court 
had in mind when holding patentability to reside, among 
other things, in the use of a specific amount of oil "hav- 
ing a preferential affinity for metalliferous matter". 
Judge Morrow dissented, his opinion being that the pat- 
ent was limited to 1% of any oil or oily liquid, and that 
the use of oil "in a quantity amounting to more than a 
fraction of 1%" was not an infringement upon the 
plaintiff's process. 

This case was then taken, by writ of certiorari, to the 
Supreme Court, which gave its decision on June 2, 1919. 
The opinion 5 was written by Justice Clarke, as in the 
Hyde case. The Court held, against Judge Bourquin, of 
the Montana District Court, that "petroleum and petro- 
leum products are oils useful in this process of the pat- 
ent", and it agreed with the minority opinion of the 
Court of Appeals limiting the scope of the patent to 1% 
of oil. I quote the last paragraph of the Supreme Court's 
decision : 

"It results that the decree of the Circuit Court of 
Appeals that the respondent infringed the patent only 
when using one-half of 1% or less of oil on the ore must 
be reversed, and that its implied holding that the use in 
excess of 1% on the ore did not constitute infringement 
must be sustained. The case is remanded to the District 
Court for further proceedings in conformity with this 

It will be remembered that the Butte & Superior com- 
pany increased its use of oil to more than 1% after Jan- 

2A description of the proceedings appeared in the 'M. & 
S. P.' of March 16, 191S. 

aThe full text of the decision will be found in the 'M. & 
S. P.' of May 25, 1918. 

<See p. 379 of 'M. & S. P.' of March 16, 1916. 

ESee 'M. & S. P.' of June 21, 1919. 



January 22, 1921 

uary 7, 1917,* that is, almost immediately after the 
Supreme Court's decision in the Hyde ease. The same 
Court now held that the company, by which Mr. Hyde 
had been employed professionally, had infringed the 
patent only when it used oil in the proportion of less than 
1%. In arriving at its decision, the Court made the 
following findings : 

1. That the new evidence was too meagre in amount 
and too unsatisfactory to modify the Court's conclusion 
in the Hyde case on validity. 

2. That except as to the proportion of oil, defendant's 
methods were substantially those of the patent in suit, 
that is, as defined in the Hyde case, the agitation of the 
pulp "by beating air into the mass" so as to form "a 
peculiarly coherent" froth. 

3. That petroleum products are oils "efficient and use- 
ful in the process", but not "as highly efficient" as pine- 
oil or other oils that in the record are called "frothing 

4. That the froth derives its power of flotation mainly 
from the inclusion of air introduced into the mass by 

5. That the patent disclosure to which Minerals Sepa- 
ration must be limited is when a fraction of 1% of oil is 
used "in the manner prescribed". 

6. That the term 'frothing oil' does not appear in the 

7. That ' ' the patent is on the process, it is not and can- 
not be in the result", and the scope of the patentees' 
rights is limited "to the means they have devised and 
described as constituting the process". 

These findings by the Supreme Court are important in 
their bearing upon further litigation. The idea of a 
frothing-oilf is rejected. So far as patent 835,120 is con- 
cerned, we have "oils, oily liquids, and oily substances 
having a preferential affinity for metalliferous sub- 

*In a statement dated November 22, 1919, and filed by 
the Butte & Superior company on the accounting, the vary- 
ing proportions of oil are given in detail. From September 
to December 1915 less than *% was used; from January 7 
to January 29 the percentage was well above 1%; from 
January 30 to February 9* it was less than 1% but more 
than i%; from February 12 to March 31 it was again in 
excess of 1%, and so on. An interesting question arose, 
Minerals Separation insisting that the oil in the circulating 
load should not be included when determining the propor- 
tion of oil used vis-a-vis the patent. The oil in circulation, 
which is returned to the head of the mill, amounts to sev- 
eral pounds per ton on the ore. The Minerals Separation 
people contended that the Butte & Superior was in contempt 
of the injunction because it has added only IS lb. of fresh 
oil during certain periods, and that the proper interpreta- 
tion of the Supreme Court's decision required the addition 
of at least 20 lb. of fresh oil in the process in order to escape 
infringement. Judge Bourquin, of the Montana District 
Court, decided that there was no proper justification for the 
contention that the Supreme Court had so decided and ad- 
vised Minerals Separation to appropriate subsequent pro- 
cedure in the case with a view to having the question de- 
termined. The answer hinges upon effectiveness of the oil 
in circuit, and as to that there seems to be little doubt 
among those using the process. 

tit is not an oil that froths; it is an oil for making froth. 

stances". In this (Butte & Superior) case the type of 
operation considered was that of the Janney machine, in 
which violent agitation is obtained of the type of the 
Gabbett mixer. Naturally it was inferred by those using 
machines of the pneumatic type, such as the Callow cell, 
that they could escape the charge of infringement, for 
did not the Supreme Court state the essence of the patent 
in the following definition: "We have found that if a 
proportion of oily substance be considerably reduced 
. . . granulation ceases to take place, and after victori- 
ous agitation [italics mine] , there is a tendency for . . . 
metalliferous matter to rise ... in the form of a froth 
or scum". Again, the Court said: "The froth or scum 
derives its power of flotation mainly from the inclusion 
of air bubbles introduced into the mass uy agitation". 

The Butte & Superior case was sent back to the District 
Court, in order that it might recast its decree in con- 
formity with the decision of the Supreme Court. An ac- 
counting was ordered and an account was filed before 
Judge Bourquin by the defendant. Exceptions were 
taken thereto. At the same time Minerals Separation 
petitioned the District Court to adjudge Butte & Super- 
ior guilty of contempt for having violated the injunction 
issued by the Court, the contention being that Butte & 
Superior was not using more than 1% of oil mixture per 
ton, because a portion of the oil was returned with the 
middling to the head of the flotation machine from the 
fourth to the seventh Janney cells. After a hearing (in 
February 1920) Judge Bourquin dismissed the contempt : 
petition, holding that this question had not been decided I 
by the Supreme Court and that he therefore could not 
adjudge contempt upon a question that had only been 
half litigated by the plaintiff. Nevertheless, this is an 
important point, for, in most milling operations, a vary- i 
ing portion of the oil is re-used. The accounting in this 
case is still pending, no testimony having been taken as 

Miami Copper Company. This case was decided in the i 
Circuit Court of Appeals at Philadelphia on May 24, 
1917. The majority opinion was that the three patents 
in the suit, No. 835,120, No. 962,678, and No. 1,099,699, 
were valid and had been infringed. The minority opin- i 
ion held that the first patent had not been infringed by 
the defendants' operations except when using the so- •(( 
called first method. This case is rendered interesting by 
the fact that the Miami company used four methods sue- i 
cessively ; in the first it used a standard Minerals Separa- 
tion machine ; in the second, a centrifugal pump, a break 
in the circuit, a Paehuca tank, and Callow cells ; in the 
third a Paehuca tank and Callow cells ; and in the fourth 
a bucket-elevator and Callow cells. The fourth did not 
appear in the record, the majority opinion concerning 
itself only with the three previous methods, all of which 
it adjudged to have infringed patent No. 835,120. The j 
main question was whether the agitation in the Miami 
mill was of the violent and persistent kind covered by the 
patent, the Court deciding that the centrifugal pump and 
the Paehuca tank together produced that kind of agita- 

"See 'M. & S. P.' of June 16 and 23, 1917. 

Tanunry K, l<i.'l 



ion. The fourth method, from which these devices were 
imitted, was not discussed because the Court "cannot 
onaider and adjudge with propriety or authority a 

•ss with respeet to which the plaintiff has had no oppor- 
unity to produee testimony and which was not embraced 
u the deeree [of the District Court] we are reviewing". 
This was unfortunate for the Miami company, which, 
I lie case was first tried in the lower Court, has dis- 
arded the infringing devices. The company managed 
ta case badly, for the real name of the Pachuca tank is 
he Brown agitator, and to contend that the passage of 
he pulp through a Paehuca did not 'agitate' was unwise. 
Since this case will be referred again to the Circuit 
'ourt of Appeals, and possibly to the Supreme Court, 
fter the Master makes his report on the methods that 
ave been used in the Miami mill since October 1, 1915 
the date at which the third method was discontinued), 
is well to analyze the majority opinion, by Judge Wool- 
;y, because, obviously, it bears upon the highly impor- 
mt question whether aeration of the pulp through a 
orous medium, as in the Callow cell, constitutes in- 
ringement of No. 835,120. 

It is to be noted, in the first place, that the Court of 
ppeals, following the Supreme Court in the Hyde case, 
yerruled the District Court when it said that the patent- 
bility of 835,120 resides in the mere diminution of oil. 
udge "Woolley interpreted the Supreme Court's decision 
B finding patentability in the co-action of a specific pro- 
ortion of oil and a special kind of agitation, the air 
fibbles being introduced into the pulp "by an agitation 
teater than and different from that which had been re- 
tried to before". The Miami company admitted the use 
I less than 1% of oil and that the lifting force in its 
iree methods was air; the issue therefore was whether 
le agitation it produced was "greater than and different 
om" the prior art. It was admitted that a froth was 
rmed, but it was denied that it was the same kind of 
oth as that of the patent or the product of the kind of 
Station described in the patent. 

Setting aside the first method employed at Miami as 
ing obviously experimental, it will be noted that in 
nsidering the second method Judge Woolley decided 
at the centrifugal pump sucked air and that the blow 
the pump-paddle produced the agitation of the patent 
to violence if not duration. He found some aeration 
suiting from the splash of a break in the circuit ; like- 
:se he found agitation and aeration in the Pachuca tank, 
normal operation of the second method the pulp did 
it come to rest in the Pachuca but was delivered by 
unders to Callow cells. The Court. found that the en- 
ance of air through the porous medium at the bottom of 
e Callow cell caused some measure of agitation but it 
is "not even approximately of the violence and dura- 
Hi of the agitation of the patent". The Court proceed- 
to say that the defendants had argued the case largely 
though its process consisted solely in passing thor- 
ghly mixed but quiescent pulp directly into Callow 
Us, where it received its first and last aeration without 
evious or present agitation, resulting in a metallurgical 

froth quite different from that of the patent. Judge 
Woolley could not find that the record justified this 
argument ; he said : 

"If the only agitation to which the pulp was subjected 
(after such agitation as in the prior art was necessary to 
mix the oil and ore) was the agitation of the Callow cells, 
we would not say that that agitation amounted to or was 
the equivalent of the violent agitation of the patent dis- 
closure and constituted infringement; . . . the Callow 
cells were not the whole process but were merely the last 
of four distinct parts of the process, the other three being 
the process of the patent or its fair equivalent. Having 
used the process of the patent in the first three steps 
[centrifugal pump, break in circuit, and Paehuca] in 
developing in the pulp the potentiality of the critical 
quantity of oil and air, and in bringing the pulp to the 
point where, if permitted, it would produce the result of 
the patent, we feel that the defendant cannot escape in- 
fringement by taking an additional step, even though 
that step if taken alone avoids the patent." 

The foregoing quotation is the crux of the decision by 
the Court of Appeals in the Miami case ; it shows what a 
blunder was made in adopting the unnecessary use of the 
machines that infringed the patent, for the Court, re- 
ferring to the patentees, said that "agitation was the 
secret by which the principle of their discovery could be 
unlocked and used". 

In the third method, the centrifugal pump and the 
break in the circuit were omitted, the Pachuca being pre- 
ceded by a bucket-elevator, which performed the function 
of the centrifugal pump in raising the pulp. The oil, it 
is true, was added ahead of the elevator, but, without 
co mm enting upon the action of the elevator, the Court 
held that this method also involved an agitation similar 
to that of the patent and therefore constituted infringe- 

The second and third methods were discontinued in 
September 1915, four months after the submission of the 
case to the District Court, just one year before that Court 
handed down its opinion, and twenty months before the 
Court of Appeals pronounced its decision. For most of 
the time between October 1, 1915, and May 24, 1917 (the 
date on which the Court of Appeals issued its decision), 
the Miami company used the fourth method, consisting in 
the employment of the bucket-elevator, launders, and 
Callow cells, the mixture of oils being added at the foot 
of the elevator. Although the flow-sheet of this practice 
was before the Court in the form of a blueprint and the 
questions involved in these operations were argued at 
length, the Court felt itself restricted by the record so 
that it could not "consider a process with respect to 
which the plaintiff had had no opportunity to produce 
testimony, and which was not embraced in the decree 
under review". Had the Court been of the opinion, as 
has been argued by Minerals Separation in later pro- 
ceedings, that the second and third methtSds were of such 
scope as to include the Callow cell, there was enough in 
the record to warrant a consideration of this question. 
In discussing the third method, the Court reproduced in 



January 22. 1921 

its opinion the blueprint mentioned above and described 
an experiment in which one part of the Miami mill was 
operated by the third method and another part by the 
fourth method. The Court said : 

"In the experiment, one group was operated with the 
Pachuca tank as planned. In the other, the Paehuca tank 
was cut out and the pulp conveyed directly from the 
elevator to the cells. The result was no apparent differ- 
ence in the action of the pulp and little difference in the 
assays of the metal recoveries, that difference, curiously 
enough, being in favor of the group in which the Pachuca 
tank was not used. The evidence of the fact and of the 
effect of this experiment was not contradicted, except, 
perhaps, by the defendant itself, by returning at once to 
its previous practice of using both Pachuca tanks, and in 
pursuing that practice to a time beyond the trial. This 
fact places the Third Process 7 in the position of the 
Second, where we have found that agitation and aeration 
of the Pachuca tank is the agitation of the patent, and 
amounts to infringement." 

From the foregoing it is not quite clear whether the 
Court held that the method without the Paehuca avoided 
infringement, although the reference to the contradic- 
tion of the experiment by the return to the use of the 
Pachueas might warrant such an inference. In the direct 
testimony and cross-examination there was an account of 
the operation on a milling scale of the elevator and 
Callow cells, precisely as described under the so-called 
Fourth Process, and it is unfortunate therefore that the 
Court held itself unable to adjudge this point, so vital to 
the suit, and to the legal status of the Callow cell under 
the first patent. No. S35.120. Moreover, the status of the 
Callow cell under the second (soluble frothing-agent. 
No. 962.675 ' patent was not discussed by either the Dis- 
trict or the Appellate court in the Miami case. This is a 
curious omission. The Court of Appeals had considered 
the use of the Callow cell in connection with the first 
patent, and found it not trespassing upon the agitation 
of that patent : if a different measure of agitation was in- 
tended to be ascribed to the second patent, and there was 
lack of proof of the agitating effect of the bucket-elevator 
under either of the patents, it was open to both Courts to 
apply the measure of agitation of the second patent to the 
Callow cell and thereby determine where it came within 
the scope of that patent. The question of the action of 
the Callow invention was known to the Court of Appeals 
to be fht important issue involved in the lawsuit, and if 
there had been any intention of bringing the Callow cell 
within the scope of the second patent, it was to have been 
expected that the Court would so express itself, instead 
of leaving this vital question undetermined. In default 
of a clear pronouncement on this point, it may be assumed 
that the Court meant what it said when it found the dif- 
ference between the first and second patents to be in the 
character of the frothing-agent used, and that in the 
second, as well as in the first, patent "the decision turns 

'1 have used 'method' instead of 'process', the former term 
suggesting more correctly a way of performing a process 
rather than a different process. 

upon the kind and degree of agitation employed by the 
defendant". Since the third patent in suit is concededly 
an amendment of the second patent, it must be limited or 
fall with it. 

After the decision of the Court of Appeals, in May 
1917. the Miami company was given time to decide > 
whether it would present a petition to the Supreme Court 
for a writ of certiorari preliminary to a further review 
of the case by the court of last resort, and. after due con- 
sideration, the defendant company concluded to accept 
the decision of the Appellate Court as being substantially 
in its favor, any action in the nature of an appeal there- 
from having the appearance of an attack upon that favor- 
able decision. Accordingly in August 1917 the Miami i 
company notified the Court of Appeals of its intention > 
not to apply for a writ of certiorari, whereupon the man- « 
date of that Court issued and the decree of the District i< 
Court was pronounced, together with an injunction re- ' 
straining the Miami company from continuing the prac- 
tices that infringed the patents in suit. 

In accordance with the original order entered by Judge ; 
Bradford, of the District Court, the case was referred to < 
William G. MahafEy. as Master, to obtain an accounting 
of the profits derived by the Miami company in eons*-; 
quence of its infringing practices. Late in 1917 the; 
Master ordered the Miami company to file its account!' 
which was done in due course. Minerals Separation filed 
its exceptions to this account and thereby raised the qnes- ' 
tion as to whether the milling practice subsequent to the I 
first, second, and third methods, as considered by the I 1 
Court of Appeals, was or was not a colorable departure 
from the declared infringements. In support of its con- 1 
tention that the later practice was merely such a color- ' 
able departure. Minerals Separation called as its witness ' 
K. B. Yerxa. assistant mill-superintendent to the Miami 
company, and examined him for 30 days in conned^H 
with the introduction of 80 exhibits, representing every 
milling and experimental operation performed in the mill • 
from September 1915 to the date of the examination. Mr. 
Yerxa 's testimony covers 625 pages. At the request oi 
Minerals Separation, his testimony was interrupted in 
order to allow a visit of inspection to the Miami mill by • 
the Master, with counsel and experts for Minerals Separa- 
tion. This visit extended over four days. 

On November 26. 1919. more than a year and a ^H 
after the taking of testimony had been begun before the 
Master, and after 2500 pages of testimony had been ac- 
cumulated. Minerals Separation made a motion for leaTt 1 
to file a Supplemental Bill, the avowed purpose of which 
was to take from the Master the question whether tl 
later operations of the Miami company were or were not 
infringing. Two months later, on January 27. 1920. the' 
Court denied this request, on account of certain defects II 
in the proposed Supplemental Bill, and at the same time I 
indicated its opinion that the investigation into the late: 
milling operations came properly before the Master. 

On May 4. 1920. Minerals Separation filed its petitiot 
in the District Court, praying that the Miami eompanj 
be adjudged in contempt, as having violated the injune 


unitary 22, 1921 



ion of the Court, and that a further injunction be issued 
i) restrain the company from the practice ii had adi 
fin- discontinuing the so-called Third Process. On Ma.- 
4 the Miami company filed its answer denying thai the 
aid operations were infringing and asking that the peti 
on 1"' dismissed. This motion was argued before the 
Hurt on June 1">. and on July 23 the Court dismissed 
te petition for contempt. Judge Morris, of the District 
onit. in las opinion, stated that "in view of the nature 
( tin- new processes used by the defendant as charged by 
19 petition . . . the plaintiff must obtain the relief to 
flii'h it is entitled, if any. touching the new processes. 
it her through the proceedings now being had before the 
[aster and the deeree to be entered thereon, or by a new 
ill. and not otherwise". On the same day therefore 
Minerals Separation made a motion for leave to file a 
uppb-mental Bill, praying that Minerals Separation 
orth American Corporation be made a party to the 
lose, and, although objection was made to this, the 
ourt decided to grant the request, "but without preju- 
• to the defendant to renew its objections, in a manner 
len suitable, to the bill when filed, if it be so advised". 
n order accordingly was made on July 22. Four days 
ter Minerals Separation asked for leave to file a second 
lpplemental Bill, the purpose of which was the taking 
the investigation of the Miami company's later prac- 
;e from the Master, and the trial of the same before the 
fistrict Court. This was denied, on August 11, 1920. 
lereupon Minerals Separation took an appeal on the 
o orders (of July 23 and August 11) to the Court of 
ppeals, and the Miami company filed a motion to dis- 
iss the appeal, and this matter was set for argument at 
liladelphia on November 9. A month later, on Decem- 
r 9, Judge Woolley pronounced the decision of the 
mrt of Appeals, affirming the orders of the District 
tjmrt and holding that the modifications or changes made 
the defendant in its milling practice since September 
15 were not plainly mere colorable equivalents of pro- 
lures that infringed. Judge Woolley held further that 
1j practice of issuing supplementary injunctions is not 
be adopted in the Third Circuit and that "the remedies 
ainst infringement after deeree are those which now 
evail, namely, damages and profits on accounting, 
achnient for contempt, and original bill; in the last 
i patentee 's right to injunctive relief is fully preserved 
him". The Court stated: "We have read and care- 
fjlly studied the entire record . . . We shall not re- 
ste the law of the ease, but shall address ourselves solely 
t the new facts. These embody at least eleven new pro- 
c lures or modifications of procedures charged to be in- 
ingements because equivalents of the infringements 
i uid by this Court in its decree. The processes decreed 
t be infringements were made up of several steps in 
vich it was found, speaking most generally, that in- 
f ngements were completed before the pulp had reached 
t i Callow cells. In none of the eleven modified processes, 
aiin speaking generally, is there a centrifugal pump or 
a 'break in the circuit" or a Pachuca tank, means or 
~ ps held potential in the infringements found. In the 

later modified pr lures. Callow cells are employed ex- 
clusive of and inclusive with other means, in some in- 
stances with no prior agitation, in other instances with 

prior agitation without aeration, in still other instances 
with prior agitation and aeration, indicating agitl 
in degrees varying as greatly as the adjectives used in 
describing it: but whether in any of them there is agita- 
tion of the kind, in the degree, and for the duration con- 
templated by the patent is not so clear and unclouded as 
to make the newly alleged infringing procedures free 
from doubt and to warrant the extraordinary remedy of 
supplementary injuctive relief ... To avoid the ap- 
pearance of affirming the Court's decree upon the nega- 
tive quality of a finding that we discern no error in its 
order, we go farther and say, that, having made the law 
of the ease we are presumed to know what it is, and that, 
applying the law to the facts, which, on the defendant's 
motion to dismiss are regarded most favorable to the 
plaintiffs, we would have made the same disposition of 
the case had we been sitting in the District Court when 
the application for a supplementary injunction was made. 
We are of opinion therefore that the order or orders of 
the District Court should be affirmed and the ease be 
proceeded with expeditiously and in a manner consistent 
with the law." 

On May 26, 1920, the Miami company petitioned for 
leave to file a supplemental bill in the nature of a bill of 
review. The company took this step on account of the 
discovery of "an unpublished book in manuscript form", 
written by Messrs. Sulman and Picard in 1906. This 
treatise, a copy of which was found in the possession of 
T. J. Hoover,* to whom it had been given by the authors 
early in 1907, contained evidence tending to show that 
patent No. 835.120 was limited to a process of concentra- 
tion in which less than 1% of oil was added to a freely 
flowing pulp and the mixture subjected to rapid rotary 
agitation, until the sulphide mineral formed in a froth. 
It was also the contention of the Miami company that 
this treatise, entitled 'The Theory of Concentration 
Processes Involving Surface-Tension', disclosed the point 
to which the art had advanced, as far as known to the 
patentees, prior to the alleged date of invention, and that 
this state of the art left nothing open to invention save 
the single element of the "whipping in" of external air 
by rapid rotary agitation. It is apparent from the 
treatise that Messrs. Sulman and Picard knew that froth 
had been produced in the Potter and Delprat processes 
without the use of oil, the lifting force being solely the 
gas generated within the pulp by the action of acid on 
carbonate minerals; that they were well aware of the 
fact that Froment had produced froth of the same char- 
acter, in the same kind of process, with the addition of a 
proportion of oil so small as only to film the particles of 
mineral, so that the film, to all intents and purposes, be- 
came part and parcel of the particles themselves ; that in 
the Elmore vacuum process the same kind of froth was 
produced by using a similarly small proportion of oil, 

*M. Hoover's affidavit was published in the 'M. & S. P. 
June 19, 1920. 




January 22, 1921 

the lifting force being air drawn out of solution by the 
application of a vacuum ; and, further, that the same re- 
sult could be obtained in a process using the same small 
proportion of oil by passing a current of air through the 
pulp in the form of bubbles, as disclosed in the so-called 
bubble patent, No. 793,808. The treatise indicates that 
the patentees, at the time (March 1905) of their sup- 
posed invention of the process covered by No. 835,120, 
were aware of all these facts, which limited their patent, 
in their own words, as a "mere practical application of 
the Froment principle", wherein air was introduced into 
the mass of pulp by whipping in external air by rapid 
rotary agitation. Thus the argument for the defence 
comes back again, much reinforced, to the one brought 
forward in the first trial of the Hyde case in Montana, 
eight years ago. 

The Court denied this petition of the Miami company, 
but stated : " In so doing, we express no opinion as to the 
relevancy or competency of the subject-matter of the 
petition on questions arising on accounting." This ap- 
parently indicates the belief of the Court that the whole 
matter could be settled in the proceeding before the 
Master or in a new suit begun by an original bill, and 
that the proper way to introduce this new evidence was 
not in a re-opening of the original case but in the pro- 
ceedings on the accounting, which, in the end, of course, 
will go back to the Court of Appeals, or be adjudicated in 
the course of a new suit under an original bill. 

Meanwhile, although seriously impeded by the numer- 
ous attempts to cause the investigation into the later 
milling methods to be removed from the accounting pro- 
ceedings, the Master has continued to take testimony, but 
as yet the prima facie case on the accounting has not 
been completed. 

Nevada Consolidated. On September 9, 1919, Min- 
erals Separation North American Corporation and Min- 
erals Separation brought suit against the Nevada Consoli- 
dated Copper Co. in the District Court of Maine, south- 
ern division, on patent No. 835,120. The defendant, in 
answering, raises the issue of validity and denies infringe- 
ment. This case may be beard some time this winter. On 
February 16, 1920, Minerals Separation brought suit 
against the same mining company on patent 962,678 (the 
so-called soluble frothing-agent). The defendant again 
denies validity and infringement. It is expected that 
this case also will come up for trial during the coming 

It is interesting to note that in these Nevada cases the 
plaintiff is claiming that pine-oil has certain soluble frac- 
tions, and that the use of pine-oil constitutes an infringe- 
ment of both patents, 835,120 and 962,678. It remains to 
be seen how Minerals Separation will square its present 
position with the testimony in the Miami case, wherein its 
expert, Dr. Leibmann, said that pine-oil, for all practical 
purposes, was insoluble, and it remains also to be seen 
how Minerals Separation will deal with the Supreme 
Court's decision in the Butte case where it was held that 
pine-oil was "an oil having a preferential affinity for 
metallifeorus matter" within the description of patent 

835,120. The legal definition of 'solubility ' will be await- 
ed with interest, likewise the juridical effort to dis- 
tinguish between the use of the term in chemistry and in 
metallurgy respectively. 

Magma. On January 10, 1920, the two Minerals Sepa- 
ration companies filed suit against the Magma .Copper 
Company, also in the District Court of Maine, southern 
division. In this suit the same patents, 835,120 and 962,- 
678, are involved. The defendant denies infringement 
and questions the validity of the second patent. 

In this case, as in the Nevada cases, there will be pre- 
sented squarely to the Court the question whether or not 
the Callow or other pneumatic cell is an infringement of 
either patent. In the mills of both companies the opera- 
tions have been excluding any prior agitation other than 
is necessary to mix the oil with the ore, so that the agita- 
tion described in these patents, if present, must be found 
within the pneumatic cell. The decision in these cases 
ought to settle definitely the validity and the scope of : 
the first patent, both as to the character of the frothing- < 
agents and the meaning of the agitation prescribed in the ' 
claims. The validity of the patent for a soluble frothing- ! 
agent should be fought to a finish, and it should be ascer- 
tained what is a " soluble frothing-agent ' ' and whether it 
is covered by the description of the oil of the first patent; 
and if not, we should be told the meaning of the phrase i 
"agitating the mixture to form a froth". 

As yet Minerals Separation has not brought suit 
against any other of the alleged infringers ; the cases now 
pending raise practically all the important questions! 
left in doubt by the precedent litigations, and while 
Minerals Separation may find it necessary to bring addi- 
tional suits to prevent its rights from lapsing by limita- 
tion, it would appear certain that the decisions in the 
several cases pending should determine definitely the 
extent of the monopoly that Minerals Separation is to be 
permitted to exercise by law. 

To facilitate the development of the Flin Flon copper 
deposit in Manitoba, involving the building of a railway 
approximately 100 miles long, the erection of a mill and 
smelting plant at a cost of about $3,000,000, and the de- 
velopment of water-power with 35 miles of transmission 
line at a cost of not less than $2,000,000, the Canadian 
government has issued an Order in Council making im- 
portant changes in the mining regulations. The regula- 
tion requiring that all ores shall be treated and refined in 
Canada is set aside, owing to the cost that would be in- 
volved in shipping the blister-copper for final treatment 
to the Trail smelter in British Columbia, and permission 
is granted to export blister-copper, the product of the 
mill and smelter, for a period of ten years unless in the 
meantime facilities have been established in Canada for 
the electrolytic refining of this product as cheaply and 
efficiently as elsewhere. It is also provided that products 
of the Flin Flon mine, in which the gross recoverabli 
metal is valued at less than $10 per ton, and are smeltef 
in Canada, shall be exempted from royalty for ten yean 
from January 1, 1921. 


January 22, 192] 





Pyrite in the Huelva District, Spain 

By Courtenay De Kalb 

•Introduction. Nearly the entire output of pyrite 
in Spain is derived from the province of Huelva. Out 

the copper production, which directly depends upon the 
operation of the pyrite mines, as follows : 

Copper Production of Spain, 1918 

Merchantable Source Kilogrammes 

Cement copper Huelva, from leaching 22,642,381 

Blister copper Huelva 18,610,000 

Cement copper Sevilla, from leaching 799,000 

Copper matte Cordoba 1,453,000 



49,813,238 1 

40,942,000 I 

1,757,800 \ 

3,196,600 J 

tonnage of 
ore, metric 



Total value, 






f a total production, in 1918, of all classes of pyritic 
res, which were valuable in part for their sulphur con- 
ent, 1,597,675 metric tons, or 96%, came from that 
In addition to the foregoing, it is of interest to note 

•Abstract from a report prepared for the Bureau of For- 
ign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce, 

It may be well to mention at this point that the Rio 
Tinto mine alone, which is the heaviest single producer 
in the Province, was mining, in July 1919, at the rate 
of 5000 tons per diem, with a payroll embracing about 
9000 men in all positions. Of that quantity, 4000 tons 
would be classed as sulphur ore, that- is, it contained 
from 46 to 47% of sulphur. The remaining 1000 tons 
was highly silicious, but rich in copper, and did not 





January 22, 1921 

figure in the pyrite market. The Tharsis mine, near the 
centre of the Province, produces considerably less than 
the Rio Tinto, though it is now prepared to mine and 
ship 1,000,000 tons yearly. 

In the Huelva district it is customary to mine large 
tonnages of ore, regardless of the existing demand in the 
pyrite market, and to store this in leach-piles on the sur- 
face. As will he shown later, the copper is perfectly 
extracted, and at a low cost, by a method of leaching. 
At the same time the removal of this copper results in 
raising the sulphur content of the resid- 
ual pyrite, rendering it superior as a 
'sulphur ore'. 

Following this system, therefore, and 
considering that, after the first few 
months, the cost of taking care of a 
leach-bed is reduced to a low figure, and 
also that copper in appreciable quantity 
continues to issue from a bed for periods 
as long as ten years, while pyrite re- 
mains essentially uninjured and loses a 
total rarely in excess of 10% of its 
weight by oxidation, it is apparent that 
storage does not represent a heavy ex- 
pense. The cost of mining, including 
overhead charges, is repaid by the cop- 
per recovered in the first few years of 
leaching. Therefore it is not necessary 
to charge interest, except for a brief 
period, against the ore stored in the 
leach-beds. The copper recovered, even 
from the seventh to the tenth year, will 
pay a profit on the cost of taking care of 
the bed. Accordingly, the liquid assets 
of a company are increased by accumu- 
lating ore in this manner. While it re- 
mains in the mine it is a potential asset ; 
when transferred to the surface it be- 
comes a liquid asset as soon as it has 
been long enough in the bed to have 
yielded above 80%, of its copper, with a 
corresponding increase in the propor- 
tion of contained sulphur. It is then 
ready for market as a sulphur ore. 
Whatever is obtained for the sulphur, 
and for the residual cinder, considered 
as an iron ore, above the cost of han- 
dling and transportation, appears to me a net return. 
This would probably be denied by the operating com- 
panies in Huelva, but investigation reveals the facts to 
be as stated. It is to the credit of the Province and of 
the producing companies that it is so. It displays the 
strength of their position. They can afford to wait for 
unfavorable market conditions to change, and in the end 
they will be found to hold a commanding position with 
reference to the production of sulphuric acid. In the 
last analysis the sulphur obtained by means of the unique 
system of ore-treatment in vogue at the mines of Huelva 
is as much a by-product as the sulphur that may be 
utilized in the fume at smelting works. 

As a result of the peculiar character of the Huelva 
ores, which admits of their being mined and stored on 
the surface and of yielding a profit at the same time, it 
is advantageous for an operating company to accumulate 
such stocks. It pays to do so for the sake of the copper 
produced, regardless of whether the ore be sold for its 
sulphur content or not. 

Stocks of Ore. I have endeavored to ascertain the 
amount of such ores now mined and stocked in the leach- 
beds in the province of Huelva. For the most part, such 


figures are closely guarded; the total, however, appears 
to be not less than 25,000,000 tons, of which about 15% is 
clean leached pyrite, averaging between 47 and 50% 
sulphur, a large part of which is sufficiently leached to 
be ready for shipment; 40% is low-grade ore, averaging 
above 35% and below 40% sulphur, which will require 
to be concentrated before it can be sold as a sulphur ore ; 
and the remainder is above 20% and below 35% sulphur, 
usually higher in copper than the high-iron-sulphur ores, 
but which will probably never be used as a source of 
supply for concentration. 

According to the official report of the Ministerio de 
Fomento, in August 1917, the Rio Tinto company has 

January 22, 1921 



[8,540,000 metric tons of ore stacked in the leach-piles. 

Estimates of tonnages developed in the mines are Mi- 
most impossible to obtain, the mine managers being re- 
luctant to divulge such figures. At some of the smaller 


mines the officials in charge admitted having developed 
tonnages ranging from 500,000 to 1,000,000. The Her- 
rerias has 1,000,000, the Cabeza del Pasto is still more 
important; the Peiia de Hierro probably has several 

million tons developed; the Cnehich6n (in the Sevilla 
portion of the district is credited with 6,000,000. The 
its, rves of the Tharsis company v\rv,,\ tuns. 

The tonnages developed will enormously exceed the 

quantity mined and stored in th mentation beds. The 

total ore in sight, actually developed and ready tor ex- 
traction, will apparently exceed 230,000.000 tons, of 
which :> is in the Rio Tinto alone. The outlook 
for developing still greater tonnages in the Provinoe is 
excellent. This will be discussed later. 

The PTK1TJS ZONE, within the province of Iluelva. is 25 
miles wide from north to smith, and 50 miles long from 
east to west. It continues eastward into the province of 
Sevilla for at least 30 miles to the important mining 
town of Aznalcollar. The zone also extends over 40 miles 
into the neighboring republic of Portugal to the town of 
AjustreL The pyrite area, therefore, is at least 120 miles 
in length. Throughout this zone is found an infinitude 
of diabase outcrops, constituting a parallel series. These 
intrusions are traceable continuously on the surface, but 
appear at intervals following the same general direction, 
having apparently been dikes that either reached the sur- 
face only at places, or have been disclosed by erosion at 
various points. The trend of these diabase dikes aver- 
ages about N. 70° W., varying locally between E.-W. to 
N. 75° to N. 75° "W. The orebodies conform to the direc- 
tion of these dikes of basic volcanic rock, and are com- 
monly associated directly with them, sometimes being 
found wholly within the basic rock, although for the 
most part they lie on the contact between the diabase 
and the enclosing slate. 

The slate associated with the orebodies is of Silurian 
age in places, and in others sub-Carboniferous. The 
boundary between the Silurian and the Lower Carbon- 
iferous areas is usually not clearly defined, and fossils 
are rarely found, so that it is difficult to establish the 
identity of the geologic horizon. This is evidently of 
small economic importance. The famous Tharsis mine is 
in sub-Carboniferous slate ; the Rio Tinto likewise, fossils 
being found at that point, especially at the San Dionysio 
workings; the La Joya-San Telmo-Carpio group is in 
Silurian ; the Herrerias and Cabeza del Pasto are on the 
indeterminate border-line between rocks of these two 
ages. It seems to exert no influence upon the ore deposi- 
tion which formation the intrusive rocks penetrate, de- 
spite the fact that the sub-Carboniferous slate generally 
contains a considerable amount of carbonaceous material, 
which is frequently present in the form of graphitic 
zones of marked persistence, following the cleavage- 
direction of the slate. Neither at the Rio Tinto. nor at 
the Herrerias, 50 miles to the west, is unaltered or partly 
replaced slate found in the ore, but nodular masses of 
pyrite, identical in character with the main orebodies, 
are sometimes seen in the slate. On the other hand, 
along the south wall of the great orebody in the San 
Dionysio mine (Rio Tinto) porphyry tongues (apophy- 
ses) are seen extending to considerable distances into the 
slate. These are always highly altered and sericitized, 



January 22, 1921 

and often contain notable amounts of disseminated cop- 
per sulphide in the form of sooty and fine granular chal- 
cocite. On the north wall, in contact with the volcanic 
intrusive rock, the boundary of the ore is not as sharply 
drawn as it is on the south side in contact with the slate, 
and the ore and volcanic rock are greatly intermixed, 
many veins and masses of pyrite being traversed before 
the main orebody is reached. There is also a great deal 
of sericite on the side adjoining the porphyry. This 
stands forth prominently on looking into the great south 
open-cut, 590 ft. deep, at the Rio Tinto mine. The seri- 
citized material clearly marks the limit of the orebody 
by a line of white, and also makes prominent the foot- 
wall along the south side of the terraced open-cut. 

The intrusive rock crosses the slaty cleavage at a small 
angle, the slates always bearing more northerly. The 
slate has, quite independently of the planes along which 
it splits (fissility), developed two sets of joint-planes, one 
inclined toward the south and the other nearly hori- 
zontal. The slaty cleavage dips at an angle of nearly 60° 
from the horizontal, and this is crossed by a sub-cleavage 
or rift. The slaty cleavage generally dips toward the ore 
and the strike is more northerly than the trend of the 

According to George Wyndham Gray, superintendent 
of mining operations at the Rio Tinto, the so-called ofitas, 
or dioritic to diabasic rocks, are not derived from a basic 
magma, but represent altered segregated portions of acid 
magmas. As seen in the vicinity of Rio Tinto these dikes 
are greenish in color, like partly altered diabase, but Mr. 
Gray informs me that on penetrating them for some 
distance they prove to be hard silicious rocks of a 'felted' 
structure, and are not crystalline or fine-grained. The 
evidence at the San Dionysio mine indicates alteration 
from a basic rock (a point that can be definitely deter- 
mined by microscopic examination of specimens), but I 
noted quartz inclusions in the form of rounded masses, 
such as frequently occur in quartz-porphyry. This, how- 
ever, is not decisive, since these quartz inclusions are 
equally characteristic of the relatively basic dacite. I 
must defer to the longer sfudy of the Rio Tinto deposit 
made by Mr. Gray, and it may be necessary to admit the 
association of this, the largest known pyritic orebody in 
the world, with volcanic rocks of an acid (silicious) type, 
but the least altered specimen that I was able to find be- 
tween the San Dionysio and the north group of orebodies 
had the appearance of an altered silieified semi-basic 

It is an interesting fact that the iron deposits of Spain, 
whether existing as pyrite, as oxides, or as carbonate, 
seem to be associated universally with basic, and often 
with ultra-basic intrusions. This suggestion of a com- 
mon genetic basis for most of the iron deposits of Spain 
is open to question, but careful study of the entire area 
will, I believe, demonstrate that such a hypothesis is 
worthy of consideration. It is noteworthy that on going 
northward from the centre of the pyrite belt in Huelva 
the proportion of iron in the ore-forming solutions ap- 

parently has been progressively greater than the sulphur, 
while the copper has remained rather uniform. Thus, at 
the Gala mines, and at the Teuler a few miles farther 
north-east, are found great masses of magnetite replac- 
ing diabase, with irregular aggregations of pyrite and 
chalcopyrite, which at places bring the material within 
the classification of pyritic ore, as which it is reported 
in the statistics of the Consejo de Mineria. Proceeding 
northward, the iron ores of Badajoz and Caceres are 
found, with only moderate quantities of pyrite dissem- 
inated through them. I believe that the pyritic orebodies 
of Huelva, Sevilla, and south-western Portugal may 
represent one phase of a general phenomenon that is ob- 
served over the larger part of the Spanish peninsula 
where the intrusion of basic rocks has resulted in the 
formation of great iron orebodies. 

At the Rio Tinto the deposition of ore has taken place 
on an enormous scale, and extensive gossans existed as a 
guide for the early miner. The alteration has been so 
profound that it is extremely difficult to obtain a sample 
of the igneous rock accompanying the ore that is fresh 
enough to admit of identification in the field. Proceed- 
ing westward, the outcrops of the orebodies become more 
and more obscure, until, at the Herrerias, no outcrop at 
all is seen, and the existence of ore is indicated on the 
surface only by faint lines of discolored material, whit- 
ish, yellowish, pinkish, and often with small discontinu- 
ous outcrops of quartz veinlets containing casts of pyrite 
crystals, and occasionally with some remnants of un- 
changed pyrite. It was upon such indications that the 
original exploratory shafts at Herrerias were sunk. The 
first shaft, which reached a depth of about 200 ft., failed 
to disclose any ore, and a cross-cut, which later proved to 
have come within 15 ft. of the upper end of a powerful 
orebody, also gave negative results. Subsequently an 
English company followed the indications of the lode 
westward, about a mile, to a prominent brilliantly iron- 
stained hill, known as Cerro Colorado, and expended at 
this point about $400,000 in a vain search for ore. Un- 
deterred by these failures they returned to the Herrerias 
and sunk a new shaft, on the north side of the zone of 
lode-indicators, this time meeting with encouragement 
by finding small masses of ore at intervals until the great 
body of solid pyrite was disclosed. After some further 
exploration it was thrown into an open-cast mine, follow- 
ing the example of the Rio Tinto. It has today a million 
tons of ore developed, and half as much in the cementa- 
tion yards in process of leaching. 

A matter of peculiar geologic interest is disclosed at 
the Herrerias, which may have a bearing upon the 
genesis of these pyritic deposits in general. Toward the 
east end of the property is a cross-cut 20 ft. deep, serving 
as an exploratory trench across the faintly indicated 
lode. It begins, on the north side, in a dark close- 
grained igneous rock, consisting mainly of labradorite 
and pyroxene, that would be classed in the field as an 
andesite. Proceeding southward this soon alters to a 
greenish granular rock, exhibiting the characteristics of- 


January L'L'. 1921 



the so-called 'porphyry' al Rio Tinto. This continue 

I'm- 80 ft., and is su :eded by a pale yellowish rook, alas 

fine-grained and noticeably porona, with Eainl iron-oxide 
Paining in the open spaces. Following tliis. southward, 
is a mass of highly ferruginous material, with abundant 
iron hydroxide. Much of it would apparently contain no 
less than 30 to 40% of metallic iron. In the altered por- 
tions of this dike is much sericite, and it is conspicuous 
that the slates on the south side of the lode are usually 
converted into sericite schist to a distance of three to six 
feet. I observed the same phenomena in the lower levels 
of the San Dionysio mine at Rio Tinto. 

As another fact of observation, I may record that in 
the Herrerias mine the cross-cuts driven into the slate 
reveal seams of quartz and also of calcite, the latter often 
oeeurring in parallel veinlets, close to the orebody, but 
the superintendent, Alphonse Perbas, informed me that 
ulcite has never appeared in the ore itself, although 
quartz masses are not infrequent. The slates, further- 
more, have lost much of their slaty character near the 
lode, and outside of the sericitized zone they generally, 
according to my observation, present a granular facies 
for some distance. 

Another interesting feature was the existence of belts 
of purple slate, very hard and lustrous, and extremely 
fissile, which slate is said to contain from 5 to 15% of 
manganese di-oxide. The statement was made to me by 
Mr. Perbas that this manganiferous slate is one of the 
most dependable indications of the existence of cuprifer- 
ous pyrite orebodies in this district', and that he has ob- 
served it over large parts of the pyrite area in Huelva. 
and also in Portugal. 

The Herrerias orebody is 98.5 ft. wide at a depth of 
295 ft. from the surface. Above this it splits into two 
portions, one of which terminates abruptly at a depth of 
about 140 ft., while the other (the north branch) narrows 
upward, and then divides into three stringers, which de- 
velop slight enlargements at intervals. At the Rio Tinto 
the size of orebody is also variable, but is seldom nar- 
rower than 60 ft., and in the San Dionysio it attains a 
width of more than 200 feet. 

Antonio Carbonell, in a private report, distinguishes 
between the various surticial indications of the Huelva 
pyritic orebodies, as follows : (1) Those which have been 
so completely eroded as to leave only a remnant of iron 
oxide, simulating a gossan or iron-hat. (2) Those in 
which a well-defined gossan has been formed directly in 
contact with the ore. (3) Those in which the iron-bear- 
ing solutions had penetrated through the slate above the 
orebody, giving indications of the existence of a deeply 
buried deposit. (4) Those in which no evidence is seen 
on the surface, and which have been discovered accident- 
ally by excavations for other purposes, or by work done 
on the basis of purely geologic reasoning. He cites the 
orebodies in the Cabezas Rubias district as examples of 
the third class, and to this also pertain the Herrerias and 
Cabeza del Pasto farther west. Throughout the entire 
pyrite zone similar conditions are found, and, apart from 

those that have been explored, the DUmbe, of indicated 
deposits is enormous. 

Inspection of the map of the province of Huelva will 
afford an impression of the wide distribution of these 
pyritic deposits through the zone of parallel basic in- 
trusives. It will be seen that the Rio Tinto and the l'efia 
del Hierro lie at the extreme eastern end of the belt in 
Huelva; that Tharsis is just west of the centre: and that 
a well developed area, from south to north across the 
zone, is found in the central portion. As Antonio Car- 
bonell has pointed out. this development has followed, 
and has not preceded, the construction of railroad facili- 
ties. The recent developments at the Lagunazo, Her- 
rerias, and Cabeza del Pasto, and the reported develop- 
ment of high-grade copper-bearing pyrite in the San' 
Venaneia mine, seven miles from the river Guadiana on 
the Portuguese frontier, led to the belief that the west- 
ern area of the field may become highly important. It is 
also noteworthy that the northern edge of the ore-zone is 
still characterized by a line of thermal springs carrying 
iron in solution, and by one yielding sulphuretted waters. 

The character of the ores throughout the zone is so 
similar that only an expert could distinguish between 
them, and it would often puzzle one to tell the difference 
between ore from the Tharsis and that from Rio Tinto. 
It is all pale yellowish-gray in color, with sometimes a 
greenish cast; it is lustrous on a fresh fracture, but dull 
on the fracture-planes. It breaks into sharply angular 
pieces, usually tending toward the form of a parallele- 
piped. It is never seen in crystal shapes, but would be 
described as a highly fissured massive one. It is not 
simple pyrite (FeS ; ) but is an intimate mixture of the 
di- and mono-sulphide of iron (xFeS„ -4- yFeS). In rare 
cases copper sulphide also enters into the mixture, and 
the ore then acquires a yellow color from chalcopyrite. 
This type is more abundant in the San Dionysio mine 
than in any other that I have seen, but I am told that the 
ores in the Cabezas Rubias district show the same char- 
acteristic, and considerable chalcopyrite is reported also 
from the San Venaneia. 

The copper for the most part follows the parting- 
planes in the pyritic masses, and consists of a coating of 
chalcoeite, mostly of the sooty variety, and films of chal- 
copyrite. This physical occurrence may explain the 
facility with which the copper can be leached out. One 
constantly hears the opinion expressed that the copper is 
chiefly secondary and that the deeply buried deposits 
will prove lower in that element. This is a matter of 
vital importance for the future of the pyrite zone. Its 
ability to hold its own in the pyrite market of the world 
depends almost wholly upon the copper content of the 

The theory that the deeply buried masses of ore are 
low in copper would seem not to be borne out by the ex- 
ploratory work done at Herrerias* and Cabeza del Pasto, 
where the ore was first found at depths of 140 to 200 ft. 

"This does not imply that the copper content will not be 
low at profound depths. 



January 22, 1921 

below the surface and the copper content proved to be 
above 3%. At the San Venancia, on the other hand, the 
ore (four metres of solid pyrite and ten metres of mixed 
pyrite) contained only about 0.3% copper. At La Eica 
Ines, in the Cabezas Rubias district, where obscure in- 
dications were followed down to a body of rich pyrite, 
the copper content varied from 0.8 to 4% with an aver- 
age of nearly 47% sulphur. 

It is customary among the operators in the Huelva 
pyrite field to assume that the primary ore contained 
from 0.3 to 0.6% copper, t The general average of 2% 
is attributed to secondary enrichment. At the Rio Tinto 
about three-fourths of the copper present is secondary, 
persisting to the lowest level of the San Dionysio (the 
32nd), over 1200 ft. below the surface. The Rio Tinto 
yields the normal average of 2% from the bottom of the 
great open-cut, 590 ft. below the former surface, and 
1150 ft. on the incline of the vein from the original out- 
crop. It is not uncommon to find zones, which possess a 
distinctly bluish-black hue from chalcocite, that are very 
much richer. Sometimes considerable quantities are 
mined that assay as bieh as 10 to 11% copper. 

History of the Huelva District 

By D. W. Brunton 

The discovery of mineral in this district occurred at 
such an early period in this world's history that no trace 
of the date is now obtainable. History shows that the 
Phoenicians occupied the southern portion of Spain at 
least 240 years before the building of Solomon's temple, 
or 1240 B.C. The enormous amount of brass consumed 
in the building of the temple was undoubtedly made from 
copper mined in what is now known as the Huelva 

The exact date of the Phoenician occupation cannot 
now be fixed, but the extent of their operations is attested 
by the numerous workings and the immense piles of slag. 
Unlike the Roman workings of later date, the Phoenician 
dumps and slag-piles never contained coin, and as coin- 
age of money was invented about 700 B.C. it is evident 
that the Phoenicians must have been driven from the 
mines at or before that time, but by whom it is impossible 
to state. Not only is there sufficient evidence to show that 
the bronze for Solomon's temple was produced in this 
district, but it is evident that the miners of the district 
knew the destination of their product, as a round hill on 
the Rio Tinto river, a prominent mountain separating the 
north and south lodes of the Rio Tinto mine, and a village 
about four miles from the mines were all named after 
King Solomon. These names have not been given in re- 
cent times, for in the 'Rua Figueroa', written in 1557, 
the village in question is referred to as Zalamea la Vieja, 
or the Ancient Town of Solomon. 

The Carthaginians invaded Spain in 237 B.C., and 
were in turn driven out by the Romans 32 years later. 
The date of Roman occupation can be fixed by the Roman 
coins found frequently in the slag-heaps, and in both 
surface and underground workings. These range through 

the reigns of Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, 
Trajan, the Antonines, Gallienus, Aureliau, Constantine, 
Grotian, Theodosius, down to Honorius. The remains of 
ancient villages with streets of dressed stone, pottery, 
and glassware are common on the surface, while in the 
old mine-workings are found picks, hammers, water- 
wheels, and ropes. 

In the southern lode of the Rio Tinto in 1772 a copper 
plate, three feet by two feet by £ inch thick, was found 
fixed to the side of a drainage-level containing an inscrip- 
tion showing that it had been placed there during the 
reign of the Emperor Nerva, A.D. 97. 

Roman operations at the mines must have terminated 
when the Vandals, Alans, and Suevi overran Spain A.D. 
409, and after this for more than a thousand years no 
record exists that mentions the operation of these mines. 

In 1556, Philip II delegated a priest named Delgado to 
examine the mines of Zalamea la Vieja. His report made 
on August 15 of that year, gives a pretty accurate de- 
scription of the Rio Tinto mines. 

About the middle of the 17th century a concession was 
granted to Alvaro Alonzo, allowing him to utilize the 
waters flowing from the mines in such a way ' ' that iron 
placed in them may be converted into copper". 

In June, 1725, Liebert Wolters, a Swede, obtained a 
lease for 30 years from the King of Spain and took pos- 
session of the Rio Tinto mines. 

In 1742 an English woman named ilary Herbert ob- 
tained a warrant placing her in possession of the Rio 
Tinto for an indebtedness. 

In 1746 the mines had passed into the possession of 3 
nephew of "Wolters named Tiquet, who obtained a lease 
for 30 years from that date, and it is believed that under 
his management the first active working of the pyritie 
ores recommenced after an idleness of nearly thirteen 
centuries. After the expiration of Tiquet 's lease the 
mines were worked by the Government more or less ir- 
regularly until 1829, when the property was again leased 
to private operators. 

In 1873 the mines were sold outright by the Govern- 
ment to the present Rio Tinto Company. 

Whet an explosion occurs in a large mine, with prob- 
able loss of life, an immediate start should be made 
toward the re-establishment of ventilation; assistance 
should be summoned from adjoining mining companies, 
from the State mi tip, inspectors, and from the nearest 
U. S. Bureau of Mines car or safety station ; and a work- 
ing force with supplies and plans should be organized 
early. The saving of men after an explosion or mine-fire 
is the first consideration, and their location in the mine is 
of first importance. If men have come out of the mine 
after an explosion, there is a probability that other liv- 
ing men may be in adjoining workings. There is usually 
some one, an engineer, a superintendent, night foreman, 
or fire-boss, who has a good idea of where the men were 
working, even if the entire day shift is imprisoned in the 
mine. A well considered plan of action is better than 
hasty though well meaning effort. 


January 22, 1921 



Storage of Coal 

•The spontaneous combustion of coal lies at the bottom 
of the subject of storage. Every engineer is familiar with 
the phenomena of self-heating of coal. For all that, the 
phenomenon is a relatively rare one. If we counted the 
times a portion of coal was stored where it would be un- 
disturbed for a few weeks, the number of such storage 
operations in any one year would mount into the millions. 
Of these, a relatively small number show the phenomena 
of spontaneous combustion. There is no spontaneous 
combustion of anthracite coal, and very rarely does the 
•domestic consumer of bituminous coal find troublesome 
heating. The main interest in the subject lies in the large 
piles needed for reserve for public-service utilities and 
the industries. 

The heating of coal is believed to be a surface phenom- 
'ena. If a ton of bituminous coal could be delivered in a 
single cube, each dimension would be about 2.8 ft. If 
the coal heats, it is due to something that goes on with re- 
spect to the surface and not something that happens in- 
side of the piece. So far as we know, this is true no mat- 
ter how small the piece is divided. If this cube, having 
originally about 47 sq. ft. area, is reduced to something 
about 16-mesh screen, there is an acre of exposed coal sur- 
face. It is perfectly obvious from this why it is that 
.trouble from spontaneous combustion originates in fine 
.coal, because the great increase in extent of surface does 
.not begin until we get below 1} nut. If fine coal is kept 
out of the pile the heating surface is so relatively small as 
.to remove the cause of spontaneous combustion. 
■ A unit of area of this coal surface generates a certain 
• amount of heat, provided it can find combining material. 
The amount of heat generated depends upon the temper- 
ature of the piece of coal. That is to say, coal put into 
■storage at a temperature of 80° will generate very much 
.more heat per unit of surface than if put into storage at 
the temperature of 60°. I cannot say just how much 
more, but the chemists tell us that in general the rate of 
chemical reactions doubles for every 10° rise in temper- 
ature, and if that applies in this case, 20° higher in tem- 
perature means a four-fold increase in the amount of heat 
generated. It has already been a matter of observation 
that coal stored during the hot months of summer and in 
heated areas is much more liable to spontaneous combus- 
tion than coal stored in colder climes and in cooler por- 
tions of the year. 

Another most important factor is the freshness of the 
broken surface. A freshly broken surface of <!oal has a 
,rate of heat generation that is a function of the kind of 
coal. It is practically zero with anthracite and is largest 
with the younger coals. The quantity of oxygen con- 
tained in the coal seems to be the fairest measure of this 
rate, although by no means reliable. The high oxygen 
coals of the Middle "West and the sub-bituminous coals 
and lignites of the West show increasingly active rates 
of heating. The coal surface apparently becomes satis- 

* Abstracted from an address by O. P. Hood of the U. S. 
r Bureau of Mines. 

fied in time, and the neat produced falls to practically 
zero. This means that for the first few days or weeks a 
freshly broken surface is very much more active than 
after a few weeks or months. Fires rarely occur after 
surfaces have been exposed for three months. 

Since the rate of heating increases with the temper- 
ature, it is evident that if the heat generated is not re- 
moved, the process becomes a self-aggravating one, in 
which case the rate of heat generation instead of falling 
may rise with time. If the temperature of the pile 
reaches 140° or 150° and continues to rise, there is a very 
considerable probability that, within a few days or a few 
weeks, a destructive temperature will be reached. If the 
temperature reaches 160° or 180°, there is almost a cer- 
tainty that a destructive temperature will be reached and 
the coal must be moved. Immediately the question of get- 
ting rid of the heat is presented. 

Suppose that coal was delivered in four uniform sizes 
and put in a conical pile by dropping at a single point. 
The granular arrangement of parts would be such as to 
furnish a foundation over nearly the whole pile, of larger 
sized pieces, and the lower flanks of the pile would be of 
the larger sizes. Nearly all of the smallest pieces would 
be in the central core of the pile. In the region of large 
pieces air would move freely and the coal surface ex- 
posed would be a minimum ; hence there would be little 
likelihood of heating. In the centre of the pile the move- 
ment of air would be small, while the amount of heating 
surface would be great. If the fine coal is so densely 
packed as to prevent an exchange of air, there will be no 
heating because there will be no supply of oxygen to com- 
bine with the active surfaces. Somewhere between the 
two extremes of the central core of fine coal and the large- 
piece region, there may be areas where the ventilating 
current is just sufficient to supply oxygen for a maximum 
rise in temperature and insufficient to remove the heat as 

"We know that if coal can be sealed tight, as in a glass 
jar, the oxygen soon disappears and the coal cannot con- 
tinue to heat because of lack of oxygen. With no ventila- 
tion there will be no rise in temperature, and the zero 
point will represent the condition of coal sealed from the 
air or so densely packed that air cannot circulate. If, on 
the other hand, there is sufficient ventilation, the heat is 
all carried away as fast as generated. At some point be- 
tween these two extremes there may be a condition of 
ventilation which will supply just oxygen enough to pro- 
vide for a maximum rise in temperature. Since we have 
no means of knowing just what the ventilation is in any 
given portion of a pile, there is great hesitancy in advo- 
cating ventilating schemes for coal piles, as we are as 
likely to make trouble as to prevent it unless extreme and 
uniform ventilation is assured. 

There are many more minor factors. One of the 
troubles has been that undue attention has often been 
given to minor factors, such as sulphur, height of pile, 
volatile matter, etc., while main factors, such as initial 
temperature, breakage in handling, freshness of coal, and 
coal screening before storage, have been overlooked. 



January 22, 1921 

The R & ' S Molybdenum Mine 

*The R & S molybdenum mine is situated in the west- 
ern part of the Culebra range in Toas county, New 
Mexico. It lies about 27 miles from Jarosa, Colorado, on 
the San Luis Southern railway. The mine lies at an ele- 
.vation of about 8700 ft. above the sea-level. 

The yellow molybdic ochre that formed as an altera- 
tion product at the outcrop of the veins was long re- 
garded as sulphur and gave the name to the gulch on 
which the mine is situated. About the time of the entry 
of the United States into the War it was realized that 
the black substance associated with the 'sulphur' was not 
'graphite' but molybdenite, and the Western Molyb- 
denum Co., of La Jara, Colorado, was organized to de- 
velop the prospect. No systematic development work 
was done by this company and no ore was produced. In 
November 1918 the R & S Molybdenum Co., of Denver, 
was formed and took over seven claims from the Western 
Molybdenum Co. and the new company has filed addi- 
tional claims to increase the total holdings to about 300 
acres. Development work was done throughout the win- 
ter, production began in the spring and was continuing 
at the time of our visit in the fall of 1919. 

The buildings at the mine were an office, bunk-house, 
ore-sorting shed, and a blacksmith shop. The company 
has built a mile of good road to connect the mine with 
the main road on Red river. A remodeled gold-mill op- 
erated by water-power, situated five miles from the mine, 
is being used at the present time, involving a haul of ore 
by auto-truck. The equipment at the mill consists of a 
jaw-crusher, ball-mill, classifier, and flotation plant. 

A tunnel has been driven for 300 ft. along one of the 
southernmost of the group of veins exposed on the prop- 
erty, and in places this has been stoped to a height of 60 
: ft. Only enough ore has been withdrawn to allow the 
work to proceed and considerable broken ore was still in 
the mine in September. The ore as it comes from the 
stopes is said to average about 2% MoS 2 . This material 
is run over the grizzley and the fine goes directly to the 
ore-bins. The coarse material is hand-sorted and the 
tenor of the ore is raised to about 4%. Concentrate runs 
from 80 to 91% MoS 2 and no trouble is experienced in 
producing 90% concentrate. The concentrate is said to 
be low in copper and phosphorus. 

• The rocks of the region are a soda-potash alaskite por- 
phyry in which the ore occurs, a dark gray granodiorite 
porphyry, and volcanic tuffs and flows. 

The alaskite has been sheeted for about a thousand feet 
in a north-south direction along Sulphur gulch and this 
sheeting is said to extend for several thousand feet in an 
east-west direction. There are a number of main frac- 
tures which are approximately parallel and strike about 
N. 79° W. The veins are all the result of mineralization 
along these fracture and shear-zones. The larger ones 
follow the main shear-zones, but smaller veins and flats 
branch, intersect, and re-unite forming a complex net- 

work. Yellow molybdic ochre makes the outcrop of the 
veins conspicuous and easily traced. Development work 
has been confined almost entirely to one vein near the 
southern border of the group, but its surface indications 
were no more promising than those of several other veins. 
In the 300-ft. adit the mineralized zone has been rather 
constant in its characteristics, varying in width from 4 to 
6 ft. The ore-zone is shattered and sheeted alaskite with 
the ore filling the fracture. Small veins and films of ore 
penetrate the wall-rock, but there is almost no replace- 
ment of the alaskite and so very little molybdenite is 
found disseminated in it. 

The mineralized zone which is being stoped contains a 
comparatively small proportion of vein-filling, as seri- 
citized alaskite lies between the small branching veins. 
This vein-filling is made up mostly of quartz with a large 
proportion of molybdenite, some pyrite, a little chalco- 
pyrite, fluorite, sericite, apatite, biotite, chlorite, and 
calcite. The relationships show that the alaskite was 
thoroughly sheeted before the introduction of the vein 
minerals, but that minor movements continued up to the 
time of the deposition of calcite, the last mineral to form. 

Molybdenite is generally regarded as a primary min- 
eral deposited by magmatic waters, but it has been de- 
scribed from deposits that have been formed at vastly 
different depths and at very different temperatures. In 
the R & S mine its association with pyrite, fluorite, seri- 
cite, biotite, and quartz in a mineralized shear-zone indi- 
cates that the ore has been formed by ascending mag- 
matic waters, probably at a moderate temperature. 

As yet molybdenum ore has been found in only a com- 
paratively small area in Sulphur gulch. The veins are in 
a zone of shearing in an alaskite and there appears to be 
a number of veins that promise to be of sufficient width 
for economical mining, and many smaller stringers. The 
veins are of a kind that not uncommonly lack persistence 
and it is not safe to assume a continuation of the ore- 
bodies much beyond the developed areas. However, the 
300-ft. adit exposes several thousand tons of ore. 

'Abstract of an article by E 
the U. S. G. S. 

S. Larsen and C. S. Ross, of 

The Bureau of the Mint, with the co-operation of the 
U. S. Geological Survey, has issued the following state- 
ment of the preliminary compilation of the production of 
gold and silver in the United States during the calendar 
year 1920. Compared with the production in 1919 these 
figures indicate a decrease in the gold output of $10,824,- 
000 and in the silver output of 117,941 ounces. 

State Gold. oz. Value Silver.oz. Value 

Alaska 380.034 J7.856.000 792,751 $804,745 

Arizona 239.118 4.943.000 6,098,251 6.190.518 

California 692.019 14.305.300 1.513,495 1,536.394 

Colorado 368,298 7.613,400 5,572.407 5.656.718 

Idaho 22.509 465,300 7.531,253 7,645.201 

Michigan 510.601 518.329 

Missouri 19 400 123.219 125,083 

Montana 88,971 1.839.200 13.583.164 13,788.677 

Nevada 171.968 3.554.900 7.392,689 7,504.540 

New Mexico 22.417 463.400 764.586 776.15* 

Oregon 46,687 965,100 182.558 185.320 

South Dakota 203,243 4.201.400 84.351 85.627 

Tennessee 280 5.800 112.595 114.399 

Texas 5 100 524.212 530,143 

Utah 100.446 2.076.400 11.564,155 11.739.121 

Washington 7.198 148,800 183.437 186,213 

Philippines 51.568 1.066.000 21.917 22,249 


Januarv 22, 192] 




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A 11 I/O X A 

Kingman. — Tlic Dardenelles mine has shipped its sev- 
enth carload of ore. Shipments are yielding approxi- 
mately $1200 net per car. This ore production is coining 
from the' Kin-it. level. The Dardenelles mine is situated 
in the Chloride district near the old Elkhart mine. 

Judge Bollinger has handed down a decision favoring 
the plaintiff in the matter of the shareholders of the 
Midway Mining & Milling Co. v. the Midway Moss Min- 
ing Co. This decision voids the action of the directors 
of the old company in transferring the title of the prop- 
erty to the new organization, the Midway Moss Mining 
Co., and compels the re-transfer of the holdings and the 
dissolution of the new company. 

Frank A. Garbutt has petitioned the Superior Court 
for a new trial in the cause of Frank A. Garbutt against 
the Schuylkill Mining Co. and C. A. Burke in which a 
receiver was appointed by Judge Crosby for the Schuyl- 
kill Mining Co. The cause of the original litigation grew 
out of the various loans made by Mr. Garbutt to the 
Schuylkill Mining Co. aggregating $300,000. The com- 
pany secured Mr. Garbutt by a mortgage on the property. 
Mr. Garbutt sought to foreclose this mortgage. The de- 
fendants raised the issues that they were prepared to 
finance the company and the judgment gave them time to 
come in, build a mill, and develop the mine under a re- 
ceivership, while at the same time the interests of Mr. 
Garbutt were to be conserved. The mines at issue are 
the Tennessee and Schuylkill at Chloride. It is alleged 
that the Tennessee has about 30,000 tons of good ore 
opened with the possibility of opening 70,000 tons or 
more with further work. 

O atm an.— The drift on the 400-ft. level of the Tellu- 
ride mine is reported to have opened ore that averages 
$30 per ton in gold. This ore-shoot, which was first 
opened on the 500-ft. level, assayed $40 per ton. The 
property of the Telluride company corners on the Tom 
Reed and the United American properties. 
' The United Eastern Mining Co. 's directors at a recent 
meeting held in Los Angeles declared the regular quar- 
terly dividend of 15c. per share payable January 2R to 
stock of record January 8. The company paid 72c. per 
share in 1920. The total dividends to date have been 
$3,339,350. It is reported that the cash reserves of the 
company are in excess of $900,000. Approximately 
102,000 tons of ore was treated in 1920 which assayed 
better than $21 per ton. 



Aspen. — The recent discovery in the Jenny Lind tun- 
nel by the Park Tunnel Mining Co. has brought about 
renewed activity in the Tourtelotte Park section. Les- 
sees have filed applications for leases on properties tra- 
versed by the tunnel, now controlled by the Tunnel com- 
pany. The Jenny Lind find on Sam Houston ground is 
reported holding up in value and in strength of the vein. 

Cripple Creek.— A surplus of labor, the first in four 
years, is reported at the mines, where notices 'No Miners 
Wanted' are posted. Wages have been cut 50c. per day, 
affecting all employees. The second diamond-drill test 
in the east end of the district is reported progressing 
with depth attained of beyond 800 ft. Two phonolite 
dikes with some mineralization have been passed through 
and the drill is nearing the Bolivia Dike junction, the 
objective point. Shipments continue steadily from the 
Portland, Cresson, Vindicator, Modoc, and Granite com- 
panies properties, from operations on company account ; 
and, in addition, renewed activity among lessees is re 

Rico.- — Operations are to be resumed at the Emma 
mine at Dunton, owned by A. E. Reynolds of Denver. 
A contact has been proved between the fifth and sixth 
levels and a raise is to be carried up from the sixth to 
prospect this contact, believed to carry high-grade ore. 
The shaft is now being unwatered by a force in charge of 
J. Clamp, mine superintendent. Ore running high in 
silver has been struck on the J. W. Burns property on 
the west side of the river at Burns near Rice. Water is 
causing trouble and a Cameron sinker will be brought up 
and placed in the winze where the discovery was made. 
The property is operated by lessees. Ore of shipping 
grade is being saved for shipment on the Badger group 
of claims in Allyn gulch, operated by Hay Brothers of 



Houghton. — No copper is being shipped out of the 
district. Metal is accumulating at all smelters. Mohawk 
and Wolverine are the only mines that have small metal 
stocks, Calumet & Hecla, Copper Range, and Quincy 
have been unable to make any reduction of their sur- 
pluses. Calumet & Hecla, which formerly had a market 
for oxide copper, is shipping none of that now. The 



January 22, 1921 

greater portion of it, which comes from the leaching- 
plant, is being smelted. Fourteen furnaces are still in 
commission at the smelters, eight being closed. Two of 
the fourteen in use are of the large type, of 1,000,000 lb. 
monthly capacity. Twelve are of the smaller type, each 
having a capacity of 40,000 to 50,000 lb. per charge. 
None of the furnaces is being pushed to capacity. 

Calumet & Hecla sold $300,000 worth of silver in 1919, 
but the annual report for 1920 operations will show the 
income from silver considerably reduced. Silver dropped 
in price during 1920 and less of it was sold by the com- 
pany. None has been shipped in recent weeks. The pro- 
duction of silver also will show a falling off during the 
period of curtailed operations. 

Equipment has been ordered for the new coal-pulver- 
izing plant at the Michigan smelter, as an auxiliary for 
coal-dust burners at the furnaces. It is expected the 
plant will go into operation in the spring. Coal now is 
fed into the furnaces automatically as it comes from the 
coal pits. When the pulverizing plant is in use the coal 
will be ground and sprayed into the furnace as fuel-oil 
would be sprayed. The entire operation will be auto- 
matic, the pulverized coal being forced through pipes 
and into the furnaces by air pressure. The method will 
be new in the Copper region. 

Franklin, which has been shut-down since June 1 last, 
but which has been keeping its shafts free of water, is 
now preparing to cease even pumping operations. The 
pumps and other underground equipment that can be 
moved will be brought to surface and the shafts per- 
mitted to fill with water. The water from No. 2 flows 
into No. 1 and all pumping has been centred in No. 1. 
The fires will be drawn in the boilers in a few days and 
the property closed entirely for an indefinite period. 
Franklin stopped production in May 1919, but from that 
time until the first of June 1920 it did considerable de- 
velopment work. It was during the course of these de- 
velopment operations that well mineralized ground was 
entered on the 39th or bottom level. The shaft was sunk 
from the 37th to the 39th and it is the belief that the 
rich streak in the 39th extends upward for ten levels. 
If subsequent developments prove this to be true, it will 
give the company a large tract of good ground. 



Ely. — R. C. Gemmell, general manager for the Utah 
Copper company and assistant managing director of the 
Nevada Consolidated, and D. D. Moffat, consulting en- 
gineer for the Jackling interests, recently inspected the 
Nevada Consolidated mines and reduction plant and then 
left for San Francisco, where they were to confer with 
D. C. Jackling regarding plans for the future for the 
Utah Copper, Nevada Consolidated, and Nevada North- 
ern railroad. 

Virginia City. — The United Comstock is employing 
125 men at Gold Hill and when work is started on the 
tunnel from the Knickerbocker, Jacket, Belcher, and Im- 
perial shafts, in addition to that now being done from 

the portal, this force will be increased greatly. The tun- 
nel is being driven at a rate of 300 ft. per month. The 
Consolidated Virginia is to be reorganized, according to 
action taken at the recent annual meeting of the com- 
pany in San Francisco. The capital stock is to be in- 
creased from 216,000 to 2,160,000 shares of a par value of 
$1 each and the exchange is to be 10 for 1. The annual 
report of Axel Wise, superintendent, shows that the com- 
pany mined last year 17,706 tons of ore of a gross value 
of $353,960 and a net value of $259,686. A total of 3275 
ft. of development work was done. The superintendent 
says : ' ' The east vein is a pre-mineral vein and. at its in- 
tersection with the Comstock lode it formed a large and 
rich bonanza. The east vein was and is rich and produc- 
tive, but it does not carry the enormous tonnage that the 
Comstock ledge does. In mining the Comstock lode and 
the east vein, selective mining was carried on and the 
fills of low-grade material were left. The present scheme 
is to put the mine in shape to handle this low-grade ma- 
terial at a small cost. This can be done by perfecting the 
haulage-ways and blocking out large sections of the fills 
in such manner that they can be worked on a large scale 
and at low cost. By judiciously mixing lower-level ore 
with the large tonnage of upper-level ore we can keep the 
Mexican mill running to capacity for an indefinite time. 
Our aim is to mine and mill 4500 tons every month in 
the Mexican mill at a cost of $27,000 per month, with a 
mining and milling cost of $6 per ton." 

Menta. — The 150-ton flotation plant of the Simon Sil- 
ver-Lead is said to be half finished. It is announced 
that the company, instead of getting power from semi- 
Diesel engines, will obtain electric power over a line from 
Millers, the construction of which would cost $60,000. 

Arrowhead. — Ore five feet wide, with one to two feet 
assaying as high as $1000 per ton in silver and gold and 
the remaining three to four feet assaying $30 to $40, has 
been opened in the 50-ft. west drift on the third, or 267- 
ft., level of the Arrowhead. The 45-ft. east drift on this 
level also is in the ore-shoot opened on the upper levels, 
proving it to a depth of 300 ft. on the dip of the vein. 
The shaft is 320 ft. deep and it is 20 or 30 ft. helow water- 
level. New equipment consisting of a 25-hp. hoist and a 
steel head-frame is now in use. Air-drills are not used, 
because drilling by hand has been found more economical 
and equally as efficient. 

Divide.— The shaft of the re-organized Belcher is to be 
sunk from the 350-ft. level to the 500 or 550-ft. point, 
according to N. M. McCormick, manager. Recent work 
has been confined to the 350-ft. level, where seams of low- 
grade ore have been found. A cross-cut from the south- 
east drift on the 800-ft. level of the Tonopah Divide has 
proved that the rich ore recently opened at that depth is 
only slightly wider than the drift. Cross-cuts are being 
driven on the 1000-f t. level in prospecting for the exten- 
sion of the shoot on the 800-ft. level. A drift being 
driven toward the Brougher on the first level has been 
in $30 ore for 65 feet. 

West Divide. — Edward Bevis, of Tonopah, has suc- 
ceeded L. L. Patrick as manager of the West Divide, and 


January 22, 1921 



John Bricker has succeeded George Pearson as superin- 
tendent. Bertha Garnett of Goldfield has resigned as 
secretary and the affairs of the company are now handled 
in the office of Allan Rives at Tonopah. Heretofore the 
company has been operated partly from Goldfield and 
partly from Tonopah and the change is said to be for the 
purpose of securing more economical operation by mak- 
ing Tonopah the headquarters. 



Salt Lake City. — During 1920, the number of fatal 
accidents in the metal mines of the State totaled 20. In 
addition, six miners lost their lives in snow-slides at Alta ; 
but these accidents cannot be charged to mining opera- 
tions. During 1919, the total number of deaths was 15, 
the lowest in years. During 1920, fewer men were killed 
by falling rock, but there was a large increase in the num- 
ber killed by explosives. The Industrial Commission re- 
ports that 30% of the accidents in 1920 could have been 
avoided by the companies; 40% of the total was due to 
carelessness of fellow employees; 10% to carelessness of 
victims; while the remaining 20% was purely accidental. 
In the smelters of the State, three men were killed, as 
compared with four in 1919 ; while in concentrating 
plants, three were killed, as compared with one in 1919. 
The annual meeting of the Utah Chapter of the Amer- 
ican Association of Engineers was held on January 11. 
[Officers elected for the following year are C. C. Burt, 
president; T. S. Bult, vice-president; W. H. Carrick, 
(secretary; J. Blickensderfer, C. S. Fisher, and C. J. 
Ulrich, directors. The Chapter will make an effort to 
secure the 1922 convention of the national association for 
this city. 

The plan of local smelting companies to ship bullion to 
San Francisco and then by boat to the Atlantic seaboard, 
has been temporarily halted, owing to the order of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission suspending the rate 
of $6.50 per ton on smelter products from this city to San 
Francisco. At the present time, the rate of blister cop- 
per from the Garfield smelter to the Baltimore refinery 
is $22 per ton and to the Perth Amboy refinery $21.40 
per ton. It had been planned to ship the blister copper 
by way of San Francisco and the Panama Canal, and the 
total transportation charge, including insurance, han- 
dling, etc., would be between $15 and $16 per ton, effect- 
ing a saving of $6 to $7 per ton in freight charges. A 
tearing on the question to determine whether the $6.50 
rate, or a higher rate, should apply will take place in this 
ity on February 16. At the present time, the Garfield 
smelter is shipping a small quantity of its blister copper 
;o the Tacoma refinery. 

Park City. — Arguments under the writ of certiorai-i 
granted the Silver King Coalition Mines Co. on its appeal 
'rom the judgment in favor of the Conkling Mining Co. 
'or approximately $500,000, are being heard by the 
Jnited States Supreme Court. The case has been one of 

the most bitterly contested mining litigations in the West. 
The Conkling company sued the Coalition for the wrong- 
ful extraction of ore from the Conkling claim, owned 
jointly by the two companies. The Coalition company 
set up the claim of extra-lateral rights in defence and 
prior ownership of part of the property in dispute. In 
the United States District Court for Utah, Judge J. A. 
Marshall on July 15, 1912, decided in favor of the Coali- 
tion company on both defences. The Conkling company 
appealed to the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals, where 
the decision of Judge Marshall was reversed on February 
12, 1916, and judgment entered in favor of the Conkling 
company for $383,000. The Coalition company then ap- 
pealed to the United States Supreme Court. Since the 


commencement of the suit, some of the most prominent 
people with both companies have died. David Keith, 
president, and Thomas Kearns, vice-president and gen- 
eral manager of the Coalition ; Judge Curtis H. Lindley, 
one of the attorneys for the Coalition ; Nicholas Treweek, 
president of the Conkling company, and E. B. Critchlow, 
counsel for the same company, have died. 

Eureka. — Ore shipments from this district for the first 
week of the new year totaled 181 cars, of which the 
Tintic Standard shipped 61 ; Chief Consolidated, 32 ; 
Dragon, 23; Iron Blossom, 15; Eagle & Blue BeU, 13; 
Iron King, 10 ; Victoria, 9 ; Colorado, 4 ; Swansea, 4 ; 
Mammoth, 3 ; Bullion Beck, 2 ; Centennial-Eureka, 2 ; 
Gold Chain, 1 ; Sunbeam, 1 ; Gemini, 1. 



Prince Rupert. — H. S. Munroe, general manager for 
the Granby Consolidated M. S. & P. Co., passed through 
here on his way to New York. He denied emphatically 
that any negotiations were pending between either the 
C. P. R. or the Consolidated M. & S. Co. for the purchase 
of the Granby company's holdings in British Columbia, 



January 22, 1921 

and he further denied that any of the Trail engineers 
had made an examination of the Anyox properties. Mr. 
Munroe said a satisfactory wage-adjustment had been 
made, that the plant was working smoothly and turning 
out more copper than it had done for some time. The 
Premier mine has started to ship ore to tide-water; two 
Holt tractors are being used over part of the distance. 
The Bellevue group, on the Illianee river, is developing 
well. A 40-ft. lode has been traced for nearly a mile, 
and samples of the openings are said to average 23 oz. in 
silver and $1.40 in gold and 3.5% lead. Development 
work is to be continued throughout the winter, and if the 
price of silver is satisfactory it is proposed to erect a 
concentrating plant next summer. 

It appears that the closing of the Dolly Varden mine 
was not due to labor trouble, as was at first thought, but 
that the owners considered that indications pointed to 
cost of labor being cheaper in the spring, and, as there is 
no possibility of shipping during the winter, it would 
be more economical to close the mine. Last spring, when 
labor had the whip hand, it drove a hard bargain with 
the Taylor company, and it looks rather as though the 
present move was in the nature of retaliation. Anyhow, 
it will not tend toward a better understanding of capital 
and labor in the district. 

Nelson. — Several of the mines in the Slocan, includ- 
ing the Silversmith and the Whitewater, have been ship- 
ping recently to the United States S. & R. Co. 's smelter, 
at Midvale, where, it is claimed, a better rate is obtain- 
able than at Trail. This traffic, however, has received an 
abrupt cheek by a change in the C. P. R. freight-rates 
which went into effect on December 23. Shippers had 
been in the habit of declaring the value of their consign- 
ments at the minimum, namely $50 per ton ; the under- 
standing being that in the event of loss in transit the 
railway company was responsible only for the declared 
value. By the new schedule the freight-rate is to be 
based on the actual value of the ore, as shown by the 
smelter return, and, as little ore worth less than $150 per 
ton is sent out of the Slocan, the new rate will mean an 
increase of more than 50% to the shippers. The bulk of 
the ore cannot stand this new rate, and shippers are look- 
ing upon it as practically amounting to a mandate on the 
part of the C. P. R. that all ore must be smelted at Trail. 
This coming at a time when Trail is offering only ware- 
house receipts, redeemable when the metal is marketed, 
for ores received is causing much bitter feeling among 
the operators of the small mines. 



Cobalt. — As the result of power shortage, coupled 
with the low price of silver, only about ten of the silver 
mines are now being operated out of 19 which were work- 
ing during the summer, and most of these are producing 
on a much reduced scale. Ore shipments last week were 
light, amounting to only 162,484 lb.; no bullion was sent 
forward. The number of men at work in the camp is 

estimated at about 1000, as compared with 2000 em^ 
ployed during the summer. While it is believed that the- 
present supply of power can be continued until well on 
in February, the situation is uncertain, being dependent 
upon the weather. The Nipissing is the only company 
which has not considerably curtailed its operations dur- 
ing recent months. 

On February 15 wages to the employees of the mining 
companies of the Cobalt district will be reduced 75c. per 
day or approximately 15%. A statement by the Temis- 
kaming Mine Managers Association sets forth that owing 
to the price of silver being half what it was a year ago- 
about 18 properties had been compelled to close down 
entirely or suspend operations, while those companies 
still maintaining their output have reduced their work- 
ing forces. The Nipissing disbursed a dividend and 
bonus aggregating 10%, amounting to $600,000, on Janu- 
ary 20. 

The surface veins found on the Kerr Lake prove dis- 
appointing with underground work. A raise on one of 
them to within 30 ft. of the surface has not disclosed any 
silver content and enrichment appears only to extend 
downward for a few feet. The Kerr Lake is negotiating 
with the Hargraves Consolidated with a view to obtain- 
ing a working option on two properties adjacent to its 

The La Rose is obtaining a good grade of ore from its 
University and Princess properties — work on the original 
La Rose being practically confined to the powder-house 
vein from which several thousand tons of broken ore in 
stopes are being hoisted. 

Kirkland Lake. — This camp has benefited by the 
slackening of operations at Cobalt, as many of the skilled 
men recently employed at the silver mines have been 
taken on at Kirkland Lake. The Ontario-Kirkland an- 
nounces that it has over two years supply of ore for the 
mill in sight. The shaft has been sunk to a depth of 470 
ft. with levels at 100, 300, and 450 ft. and over 2500 ft. 
of lateral work has been done on the two lower levels 
opening up a large body of good milling ore assaying 
from $8 to $28 per ton. The company will bring in sup- 
plies and machinery during the winter and push con- 
struction work on the mill in the spring. 

A shipment of gold bullion valued approximately at 
$30,000, the output during the month of December has 
been made from the Kirkland Lake mine. 

At the Lake Shore the shaft has reached the 600-ft- 
level and sinking has been stopped until a level is estab- 
lished and cross-cuts run to tap No. 1 and No. 2 veins. 
The latter, which underlies Kirkland Lake, is a highly 
important orebody. 

Porcupine. — It is anticipated that the Dome Mines 
will be able to treat an average of about 500 tons of ore 
daily on its present power supply throughout the winter. 
It is understood that the present dividend rate of 2i% 
quarterly will be maintained regardless of the temporary j 
reduction of output, as it is expected that as soon as ade- 
quate supplies of power are available the volume of orP 
handled will be greater than ever before. 

January 22, L921 




The 'porphyry' copper companies as a group produced 
more copper In 1920 than In 1919, seven companies listed 
below turning out approximately 422.137,367 lb. last year. 
against 407.328,114 lb. in 1919, an increase of 14,809,253 
lb., or 3.6%. This estimate is based on monthly reports and 
may later be revised slightly. The actual production of this 
group of companies in 1918 was 627,832.011 lb., so that last 
year's output showed a drop of 205,694,644 lb., or 33%. 

Utah Copper was the only one of the group that did not 
turn out more copper in 1920 than in 1919, the decrease 
being approximately 2,500,000 lb. Utah's production last 
year was the smallest since 1912, when it amounted to 91,- 
366,337 lb. The record output was 195,837,111 lb. in 1917. 
Nevada Consolidated's 1920 output gained about 4,328,000 
lb. over 1919. but it was 28,308,000 lb., or 24%, under that 
for 191S. Nevada's record production was 90,735.000 lb. 
in 1916. 

Miami and New Cornelia showed the least curtailment as 
compared with 1918. The 45,705,000 lb. turned out by 
Chino last year was 30,930,000 lb. under that for 191S. 
This company's record production was 79,636,000 lb. in 

The following compares the copper production by seven 
prominent porphyry companies during- each of the past three 
years, the figures being in pounds: 


Chino 45,705,490 

Inspiration ... 81,250,000 

Miami 55,092,288 

Nevada 48,299,256 

New Cornelia. . 40,818,456 

Ray 48,397,935 

Utah 102,573,942 


Total 422,137,367 407,328,144 




Decision in the apex suit of the Rico Consolidated Mining 
Co. v. the Rico Argentine Mining Co. for the recovery of ore 
alleged to have been taken out of the plaintiff's territory has 
been made in favor of the plaintiff by Judge W. S. Searcy 
of the Sixth Judicial District Court of Colorado. In his de- 
cision Judge Searcy holds that trespass was not willful, but 
made in good faith. Consequently damages awarded amount 
to $29,946.50 against the Rico Argentine company and 
$7346.50 against the Marmatite Mining & Milling Co.. lessee 
of the defendant. The judgment of approximately $37,000 
represents the net mine value of nearly 5000 tons of ore ex- 
tracted by the defendant. Mining men of the district agree 
that the valuation of the ore contested for in the litigation is 
small in comparison with the bodies that can be mined by 
the Rice Consolidated Mining Co. in the light of this new 
decision. Judge Searcy's decision that the ore-beds, for pos- 
3ission of which the Rico Consolidated Mining Co. instituted 
3uit, were formed by east-west fissures rather than by the 
Blackhawk fissure reverses theories held among mining men 
in the past concerning the mineralogy and geology of the 

district. As a result of this decision, it is said, claims held 
by other companies will be affected. Fred Price, president 
and general manager of the Rico Argentine Mining Co., 
made the following statement: 

"Our counsel contended that the Blackhawk fissure was 
the source of the enrichment of the beds which we followed 
into the conflict area. The plaintiff held that the Allegheny 
and its parallel east-west Assures were the source and apex 
of the ore-beds. According to our conception of the geology 
of the district, the Blackhawk is the master fissure. This 
vein, standing nearly vertical, traverses the country for 
miles and cuts upon our property a formation which consists 
of alternate strata of soluble and insoluble lime and sand- 

"All of the six veins mined upon our property are replace- 
ment orebodies in beds of soluble limestone. We hold that 
these beds were enriched by solutions which proceeded from 
the Blackhawk fissure that apexes on our ground. 

"Two of the fissures. No. 2 and No. 6, have been followed 
to the Blackhawk fissure, where they merge. At the junc- 
ture of No. 6 vein with the Blackhawk ore was stoped out 
for 100 ft. above the level and into the master fissure. From 
this one stope Tom Walsh, pioneer mining man of Colorado, 
took out enough ore to pay for the Camp Bird, the exploita- 
tion of which made him the wealthiest operator in Colorado. 

"Four of the veins followed into the conflict area out- 
cropped in our territory. As the ore in these beds led into 
the Rico Consolidated ground over the side-lines, we fol- 
lowed it." 


Unofficial announcement is made that the Chile Copper 
Co. is to construct a refining plant at its properties in South 
America. The Chile company is the lowest-cost producing 
property in the world. In the third quarter of last year the 
cost of copper was only 11.179c. per pound, including the 
selling and delivery expense. The construction of a refinery 
at the properties would permit a material reduction in this 
cost, as it would mean that the company could deliver the 
refined product in this country. The company has the ad- 
vantage of the low cost of labor — only $1.25 per day, as well 
as cheap water-power. Even at the present low price for 
copper Chile is one of the few companies that can make a 
profit. During the third quarter of the past year, when 
practically all the large properties in this country were oper- 
ating at a loss, the Chile company reported net profit on 
copper delivered of $2,105,160, while after all expenses, 
depreciation, and interest charges were deducted there was 
a surplus for the third quarter of $878,008. 


The American Zinc, Lead & Smelting Co. enters the new 
year with net quick assets of between $3,500,000 and 
$4,000,000, with ore stocks at a minimum and with inven- 
tories marked down to the lowest prices. Operations are 
also down to a minimum and at present it is hard to earn 
operating expenses. In the first half of last year net earn- 
ings amounted to $344,975; from July on. however, the 
market for zinc and for all non-ferrous metals, for that mat- 



January 22, 1921 

ter. steadily declined, so that the 1920 report will show an 
operating loss. The physical holdings of American Zinc Co. 
are today in the best shape in their history. Ore in the 
3Iaseot mine is developed for ten years ahead. 


The Engineering Experiment Station of the University of 
Illinois announces 16 research graduate assistantships for 
each of which there is an annual stipend of $600 and free- 
dom from all laboratory fees. Graduates of approved Ameri- 
can and foreign universities are eligible for these appoint- 
ments. Nominations are based upon character, scholastic 
attainments, and promise of success in the research to which 
the candidate proposes to devote himself. Some practical 
engineering experience following graduation is desirable. 
Additional information may be obtained by addressing the 
director at Urbana, Illinois. 


Kingman. — F. P. Aylwin and associates have taken over 
the Dean mine, situated 14 miles from Kingman in the 
Wallapai mountains. Shipping-ore is being extracted pend- 
ing the completion of the 75-ton flotation plant. Silver is 
the chief product, with some lead and zinc. The staff in- 
cludes Lyman F. Barber, metallurgist, W. B. Dunlap. mine 
superintendent, Robert Blnm, engineer. A new road to the 
mill is now completed and nearly all machinery is on the 

Oatman. — The United Eastern and Tom Reed mines are 
working close to capacity, general conditions at the two 
producing mines being favorable. There are plenty of skill- 
ed men which tends toward a higher efficiency. The output 
of both mines for January is expected to be higher than that 

of December. The United American is sinking the winze 

from the lower level at the junction of the vein and the 

cross-cut. The Telluride is working a double shift on 

the fourth and fifth levels. Good ore has been found and 

drifting is progressing. The Amalgamated is working 

one shift cross-cutting on the 600-fc level, and it is expected 

to cut the vein about 70 ft. farther ahead. The Argo is 

cross-cutting north on the 600-ft. level; so far there is noth- 
ing of interest to report in new developments. The Oat- 
man United is working one shift following a good lead east 
in hope of picking up the main vein at this depth. 

Pima County. — An important development in the mine of 

the El Tiro Leasing Co. is the opening of an ore-shoot on the 

-ft, or bottom, leveL The orebody averages 5% copper 

and is said to double the 'ascertained value of the property. 


Amador County. — According to Edwin Higgins, manager 
for the Metals Exploration Co., it will require five months to 
place the Fremont mine in operating condition. The mine 
"hag been unwatered and the 40-stamp mill is being over- 
hauled in preparation for production. The 40-stamp mill 

at the Bunker Hill mine near Amador City has resumed 
operations at maximum capacity. Production was curtailed 
during the greater part of 1920. 

Calaveras County. — J. A. Vigeant is negotiating for con- 
trol of the Nassau copper mine near Angels Camp. Besides 
copper, the ore contains some silver and gold. 

Nevada County. — The North Star Mines Co. has declared 
a dividend of three cent3 per share. This is the first distri- 
bution since January 191S. To date $5,587,000 has been 

::•:::::•;: =n::-f - --. '■ ' /..-:■ Z.z'z.-- -- - 

pire mm are in operation. More ore is being mined 

than at any time since the outbreak of the "War. The 

an Precious Metals Co., according to W. A. Simpkins